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Chapter #2

Chapter #2
Ideology of Pakistan.
According to New Syllabus Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Textbook Board Peshawar.

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Pakistan studies for class 9th Notes Document Transcript

  • 1. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN Table of ContentsChap#2 MAKING OF PAKISTANShort Questions Page No.1.) What events widened the distance between Muslims and Hindus?1 3Q.2) what proposals were given by Cripps Mission? 3Q.3) Why congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps Mission Proposals? 3Q.4) Why Shimla conference was unsuccessful? 4Q.5) How did Muslim league get success in general elections of 1945-46? 4Q6.) What demands were given in session of legislature in 1946? 4Q.7) How the formation of interim government was made in 1946-47? 4Q.8) How the congress felt that they have done mistake of giving Finance Ministry 5 To Muslim League?Q9) Why Quaid-e-Azam was given the title of “ambassador of Hindu-Muslim”? 5Q10) What methods adopted by Quaid-e-Azam of being the best leader? 5Long Questions Page No.Q.1) what do you know about Lahore resolution. What is its importance in Pakistan movement? 6Q.2) Discuss in detail C.R. formula and Gandhi Jinnah talks? 7Q.3) What is the Cabinet Mission plan? What are its aims and objectives? 8Q.4) What is the 3rd June Plan? How according to this plan, partition of India and establishmentof Pakistan took place? 9Q.5) Discuss the British colonization, its aims and policies? 10Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 1
  • 2. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN Table of ContentsChap#2 MAKING OF PAKISTANAdditional Long Question Page No.Q) Write detail note on Cripps Mission (1942)? 12Q) What was the purpose of Shimla Conference and why it was unsuccessful? 13Q) What do you know about General Elections (1945-46)? 13Q) What was the purpose of convention of 1946? 14Q) Discuss formation of interim government (1946-47) in detail? 15Q) How Indian partition took place? How it led to establishment of Pakistan? 16Multiple Choice Questions 18Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 2
  • 3. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANSHORT QUESTIONS:1.) What events widened the distance between Muslims and Hindus?Answer: Mainly the following events widened differences between Muslims and HindusI. URDU- HINDI CONTROVERSY:In 1867, Hindus in Banaras started movement against Urdu because it was considered thelanguage of the Muslims of India.II. ALL INDIA NATIONAL CONGRESS:In 1885 a British retired officer founded all India National Congress to represent all the nationsliving in India, but later on it proved Hindu dominated party.III. PARTITION OF BENGALProtest of Hindus against Partition of Bengal in 1905IV. BANDE MATRAMIn 1936 Elections congress party came in power. They introduced their National Anthem“Bande Matram” in the schools.From these events Muslims of India observed that after British they would become the Slavesof Hindus for ever.Q.2) what proposals were given by Cripps Mission?ANSWER: CRIPPS PROPOSALS/PROPOSALS OF CRIPPS MISSION:Sir Stafford Cripps gave following proposals to Congress and Muslim League. India will be librated after the termination ( ) of war A constituent assembly ( ) will be formed. Elections for the constituent assembly will be held. Only autonomous states ( ) will be given representation. For settlement of all issues, an agreement will be made between constituent assembly and British government Provinces will be given a right to opt out ( ) of the union and establish their own independent governmentQ.3) Why congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps Mission Proposals?Answer: CONGRESS-LEAGUE REACTION TO CRIPPS PROPOSALSThe Cripps proposals were rejected by both, Congress and Muslims League. Congress wantedimmediate Independence of India, while partition of India (Pakistan) was demand of MuslimsLeague.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 3
  • 4. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANQ.4) Why Shimla conference was unsuccessful?Answer: FAILURE OF SHIMLA CONFERENCETo discuss the plan of Governor General Lord Wavell, invitations were sent to prominent Indianleaders. The conference started on June 25, 1945 at shimla.Congress claimed to be representative of both the Hindus and Muslims. On the other hand, AllIndia Muslim League claimed that League was the only political party of Indian Muslims.During Conference khizer Hayat Khan Tiwana, leader of unionist party of Punjab demanded forrepresentation of his party.Both of the parties, were asked for list of Representatives ( ) but no one agreed to acceptthe demand of other. So Lord Wavell declared that he failed to bring an agreement betweenthe parties of India.Q.5) How did Muslim league get success in general elections of 1945-46?Answer: WIN OF MUSLIM LEAGUE IN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1945-46Elections for central assemblies were held in Dec, 1945. Out of total 