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Kuih baulu Document Transcript

  • 1. J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc. 39(1)(2011): 000– 000 Hashifah, S.A. Shariffah Norin and A. Mohamad Zain A. Rosniyana, K. Khairunizah Hazila, M.A.Nutritional composition and sensory properties of kuih bauluincorporated stabilised rice bran(Kandungan pemakanan dan ciri-ciri nilai rasa kuih baulu yang ditambah dengandedak beras distabil)A. Rosniyana*, K. Khairunizah Hazila**, M.A. Hashifah*, S.A. Shariffah Norin*and A. Mohamad Zain**Keywords: kuih baulu, rice bran, nutrition, sensoryAbstractRice bran is a valuable by-product from the rice processing industry. Stabilisedrice bran (SRB) was used to complement rice flour (MR 220) to add value toMalaysian traditional sponge cake known as kuih baulu. Four levels of stabilisedrice bran (10, 20, 30 and 40%) were used in the formulations. Chemical analysisand sensory evaluation were carried out. The protein, fat and ash contentsincreased with increasing proportions of the rice bran. All SRB-incorporated kuihbaulu had higher values for mineral and vitamin contents as compared to thecontrol. Products with 20 – 40% levels of rice bran were significantly differentfrom the control sample in terms of colour, texture, taste, flavour and overallacceptability. For texture, tenderness was found to increase with increasing SRBcontent. Panellists indicated that the addition of SRB resulted in darker kuihbaulu. SRB could replace about 30% rice flour without diminishing acceptability.Sensory evaluation showed that all SRB-incorporated kuih baulu were acceptable.Introduction Kuih baulu, a popular traditional cakeNowadays, there is increasing interest in in Malaysia is usually served during thethe production of traditional cakes due festive seasons especially during Hari Raya.to an increased demand in both local and Nowadays, it is easily obtainable in shopsexport markets (Abd. Rahim 2006). In and stalls. It is prepared by baking usingMalaysia, home-made traditional cakes are special moulds of various shapes. Accordingincreasing in popularity, and large quantities to Khatijah et al. (1992), kuih baulu is highof the products are being consumed in both in carbohydrates and low in mineral andvillages and the cities. Production of the vitamin contents. The increasing awarenesstraditional cakes is currently going towards that health may be modified through dietcommercialisation and the industry is being has led to an upsurge in the availabilitysupported by various agencies under the of nutritionally functional foods that haveMinistry of Agriculture and Agro-based potential health benefits beyond the basicIndustry. nutrition (Hasler 1998). Accordingly, kuih*MARDI Bukit Raya Station, P.O. Box 1, 06707 Pendang, Kedah, Malaysia**Food Technology Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Serdang, P.O. Box 12301, 50774 Kuala Lumpur,   MalaysiaAuthors’ full names: Rosniyana Ahmad, Khairunizah Hazila Khalid, Hashifah Mohd Ali, Shariffah Norin SyedAbdullah and Mohamad Zain AhmadE-mail: rosa@mardi.gov.my©Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute 2011 1
  • 2. Nutritious kuih baulu from stabilised rice branbaulu, properly formulated with high to evaluate the effects of incorporatingnutritional and sensory qualities, has the parboiled rice bran on the nutritional andpotential of being a source of essential sensory properties of kuih baulu.nutrients especially for children andteenagers. Materials and methods Malaysia produces approximately 0.2 Production of rice flourmillion metric tonnes of rice bran annually. Rice of local variety, MR 220, suppliedRice bran, produced in modern mills, is by MARDI Tanjung Karang was used tomixed with rice germ and starch from the prepare the rice flour which was processedensdosperm (Rosniyana et al. 2007b). The