102 seats 30 seats werespecified for Muslims. Muslim League won all the seats.The Provincial assemblies’ elections were held in January 1946. Muslims League won 454 seatsout of 492 Muslims seats. In these elections Congress nominated candidates for Muslim seatsbadly defeated.After this great success, League celebrated 11th Jan, 1946 as the “Victory Day” through outIndia.Q6.) What demands were given in session of legislature in 1946?Answer: DEMAND OF THE SESSION OF LEGISLATURE (1946)In Session of Legislature, Hussain Shaheed Saharwardi, a Prominent Bengali Muslim leaguerpresented a resolution ( ). In this resolution an independent and autonomous Pakistanwas demanded; consist of Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (K.P.K) and Balucistan inNorth West and Assam and Bengal in North East.Q.7) How the formation of interim government was made in 1946-47?Answer: FORMATION OF INTERIM GOVERNMENT 1946-47Viceroy Lord Wavell announced on 16th June, 1946 the allocated Seats for interim Government,as under: Congress: 6 Seats Muslims: 5 Seats Others Minorities: 3 SeatsCompiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 4
  • 5. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANMuslim League decided to join the interim Government but Congress rejected the plan byshowing her observations ( ) and tried her best not to include League in interimgovernment. Against the conduct of Congress and dual policy of government, League took “RastIqdam” and rejected the cabinet mission plan. During protest of Muslim League hundreds oflives lost.After great struggle of Viceroy Lord Wavell both the parties accepted the plan and were inviteto form interim government.Q.8) How the congress felt that they have done mistake of giving Finance Ministry toMuslim League?Answer: ROLE OF LIAQAT ALI KHAN AS FINANCE MINISTERCongress gave finance department to Muslim League and thus all the ministers were on themercy of ministry of finance. The credit of last budget of India goes to Liaqat Ali Khan. Salientfeatures of this budget were as under: 1. Pressing steps were taken to end poverty. 2. Taxes were levied on industrialists. 3. Inquiry commission was establish to check the tax evasion.The Hindu industrialists were angry with Congress party against the imposition of taxes .Nowcongress party realized that they have done mistake by giving Finance ministry to Muslimleague.Q9) Why Quaid-e-Azam was given the title of “ambassador of Hindu-Muslim”?Answer: Quaid-e-Azam joined All India Cogress in 1906 and actively took part in politics. He alsojoined Muslim league in 1913. He tried his best to promote cooperation between Congress andLeague gain independence from British. For all such efforts he was given the title ( ) of“ambassador of Hindu-Muslim”.Q10) What methods adopted by Quaid-e-Azam of being the best leader?Answer: QUAID-E-AZAM BEING THE BEST LEADER Quaid-e-zam led the independence movement in best his way. He fought Independencemovement within jurisdiction ( ) of law and order, that’s why he never went to jail. Hetried his best to get rights for Muslims of sub continents. He presented Pakistan resolution on23rd March 1940 and convinced ( ) the British government that division of sub continent wasthe only solution of political problems of India. He not only united Muslims of India on oneplatform but also led them to achieve their goal (Pakistan).Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 5
  • 6. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANLONG QUESTIONSQ.1) what do you know about Lahore resolution. What is its importance in Pakistanmovement?Answer: LAHORE RESOLUTION (PAKISTAN RESOLUTION) 1940:27th annual session ( ) of all India Muslim League was held from 22 nd -24th march 1940 atMinto Park ( Now Iqbal Park) Lahore where Minar-e-Pakistan is now situated. Leaders form allthe Muslim majority provinces participated in this meeting. Jinnah rightly expressed hisvaluable remarks about the political circumstances of India and the Muslims stand. He said:“Indian problem is not communal ( ) but international. No Constitution ( ) can workwithout recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitution that establishesa government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus and Muslims are placed under onedemocratic system ( ), this would mean Hindu Raj”Thousands of Muslim political workers and more than one lakh people attended this meeting.On 23rd March Moulvi Fazl-ul-Haq, a prominent Bengali Muslim Leaguer presented Lahoreresolution. All the leaders from Muslim majority provinces strongly supported the resolution.This resolution was formally approved on 24th March 1940.Demand of Lahore Resolution: They decided that the Federal system ( ) under Government of India Act, 1935 was not acceptable for the Muslims of India. No such constitutional plan would be acceptable to Muslims unless it was framed with their approval and consent. Adjacent units ( ) where Muslims are in majority, as in Northwest and East should be grouped as Independent States where they will be autonomous ( ) and sovereign ( ). Protection of minorities ( ) would be given priority.Reaction to Lahore Resolution: On approval of Lahore resolution Hindu leaders strongly opposed the resolution. Hindu Media gave it the name of “Pakistan Resolution”. Muslim leaders adopted this name. British government did not give importance Lahore resolution.Importance of Lahore Resolution in Pakistan movement: Quaid-e-Azam visited different parts of India and tried to unite all the Muslims. He got full support form all the other Muslim parties on demand of separate home land for Muslims of India. In 1946 in meeting in Delhi Muslims elected representatives demanded a separate homeland. In this meeting the word “States” in Pakistan Resolution was replaced with “state”.