by dry milling using an air isolating typeyield of husk and brown rice from 100 kg grinding machine. It was then mixed withpaddy are 22.8 kg and 73 kg respectively. determined levels of rice bran to produceThe recovery of bran depends upon the rice bran flour which was then kept in sealeddegree of milling of brown rice, which may plastic bags (orientated polyethylene) atvary from 5% to 10%. room temperature until further use. Rice bran, a by-product of therice milling industry, is needed for the Production of stabilised rice bran (SRB)development of value-added food products. Paddy was subjected to stabilisation processRice bran is easily incorporated into rice by parboiling whereby the harvested paddyflour which is extensively used in different was subjected to soaking (2 h) and steamingfood products. It can be incorporated into (30 min) before being dried and milledbreads, muffins, snacks and biscuits as a (Rosniyana et al. 2005b). The hull was thensource of fibre (Saunder 1990). The problem removed by using paddy dehusker, followedin effective utilisation of rice bran is the by removal of bran to yield parboiled whitestorage stability attributed to the presence of rice and bran. The stabilised rice bran waslipase and unsaturated fatty acids (Rosniyana dried at 60 °C until the moisture contentet al. 2005a). Since rice bran is hygroscopic, was 5% and then sieved through a 50-meshit may absorb moisture from the atmosphere sieve.resulting in increase of free fat acidity. Heattreatment is one of the methods used to Preparation of rice bran flourstabilise the rice bran. Studies showed that Five blends of SRB and rice flour (MR 220)the storage of rice bran could be extended were prepared as described in Table 1. Theto 4 and 6 months by autoclaving and blends consisted of varying SRB from 0% toparboiling process respectively (Rosniyana 40% mixed with rice flour sample (MR  220)et al. 2005a). using formulation F1 through F5 while Parboiled rice bran has been keeping other ingredients constant. The ricesuccessfully used in bread at 8% levels bran flour, a mixture of SRB and rice flour,to produce fibre rich food (Skuarray et al. were prepared in different ratios, namely,1988). Parboiled rice bran was significantly 0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70 and 40:60.higher in nutritional contents than otherstabilised brans. It is recommended to use Table 1. Ratio of stabilised rice bran and riceparboiled rice bran in food applications flour in rice bran flour formulationwhich will result in more nutritious products Formulation Stabilised rice bran Rice flour(Rosniyana et al. 2007a). Although the foodindustries have developed nutritionally F1   0 100enhanced products that are available to F2 10   90consumers, the use of parboiled rice bran F3 20   80 F4 30   70is relatively rare in processing kuih baulu. F5 40   60Therefore, this study was carried out2
  • 3. A. Rosniyana, K. Khairunizah Hazila, M.A. Hashifah, S.A. Shariffah Norin and A. Mohamad ZainPreparation of kuih baulu scale ranging from 1 to 7. For flavour,The ingredients used for preparation of kuih the samples that were rated with 1 has nobaulu include rice bran flour, eggs and sugar. flavour and 7 with good flavour. Score 1A modified kuih baulu formulation, using for colour indicates too light (unbaked),44% egg and 25% sugar by weight of total too dark or burnt product, while 7 denotesingredients, was developed to suit the rice brown, shiny, uniform colour. For texture,flour (MR 220). The procedure described by score 1 denotes too dry or too soft andZaidah (1986) was used for preparing the cohesive (unbaked) product, while score 7kuih baulu. Eggs and sugar were thoroughly indicates tender (soft) crumb and very goodmixed for 10 min. Sifted rice bran flour, cohesiveness. The taste was rated 7 whenat 20% by weight of total ingredients, was it indicates a perfectly balanced taste andadded into the mixture. The batter was then sweetness, while 1 denotes extremely badpoured into a mould and baked at 220 °C for taste, unbaked, over baked or bitter kuih15 min. The preparation of kuih baulu from baulu. Each sample was assessed for overalleach blend of rice bran flour was carried out acceptability which covered these factors.in two replicates. Data analysisChemical analysis In this study, each formulation was carriedSamples of kuih baulu were taken for out in two replicates. All determinationsanalyses of moisture, protein, crude were statistically analysed by analysis offibre, fat, ash, phosphorous, potassium, variance and the mean values are presented.sodium, calcium, iron, thiamine, niacin The Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT)and riboflavin. Moisture, protein, fat, free was used to detect differences betweenfatty acid and ash were determined using treatments (Gomez and Gomez 1984).standard AOAC methods (AOAC 1990).Protein was determined by Kjeldahl nitrogen Results and discussionmethod using Kjeltec system 1026 (Tecator Chemical composition1978). Fat was determined by Soxhlet The mean values for proximate compositionextraction and ashing was done at 550 °C of kuih baulu are shown in Table 2. Theto constant weight. Determination of crude moisture content of kuih baulu increasedfibre was carried out by Weende method significantly (p <0.05) with incorporation ofusing fibertec system (Tecator 1978). SRB. According to Skuarray et al. (1988),Minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre were the water absorption increased with theanalysed by an accredited company Edtech amount of rice bran in the kuih baulu. ThisAssociates Sdn. Bhd. (Penang) according to might have resulted from the addition ofthe method by AOAC (1993). Each analysis bran which increased the absorption ratewas carried out in duplicate. Carbohydrate during mixing. This was expected becausewas calculated by subtracting the values of of the high fibre content of rice branmoisture, protein, crude fibre, fat and ash, (Skuarray et al. 1988). The free hydroxylfrom 100. groups of the cellulose and hemicellulose bound with water molecules contributed toSensory evaluation a greater water holding capacity (SangnarkThe kuih baulu was evaluated by a sensory and Noomhorm 2003). Thus, with increasingpanel comprising 15 trained panellists. levels of SRB, there will be higher waterCharacteristics of kuih baulu which absorption and this contributed to higherwere frequently assessed include flavour, moisture content.tastes, colour and texture (Mandala and The products had protein contentsDaoucher 2005). Sensory evaluation was between 7.9–8.8% (Table 2). There wasdetermined using a 7-point Hedonic rating significant increment of protein in kuih 3
  • 4. Nutritious kuih baulu from stabilised rice branTable 2. Proximate compositions of kuih baulu incorporated with different levels of stabilized rice branProperties Levels of stabilized rice bran (%)(%) 0 10 20 30 40Moisture content 21.60 ± 0.75d 29.40 ± 0.50c 33.40 ± 0.50b 34.90 ± 0.50a 34.70 ± 0.75aAsh   0.70 ± 0.01e   1.00 ± 0.05d   1.20 ± 0.02c   1.40 ± 0.02b   1.70 ± 0.01aProtein   7.90 ± 0.02c   8.80 ± 0.01a   8.30 ± 0.01b   8.40 ± 0.02b   8.30 ± 0.02bFat   2.30 ± 0.01d   2.30 ± 0.05d   2.80 ± 0.01c   3.30 ± 0.02b   3.90 ± 0.01aCrude fibre   0.20 ± 0.01c   0.80 ± 0.05d   1.30 ± 0.01c   1.60 ± 0.02b   2.40 ± 0.01aCarbohyrate 67.30 ± 0.25a 57.70 ± 0.55b 53.00 ± 0.50c 50.70 ± 0.50d 49.00 ± 0.75dMean values in the same row with different letters are significantly different using DMRT with p <0.05baulu incorporated with SRB as compared Ash was present in the range ofto the control. The protein contents in the 0.7– 1.7%. The ash content in SRB-20, 30 and 40% SRB added kuih baulu incorporated