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 6
  • 7. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN It defined the future plan of struggle for the establishment of the Muslims state It also intended ( ) to give importance to the autonomy of the state. Lahore Resolution remained the ultimate goal ( ) for the Muslim Leagues.Q.2) Discuss in detail C.R. formula and Gandhi Jinnah talks?Answer: C.R. FORMULA (1944)Introduction:During world war 2nd Congress struggled a lot to get power from British. At this movementCongress totally ignored League but it was Chakravarti Ragopal Acharia, a Congress leader ofMadras tried to bring together both the parties.C.R. Formula:Gopal Acharia was in favor of dialogue with League. He knew that without League, Congresscan’t agree British government to accept any demand. He put up a resolution to Madrasassembly (known as C.R Formula) and Congress was asked to accept demand for Pakistan withappropriate changes.Important Points of C.R Formula:The important points of C.R formula are: 1Muslim League will confirm the demand of Indian libration and will co-operate Congress for establishment of temporary Government in the interim period. 2) After the war, a commission will determine the Muslim majority districts in North East and North West. In these areas separation from India will be decided through referendum. 3) In the event of separation a mutual agreement will be made regarding defense, commerce, communication and other important fields.Reaction to C.R Formula:All India Congress openly rejected the C.R formula. Personal attacks were made on Acharia andhe resigned Congress with great protest. Quaid-e-Azam pointed out ambiguities ( ) in theformula and stated that it is negation of Lahore resolution.Conclusion:Inspite of certain flaws ( ), C.R formula is important in the history because for the first timea Congress leader welcomed Partition of India.GANDHI -JINNAH TALKS (1944)In the light of C.R Formula talks were held between Quaid-e- Azam and Ghandi from 9th Sept to13th Sept, 1944 in Malabar hills, Bombay (Mumbai), the residence ( ) of Quaid. 14 one toone meetings were held in Malabar and 21(11 by Quaid and 10 by Gandhi) letters wereexchanged but no agreement was made.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 7
  • 8. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANCauses of Failure of Gandhi-Jinnah TalksSeveral causes were responsible for failure of Gandhi Jinnah talks, but following are the mostimportant Gandhi was not willing at any cost to accept Indian Muslims as a separate nation. He stated that if a large number of people (Indians) change their religion (Islam), the nationality is not changed. But Quaid strongly defended separate nationality of Muslims because they have there own civilization ( ) and culture ( ). Gandhi insisted on withdrawal ( ) of British from India first then mutual differences ( ) will be solved .But Quaid not agreed because in this way Muslims would come under the permanent Hindu majority in India.Importance of Gandhi Jinnah TalksAlthough the negotiation were failed but proved very important for League and Quaid. It was for the first time that Gandhi negotiated about partition of India. Many doubts ( ) of Hindus were removed about creation of Pakistan. It boosted up the image and moral ( ) of League leader, Quaid-a-azam.Q.3) What is the Cabinet Mission plan? What are its aims and objectives?Answer: CABINET MISSION PLAN (1946)After general elections 1946, the British government sent three members of his cabinet ( ).The aim of this mission was to search possible solution of Indian problems and transfer ofpowers to the Indians.The mission after its arrival in India started negotiation with Indian Government and then metwith Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Gandhi and Jawahar lal Nehru from Congress and Quaid, LiqatAli Khan from Mualim League. Unity of India was the demand of Congress while Leaguedemanded for Pakistan, but both the Parties could not agree upon any formula.Proposals of Cabinet Mission PlanKeeping in view the sensitivity of problem, the mission issued it’s on own Plan on May 16, 1946.Which in commonly called cabinet mission plan? The proposals of this plan can be divided intotwo parts:A) Short Term ProposalsB) Long Term ProposalsIt was stated that the party which will accept these proposals will be invited in interimGovernment.A) Short Term Proposals An interim government will be setup. All the affairs of state including defense ( ) will be handed over ( ) to Indians.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 8