kuih baulu was significantlydiffered significantly with the 10% SRB higher (p <0.05) than the control. Accordinglevel. The decrease in protein content may to Juliano and Bechtel (1985), the highindicate that the chemical composition of content in ash was contributed by thethe rice bran was affected by the milling mineral contents. Thus, the ash contentprocess and this was supported by an earlier in SRB-incorporated kuih baulu dependsstudy which showed that rice bran produced on the quality of flour (Kim 1996) whichat 8% milling degree had the lowest protein corresponds to the higher mineral content(Rosniyana et al. 2007b). Rice bran is a rich especially potassium.source of protein (14–16%) with higher Control kuih baulu had significantlylysine and lower glutamic acid content higher (p <0.05) carbohydrates than SRB-than rice and wheat. It has a better balance incorporated kuih baulu (Table 2). Theof essential amino acid score of 80% and carbohydrate in rice bran is a mixture90% in terms of lysine and threonine of complex carbohydrates and starchrespectively (Anderson and Guraya 2001). (Narasinga Rao 1988) and the majorIt was reported to have a Protein Energy ones include cellulose, hemicellulose andRatio (PER) value of nearly 2.0. Landers pentosans (Juliano and Bechtel 1985).and Hamaker (1994) also reported that rice Pentosans have been shown to improvebran had better balance of essential amino the dough in cakes and muffins and theacids and may be utilised to improve the complex carbohydrate in the rice bran flournutritional value of rice flour. Report by is believed to enhance the gas-holdingHamada (2000) also indicated that addition properties, improve machinability or retardof rice bran improved lysine content of staling in bakery products (Hammond 1994).developed products. The fat content of the products varied Mineral compositionsfrom 2.3% to 3.9%. It was significantly The mineral compositions in SRB containinghigher in SRB-incorporated kuih baulu but kuih baulu were higher than the kuih bauluthere was no significant difference between without SRB (Table 3). Rice bran is a goodthe control and 10% level of SRB kuih source of minerals and much superior thanbaulu (Table 2). Rice bran is high in fat other cereals. However, it has been reportedcontent ranging from 16–22% (Goffman and by several studies that rice bran is low inBergman 2002). As rice bran is rich in fat sodium (reference and yr). Thus, the highcontent, a significant increase in percentage values of sodium in the developed productof fat was observed as the level of SRB in may arise from the ingredients used in kuihthe product was increased. baulu. Results also showed that the 40%4
  • 5. A. Rosniyana, K. Khairunizah Hazila, M.A. Hashifah, S.A. Shariffah Norin and A. Mohamad ZainSRB-incorporated kuih baulu had the lowest levels of rice bran resulted in increasingsodium content (Table 3). This indicated levels of mineral contents. Carroll (1990)that incorporation of SRB at this level also observed that incorporation of branmay reduce the total sodium content in the significantly increased the mineral contentproducts. of the finished products. Other studies by In addition to that, the sodium contents Hammond (1994) also reported that ricein the bran varied according to the degree of bran is a concentrate source of meal, wheremilling which indicated that the distribution the minerals can be concentrated to produceof sodium constituents in the bran a nutrient mixture.layers differed (Rosniyana et al. 2007b).Phosphorus was present within a range of Vitamin composition and dietary fibre40–145 mg/100 g sample, while potassium The amount of vitamins present in the kuihwas found to be between 53 and 96 mg/100 baulu varied and niacin was the majorg sample. The iron content varied from vitamin B-complex in the product (Table  4).2.2–6.3 mg/100 g sample. Levels of iron Rice bran is rich in vitamin B-complexabove 5.5 mg/100 g were of considerable particularly thiamine and niacin. With thenutritional significance (Tee et al. 1997). exception of niacin, other components of All SRB-incorporated kuih baulu had vitamin B-complex was not present in thesignificantly higher minerals compared to control. However, results showed that thethe control except sodium indicating that the vitamin B-complex significantly increased indeveloped products had a nutritional added all levels of the SRB-incorporated products.value. The results indicated that increasingTable 3. Mean values of mineral composition in kuih baulu incorporated with different levels ofstabilized rice branProperties Levels of stabilized rice bran (%)(mg/100 g) 0 10 20 30 40Calcium 12.0 ± 0.5e 15.0 ± 0.1d   16.0 ± 0.5c   19.0 ± 0.1b   21.0 ± 0.7aPotassium 53.0 ± 0.5e 63.0 ± 0.1d   71.0 ± 0.2c   85.0 ± 0.5b   96.0 ± 0.1aSodium 93.0 ± 0.7a 84.0 ± 0.5b 106.0 ± 0.5c 106.0 ± 0.1c   77.0 ± 0.1dMagnesium 13.0 ± 0.5e 40.0 ± 0.8d   54.0 ± 0.8c   71.0 ± 0.7b   81.0 ± 0.5aIron 2.20 ± 0.01e 3.30 ± 0.01d   4.70 ± 0.01c   5.80 ± 0.01b   6.30 ± 0.01aPhosphorous 40.0 ± 0.5e 73.0 ± 0.7d   89.0 ± 0.7c 137.0 ± 0.5b 145.0 ± 0.7aMean values in the same row with different letters are significantly different using DMRT with p <0.05Table 4. Mean values of vitamins and dietary fibre in kuih baulu incorporated with different levels ofstabilized rice branProperties Levels of stabilized rice bran (%)(mg/100 g) 0 10 20 30 40Thiamine 0.00d   0.70 ± 0.01c   0.90 ± 0.03b   1.00 ± 0.01b   1.60 ± 0.01aRiboflavin 0.00d   0.05 ± 0.01c   0.07 ± 0.01c   0.10 ± 0.01b   0.24 ± 0.01aNiacin   0.20 ± 0.01d   0.70 ± 0.05c   1.30 ± 0.01b   1.40 ± 0.02b   2.20 ± 0.05aPyridoxine 0.00d   0.70 ± 0.01c   1.50 ± 0.01b   1.60 ± 0.01b   2.40 ± 0.01aTocopherol   0.07 ± 0.01d   0.09 ± 0.01c   0.10 ± 0.01b   0.14 ± 0.01b   1.60 ± 0.01aDietary fibre/g   2.90 ± 0.01e   3.80 ± 0.01d   6.50 ± 0.01c   8.30 ± 0.00b 11.10 ± 0.01aSoluble fibre/g   0.50 ± 0.01e   0.80 ± 0.01d   1.10 ± 0.01c   1.80 ± 0.01b   3.20 ± 0.01aStarch/g 20.50 ± 0.50d 22.40 ± 0.10c 23.60 ± 0.70ab 24.00 ± 0.50b 24.50 ± 0.10aMean values in the same row with different letters are significantly different using DMRT with p <0.05 5
  • 6. Nutritious kuih baulu from stabilised rice bran The most pronounced increment was in food products as a source of dietaryobserved in niacin and pyridoxine contents fibre and to improve the nutritional quality.in the 40% SRB added kuih baulu. Similar It was also reported that dietary fibre wasincrement was observed for thiamine widely recognized as an important elementand riboflavin in SRB-incorporated kuih in the treatment and prevention of diabetes,baulu as compared with the control. This colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal disorders,indicated that the vitamin contents increased high cholesterol, heart disease and obesity.significantly (p <0.05) with increasinglevels of rice bran. Similar observation was Sensory evaluationreported by Juliano (1985) which stated The mean scores given by panellists forthat the major proportion of vitamins in rice sensory characteristics are presented inwas located in the bran and this content was Table  5. Sensory results indicated thatsignificantly reduced during milling of rice. the control kuih baulu had significantly Vitamin B-complex is essential for (p  <0.05) higher score for most attributesgrowth, development and a variety of other than kuih baulu incorporated with SRB.bodily functions. It plays a major role in the Panellists perceived that the colour increasedactivities of enzymes, proteins that regulate in darkness with SRB incorporation andchemical reactions in the body, which are kuih baulu with 30–40% SRB was darker.important in turning food into energy and The