  • 9. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN The party which will accept these proposals will be invited to be included in interim government.B) Long Term Proposals All the Provinces will be divided into three groups, namely A, B, C. o Group (A) will include Hindu majority Provinces i.e. Bombay, Bihar, Madras, Orissa and united Provinces. o Group (B) will include Muslims majority Provinces of N.W of India i.e. Punjab, KPK, Baluchistan and Sindh. o Group (C) included Muslims majority provinces of N.E of India i.e. Bengal and Assam. There will be a central Legislature and executive ( ) of all the groups. If any province desire separation from any group, after ten years will have the right of separation.Reaction of Congress and League to the PlanThough the proposals had no clear claim for Pakistan but League accepted the plan for tworeasons, There was a concept of Pakistan that is “the provinces could be separate from centreafter ten years” and the right to ask for review.Congress rejected short term proposals and accepted long terms proposals, apart from thisGandhi and other Congress leaders gave such statements about grouping system in the planand limitation of legislative powers (they were ‘free to make any change in the Proposal)Definitely the League was alarmed by the Congress’ intentions.Reaction of league to Congress StatementsLeague was worried that Congress will change the constitution and due its majority in assemblythe concept of Pakistan could be finished in long terms plan.League called a meeting of Muslims League council on July 29th, 1946. In this meeting aresolution was passed to with draw the approval of Cabinet Mission Plan. On the appeal ofQuaid-e-Azam, “Yaum-e-Rast Iqdam” was observed on Aug 16th, 1946. Muslims protested ( )against wrong policies of British Government.It was a huge protest in which thousands of workers were arrested and sent to jail.Q.4) What is the 3rd June Plan? How according to this plan, partition of India andestablishment of Pakistan took place?Answer: THE THIRD JUNE PLAN 1947Introduction:On Feb 20, 1947; From London, British Prime Minister Atilee gave an extra ordinary ( )statement about India. In his statement, the following were two main points:Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 9
  • 10. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN British will give Government of India to Indians before June, 1947. Viceroy Lord Wavell was replaced by Lord Mount Batton.The last Viceroy and Governor-General of British India, Lord Mount Batton tried his best to keepIndia unite but failed. After detailed consultation ( ) with top leaders of India, he made a rdplan of his own (later on called as 3 June Plan) and sent to British Government for approval.Before sending the plan to Britain, Congress leader Nehru was kept informed but League wasleft unknown.Main Provisions (Points) Of Third June Plan:The main provisions of third June plan are: 1. Muslims and non-Muslim members of the Punjab and Bengal assemblies will have separate sessions ( ). If any group was in favor of division of provinces, then the provinces will be divided into two parts. 2. District Sylhet (Assam) of Bengal province well decide through referendum ( ) either to join Muslim majority Bengal or not. 3. In case of partition, a boundary commission will be made to determine the boundaries. 4. Sindh Provincial assembly will decide a special meeting to join Pakistan or India. 5. In NWFP (KPK), a referendum will decide to join Pakistan or India. 6. The decision of Baluchistan will be made by Shahi Jarga and members of municipal committee of Quetta.After approval of plan from London and meetings with Indian leaders Lord Mound Battonannounced all India radio, the partition of India on 3 rd June 1947.League/Congress Reaction on 3rd June PlanOn 10th June, a meeting was held of League council and it was decided that though we are notin favor of division of Bengal and Punjab but accept the 3rd June plan as a whole for the sake oftransfer of power.Indian national Congress called meeting on 14June, 1947 and 3rd June plan was acceptedunhappily. It was stated that “Geography, Mountains and the Sea determine India. No humanpower can change it”.Q.5) Discuss the British colonization, its aims and policies?BRITISH COLONIZATION:Industrial revolution ( ) started in Europe in . Industrialists startedsearch for markets outside Europe. They reached India in search of raw material and to exportfinished goods to Britain.It was Sir. Thomas roe who spent some time in the court of Mughal king Jehangir and got someprivileges ( ) from the court of Mughal king for trade in Bangal and increased their trade.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 10
  • 11. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANThey took benefits from mutual indifferences ( ) of Indians, lake of interest of rulers andbad condition of peace. A part from this, main advantage to the British was modern art andscience while the society of India at that time lake these qualities. They started politicaldomination ( ) over India and 1757 Nawab Sirajuddaula was defeated in the battle ofPlasy. In southern India they defeated Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan in 1799, finally in 1857 theydefeated the last Mughal king Bahadur Shah Zafar and thus became rulers of India.AMIS AND POLICIES OF BRITISH COLONIZATION OF INDIAAdministrationBritish ruled over India due to effective administration. To make the government strong, theydivided India into small groups, provinces and districts. To rule over India, they followed onepolicy effectively, “Divide and Rule”. People were left on mercy of land lords ( ) and khanof that area.EducationBritish introduced modern science in India. In 1857, they established three universities, each inmadras, Calcutta and Bombay. With cooperation of local people, schools and colleges were setup. The education system introduced had several drawbacks ( ). It created: Only a group to run the government machinery. Class division, high standard of education for higher class, second and third class education for middle and lower class people. A great Gulf ( ) between modern educated people and traditional ( ) religious scholars.Economic systemBefore British imperialism ( ) in India, India was very prosperous ( ) and had tradewith other countries of the world. But British imperialists controlled the economy of India by: Imposing ( ) heavy taxes on exports ( ) and extend imports ( ). Only raw material was exported from India and English manufactured goods were imported.British never encouraged industrialization in India. On the other hand, feudal ( ) systemalso hinder ( ) development of society.Racial discriminationThe British imperialism credited racial discrimination ( ) in India. Relationship betweenEnglish people and local people was that of ruler and the subject ( ). British had never beenpart of Indian society. There social activities remain separate. Separate parks and clubs wereestablished where entry of Indians was prohibited ( ). This racial discrimination badlyaffected the psychology of Indians.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 11
  • 12. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANConclusionThe changes brought by British in Indian education, economy, politics and way of life putnegative effect on the people of India. Some of the effects are still existed and observed ( )in the behavior ( ) of the people of this region.ADDITIONAL LONG QUESTIONSQ) Write detail note on Cripps Mission (1942)?Answer: CRIPS MISSION (1942)IntroductionSecond World War started in 1939 the British viceroy declared participation in the war with outconsulting Indians. The British rulers of India were facing two fronts. Externally, the Japanese who were great threat to Indian government. Internally, Indian National Congress who want to establish Congress rule.To solve internal problems, British Government sent a mission of three persons under theleadership of Sir. Stafford Cripps.Cripps Proposals/Proposals of Cripps MissionAfter analyzing Indian condition Cripps gave some proposals: India will be librated after the termination ( ) of war A constituent assembly ( ) will be formed. Elections for the constituent assembly will be held. Only autonomous states ( ) will be given representation. For settlement of all issues, an agreement will be made between constituent assembly and British government Provinces will be given a right to opt out ( ) of the union and establish their own independent government.Congress-League Reaction to Cripps ProposalsThe Cripps proposals were rejected by both, Congress and Muslims League. Congress wantedimmediate Independence of India, while partition of India (Pakistan) was demand of MuslimsLeague.ConclusionThough Cripps Mission returned unsuccessful but it was for the first time in the history ofBritish India that Indian partition was accepted by giving the right of separation to the provincesform Indian union ( ). It created a political way to get separate homeland for the Muslimsof India.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 12
  • 13. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANQ) What was the purpose of Shimla Conference and why it was unsuccessful?Answer: SHIMLA CONFERENCE (1945)Introduction:In 1945 when 2nd world War was about to its end, the British government decided to takeconcrete action against Japanese and to solve the constitution problems of India.Plan of Governor General Lord WavellIn order to solve the constitution problems of India, Governor General Lord Wavell consulted( ) higher authorities and announced a plan in June 1945.According to Wavell plan: Viceroy’s Executive Council ( ) will be setup. It will have representation of major parties. Hindus and Muslims will be given equal representation. An interim government ( ) will be formed with equal proportion of Muslims and Hindus. All the powers will be given to Indians except