highest score for colour was obtainedother needed substances. in the control kuih baulu followed by 10, Tocopherol was found in varied 20, 30 and 40%. Bran which has light tanamounts (0.07–1.6 mg/100 g) in kuih baulu. colour, may contribute to the colour of SRB-The amount of tocopherol detected was incorporated kuih baulu (Bor et al. 1991).significantly different (p <0.05) among The flavour of the control kuih baulusamples and significantly increased with was insignificantly different (p >0.05)increasing levels of SRB. Studies by Rong from kuih baulu at 10% level of SRB butet al. (1999) indicated that rice bran had significantly different from kuih bauluthe richest source of tocopherol (nearly containing 20, 30 and 40% levels of SRB.1 g/100  g). Hence, addition of rice bran Kuih baulu incorporated with 20–30%resulted in increase of tocopherol content SRB had a flavour score of 4.75, whichand the results are significant. was considered to have a moderately good With the exception of the control and flavour. The panellists also indicated that10% SRB-incorporated kuih baulu, all the the control kuih baulu had a slightly betterother products are high fibre products more flavour. The bran in the rice flour wascontaining than 6% total dietary fibre based described as having a sweet, slightly toasted,on the definition of Codex Alimentarius Table 5. Mean values for sensory attributes of(Codex Alimentarius Commission 2001). kuih baulu incorporated with different levels ofRice bran contains 25.3 g/100 g dietary stabilized rice branfibre which can meet the recommendeddietary fibre intake of an adult which is Characteistics Levels of stabilized rice bran (%)about 27 g a day (Narasinga Rao 1988). 0 10 20 30 40Dietary fibre in bran includes cellulose, Colour 5.60a 5.10b 4.80b 4.25c 4.15chemicellulose and pentosans which are all Flavour 5.20a 5.05b 4.75c 4.75c 4.60cinsolubles fibres. In addition it also contains Taste 5.20a 5.25a 4.95b 4.25c 4.25cabout 2% soluble dietary fibre. Kuih baulu Texture 5.20c 5.45b 5.45b 6.20a 5.85aincorporated with 40% rice bran had the O/acceptability 5.40a 5.05b 4.95b 4.30c 4.25chighest total dietary fibre (11.1%) (Table  4). Mean values in the same row with differentStudies by Thompson and Weber (1981) letters are significantly different using DMRTsuggested that rice bran can be incorporated with p <0.056
  • 7. A. Rosniyana, K. Khairunizah Hazila, M.A. Hashifah, S.A. Shariffah Norin and A. Mohamad Zainnutty flavour (Rosniyana et al. 2005b). The (Prakash and Ramanatham 1995) andcompounds responsible for the characteristic biscuits (Shashikanth 1991).flavour in rice bran are still unknown. There were differences in scores by Conclusionpanellists tasting the products. Statistically, The study showed that nutritious kuih bauluthe taste of the control and kuih baulu can be prepared by incorporation of SRBincorporated with 10% rice bran differed into the formulation resulting in significantsignificantly from the taste of kuih baulu increase in proximate composition, minerals,incorporated with 20, 30 and 40% rice bran. vitamins and dietary fibre contents.The taste of the control kuih baulu was rated High fibre kuih baulu can be made byas perfectly moderate balanced taste with incorporating 20–40% levels of SRBmoderate sweetness (5), while kuih baulu which resulted in 6.5–11.1% dietary fibreincorporated with 30–40% rice bran had present in the products. All the kuih baulua slightly bitter taste. The bitter taste was were acceptable to sensory panellists andpresumably associated with saponin present a significantly higher score for texture wasin the rice bran (Rosniyana et al. 2005b). shown in the 30% SRB-incorporated kuihHowever, the amount of saponin in the baulu. This study indicated that SRB couldproducts depends on the levels of SRB in be used in bakery products to improve