defense and power of Governor General.Shimla ConferenceTo discuss the plan invitation were sent to prominent Indian leaders. The conference started onJune 25, 1945 at shimla. During open debate ( ), both the parties Congress and Leagueobjected each other’s status. Congress claimed to be representative of both the Hindus andMuslims. On the other hand; All India Muslim League claimed that League was the only politicalparty of Indian Muslims. This issue could not be dissolved and the differences between MuslimLeague and Congress increased.During Conference khizer Hayat Khan Tiwana, leader of unionist party of Punjab demanded forrepresentation of his party.Failure of Conference:In this conference both of the parties were asked for list of Representatives ( ) but no oneagreed to accept the demand of other. So Lord Wavell declared that he failed to bring anagreement between the parties of India and it was decided that elections will be held to knowparty representative position.Q) What do you know about General Elections (1945-46)?Answer: GENERAL ELECTIONS (1945-46)After 2nd world war withdrawal from India was the top priority of British Government. IndiaViceroy Lord Wavell announced elections in India. Elections were held in Dec 1945 and January1946.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 13
  • 14. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANSlogan of the Parties:The major parties, Congress and League took full part in elections. Congress contested ( )elections on the slogan ( ) of united India whiles the slogan of Leagues was Pakistan. Duringelections, League leaders addressed ( ) Muslims that if they want to escape frompermanent slavery of Congress, they should give hand to League for Pakistan. Win of Muslim League:Elections for central assemblies were held in Dec, 1945. Out of total 102 seats 30 seats werespecified for Muslims. Muslim League won all the seats.The Provincial assemblies’ elections were held in January 1946. Muslims League won 454 seatsout of 492 Muslims seats. In these elections Congress nominated candidates for Muslim seatsbadly defeated.After this great success, League celebrated 11th Jan, 1946 as the “Victory Day” through outIndia.Conclusion:The elections of 1945-146 made it crystal clear ( ) that Muslim League was the onlypolitical party of the Indian Muslims.These elections are called “Pakistan saz intekhabat”, because these elections empowered allIndia Muslim League to make Pakistan.Q) what was the purpose of convention of 1946?Answer: CONVENTION OF ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES OF LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLIES (1946).ORDELHI RESOLUTIONIntroduction:In elections of 1946, it was proved that League is the only representative of Indian Muslims.After elections a convention ( ) was held in Delhi for all India Muslim legislatures in April1946.More than 500 elected members for central and provincial assemblies participated in theconvention. In his presidential address, Quaid forced on demand of separate home land forIndian Muslims.Resolution of Hussain Shaheed Saharwardi/ Delhi Resolution/Demand of the Session ofLegislature (1946)In this Convention, Hussain Shaheed Saharwardi, a Prominent Bengali Muslim leaguerPresented a resolution of independent and autonomous Pakistan; consist of Punjab, Sindh,North West Frontier Province (K.P.K) and Balucistan in North West and Assam and Bengal inNorth East. He further added that separate constitution making bodies (Legislation) be set upby the people of Pakistan and Hindustan to frame ( ) their respective constitution.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 14
  • 15. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANImportance of Delhi ResolutionIn Delhi Resolution it was proposed that the word “states” in Pakistan resolution 1940, need tobe replaced with the word “state”. Thus a state was proposed in the Muslims majority areas inNorth West and North East of India.Q) Discuss formation of interim government (1946-47) in detail?Answer: FORMATION OF INTERIM GOVERNMENT 1946-47IntroductionAlthough cabinet mission plan could not achieve her objectives ( ) but it led to a conclusionthat no decision can be taken without mutual consensus of the major parties, Congress andLeague.Seats Allocation for Interim GovernmentAfter consulting cabinet mission, Viceroy Lord Wavell announced on 16 th June,1946 theallocated Seats for interim Government, as under: Congress: 6 Seats Muslims: 5 Seats Others Minorities: 3 SeatsIt was also mentioned that, Equal important departments will be given to both the parties. No party has the right to criticize ( ) the nominated candidates ( ). If any party will not have to accept cabinet mission proposals, will not be included in interim Government.League –Congress Reaction to The PlanOn 25th June, 1946. The working committee of Muslim League decided to join the interimGovernment because League wanted to live peacefully and in Mission Plan the formation ofMuslim provinces (Group B and C) was an important development to wards Pakistan.On the other side Congress rejected the plan by showing her observations ( ).Government ResponseAccording to the promise, it was the right of Muslim League to form government by herrepresentatives but viceroy did not want any thing with out cooperation of Congress.Reaction of League to Government ResponseAgainst the conduct of Congress and dual policy of government, League took “Rast Iqdam” andrejected the cabinet mission plan.During protest of Muslim League hundreds of lives lost, but still British Government wanted toinvite Congress for interim government.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 15