theirthe formulation of the product. texture. Sensory panel found that the controland 10% SRB-incorporated kuih bualu Acknowledgementwere slightly tender in texture while the The authors would like to thank Ms Meriamother samples were rated as moderately Harun and Ms Hadijah Bakar for theirtender (soft). Sensory results indicated technical assistance.that panellists preferred the texture of kuihbaulu containing 10–40% rice bran than the Referencescontrol (Table 5). There was a significant Abd. Rahim, A. (2006). Agricultural cooperativesincrease in the texture of SRB-incorporated in Malaysia: Innovation and opportunities in the process of transition towards the 21stkuih baulu as compared to the texture of Century. Paper presented at FFTC-NACT,the control kuih baulu. It was indicated Inter. Seminar, Seoul Koreaby Hammond (1994), that rice bran has AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis. 15themulsification properties which possessed Edition. Washington, DC: Association ofsimilar functional characteristics as other Official Analytical Chemistsemulsifying agents. Thus, the addition of –––– (1993). Methods of analysis for nutrition labeling. (Sullivan, D.M. and Carpenter, D.E.,rice bran could improve the texture of kuih eds.). Methods no. 985.29. Washington, DC:baulu. AOAC International The average score for the overall Anderson, A.K. and Guraya, H.S. ( 2001).acceptability of kuih baulu indicated that Extractability of protein in physicallypanellists preferred kuih baulu without processed rice bran. JAOCS 7(9): 208–212the rice bran (control) as the results were Bor, S.L., Berber, S. and Benedito, B.C. (1991). Rice bran – chemistry and technology in ricesignificantly higher. However, the panellist utilisation. (Bor, S.L. and Van Nostard, R.,rated 4.25–5.05 for overall acceptability eds.), p. 313 –363. New York: Van Nostardof SRB-incorporated kuih baulu which Reinholdindicated that these products were still Carroll, L.E. (1990). Functional properties andacceptable. This trend is common for the applications of stabilized rice bran in bakeryother bran-based products as reported products. Food techn. 44(4): 74 –78 Codex Alimentarius Commission (2001). Es for usein the literature. At levels above 30%, of nutrition claims. Draft table of conditionsthe incorporation of rice bran was not for nutrients contents ( Part B) dietary fibre,acceptable in products such as papads Geneva 2 –7 July 2001. 7
  • 8. Nutritious kuih baulu from stabilised rice branGoffman, F.D. and Bergman, C. (2002). Hyrdrolysis Rong, N., Ausman, L.M. and Nicolosi, R.J. (1999). of triacylglycerols and changes in fatty acid Oryzanol decrease cholesterol absorption and composition in rice bran during storage. aortic fatty streaks in hamsters. Lipids 32: Cereal Chem. 80(4): 459– 461 303 –309Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Rosniyana, A., Hashifah, M.A. and Shariffah Norin, procedures for agriculural research 2nd S.A. (2005a). Changes of free fatty acid and Edition., p. 208 –215. New York: John Wiley moisture content of stored rice bran keptHamada, J.S. (2000). Characterization and at different packaging techniques. Paper/ functional properties of rice bran proteins Proceeding of AFTC 05, Jakarta Indonesia modified by commercial exoproteases and –––– (2005b) Effect of milling degree on the endoproteases. J. Food Sci. 65: 305 –310 sensory characteristics of various cooked rice.Hammond, N. (1994). Functional and nutritional J. Trop. Agric. and Fd. Sc. 32(2): 221–227 characteristics of rice bran extracts. Cereal –––– (2007a). Nutritional composition of rice Foods World 39(10): 752 –754 bran-based Malaysian traditional cakes. PaperHasler, C. (1998). Functional foods: Their role in presented at 10th AFC, Kuala Lumpur disease prevention and health promotion. –––– (2007b). Physicochemical properties and Scientific status summary foods. Journal of nutritional contents of rice bran produced at Food Technology 52(24): 63 –70 different milling degrees. J. Trop. Agric. andJuliano, B.O. (1985). Polysaccharides, protein Fd. Sc. 35(1): 97–105 and lipids of rice. In: Rice: Chemistry and Sangnark, A. and Noomhorm, A. (2003). Chemical, technology, p. 59 –174. Los Banos: IRRI physical and baking properties of dietaryJuliano, B.O. dan Bechtel, D.B. (1985). The grain fibre prepared from rice straw. Food Research and its gross composition. In: Rice: Chemistry International 37(1): 66 –74 and technology, p. 17– 57. Los Banos: IRRI Shashikanth, K.N. (1991). Rice bran as a high TDFKhatijah, I., Chia, J.S. and Lim, B.T. (1992). snack food. Application of biotechnology Nutrient composition of Malaysian traditional in the development of food processing cakes, (MARDI Report No. 159). Serdang: industries. 9th Indian Convention of food MARDI scientist and technologists, 9 –12 June 1991.Kim, S.K. (1996). Instant noodle. In: Pasta and AFST(1), Mysore India noodle technology (Kruger, J.E., Matsuo, R.B. Saunder, R.M. (1990). The properties of rice and Dick, J.W., eds.), p.195 – 225. St. Paul, bran as a foodstuff. Cereal Food World 35: Minnesota: American association of Cereal 632 – 636 Chemists, Inc. Skuarray, G.R., Young, D. and Nguyen, M. (1988).Landers, P.S. and Hamaker, B.R. (1994). Antigenic Rice bran as a source of dietary fibre in pasta. properties of albumin, globulin, and protein ASEAN food Journal 4(2): 69–70 concentrate fractions from rice bran. Cereal Tecator (1978). Application note on AN01/78 Chem. 71: 409 – 411 Tecator 1978.03.15. Fibre procedureMandala, I. and Daoucher, M. (2005). The according to weende method with Fibertech sensory attributes of cakes containing large System Tecator numbers of low sugar raisins, as evaluated Tee, E.S., Mohd. Ismail, N., Mohd. Nasir, A. and by consumers and a trained sensory panel. Khatijah, I. (1997). Nutrient composition of Intern. Journal of Fd. Sc. and Techn. 40: Malaysian foods. 4th Edition. Kuala Lumpur: 759–769 IMRNarasinga Rao, B.S. (1988). Dietary fibre in Indians Thompson, S.A. and Weber, C.W. (1981). Effect of diets and its nutritional significance. Journal dietary fiber sources on tissue mineral levels of Fd. Sc. 59: 1– 5 in chicks. Poul. Sci. 60: 840 – 845Prakash, J. and Ramanatham, G. (1995). Proximate Zaidah, I. (1986) Development and improvement of composition and protein quality of stabilised Malaysian traditional cakes. Annual Report, p. rice bran. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32(5): 161–189. Food Technology Division, MARDI 416–4198
  • 9. A. Rosniyana, K. Khairunizah Hazila, M.A. Hashifah, S.A. Shariffah Norin and A. Mohamad ZainAbstrakDedak beras ialah sisa buangan yang bernilai daripada industri pemprosesanberas. Dalam usaha menambah nilai kuih tradisional Malaysia, dedak berasyang distabil digunakan untuk komplemen tepung beras (MR 220) dalampenghasilan kuih baulu. Empat tahap dedak beras distabil (10, 20, 30 dan 40%)digunakan dalam formulasinya. Analisis kimia dan penilaian nilai rasa ke atasproduk telah dijalankan. Kandungan protein, lemak dan abu meningkat denganpeningkatan bahagian dedak beras. Semua kuih baulu yang mengandungi dedakberas mempunyai kandungan mineral dan vitamin yang tinggi berbandingdengan sampel kawalan. Produk yang mengandungi 20–40% dedak beras ketaraberbeza dengan sampel kawalan dari segi warna, rasa, aroma dan penerimaankeseluruhan. Tekstur kelembutan kuih baulu didapati meningkat denganpeningkatan dedak beras. Penambahan dedak beras menyebabkan kuih baulumenjadi lebih gelap dan pada tahap 30% dedak beras boleh mengantikan tepungtanpa menurunkan mutu penerimaan produk. Ujian nilai rasa menunjukkan semuakuih baulu yang dibangunkan diterima oleh ahli panel.Accepted for publication on 28 March 2011 9