  • 16. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANMinistries of interim governmentAfter great struggle of Viceroy Lord Wavell both the parties accepted the plan and were inviteto form interim government.While selecting representatives for League, Congress gave representation (of Muslims) to non-Muslims of Muslim League, because she wanted to keep away League from government.Meanwhile, government of India felt that peace can’t be established without League.Therefore, League was invited to nominate her five representatives. League nominated herrepresentatives as under: 1. Liaqat Ali Khan : Finance 2. Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar : Post and Air 3. Ghazanfar Ali Khan : Health 4. Jugindar Nath Mandar : Law 5. I.I Chundrigar : CommerceRole of Liaqat Ali Khan as Finance MinisterCongress gave finance department to Muslim League and thus all the ministers were on themercy of ministry of finance. The credit of last budget of India goes to Liaqat Ali Khan. Salientfeatures of this budget were as under: 1. Pressing steps were taken to end poverty. 2. Taxes were levied on industrialists. 3. Inquiry commission was establish to check the tax evasion.In fact, it was a poor friendly budget but Hindu industrialists were not agreed upon theimposition of tax on them. They tried their best to convince Congress but couldn’t change thebudget.Congress-League ConfrontationTo run the interim government, join meetings of ministers were called but could not be held. Itcreated further distance between parties. Moreover, the ideologies of Congress and Leaguewere so conflicting that none of the party was prepared to show flexibility in her ideologies.At that time, an interior minister ( ) of Congress Sardar Patel reached the conclusion thatthe only solution of the problem of India is her partition.Q) How Indian partition took place? How it led to establishment of Pakistan?Answer: PARTITION OF INDIA AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTANBoundaries CommissionMuslims members of Punjab and Bengal assemblies voted favor of division of provinces.According to 3rd June plan; the provinces of pan jab and Bengal were to be divided. Twoboundaries commissions were set up for the division of Punjab and Bengal separately. A BritishLawyer, Radcliff was appointed as chairman of the boundary commission. In commission equalCompiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 16
  • 17. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANparticipation was given to both the parties, Congress and League. In case of disagreement,power of final decision was given to Radcliff.Radcliff AwardSeveral sessions (meetings) were held between the commissions for division of India but no onewas agreeing on any point. Finally Radcliff announced an award on 17 th August. In this awardsome Muslims majority areas were given to India i.e. In Punjab the Muslims majority district of GurdasPur (only with one none-Muslims majority in one Tehsil, pathan kot). Muslims majority Tehsil Ferozpur was awarded to India etc.The district of Gurdaspur provided India Link Road to Kashmir. Similarly awarding Ferozpur andMadupur had works were awarded to India which later on created canal water dispute ( ).This award was more in favor of India and played vital role to damage Pakistan.Establishment of PakistanAccording to 3rd June 1947 plan, Muslim majority of eastern Bangal and western Punjab votedfor Pakistan. Similarly provincial assembly of Sindh, people of KPK, members of MunicipalCommittee of Quetta and Shahi Jirga of Baluchistan decided to join Pakistan.Pakistan came into being on 14th Aug 1947. Quied-e-Azam was appointed as a first GovernorGeneral of Pakistan.Compiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 17
  • 18. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTANMULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS1. When did partition of Bengal was decide?A) 1805 B) 1905 C) 1906 D) 19112. Who introduced the Lahore Resolution(Pakistan Resolution)?A) Allama Iqbal B) Quaid-e-Azam C) Liaqat Ali Khan D) Maulvi Fazle Haq3. When the Second World War started?A) 1937 B) 1938 C) 1939 D)19454. How many cabinet members formed the Cabinet Mission?A) Two B) Three C) Four D) Five5. Who gave the C.R Formula?A) Raj Gopal Acharia B) Jawahir Lal Nehru C) Mahatama Ghandi D) Mulana Abul Kalam Azad6. How many seats were won by Muslim League in Election of 1945-46?A) 354 B) 402 C) 450 D) 4547. When Jawahir Lal Nehru became president of congress?A) 1935 B) 1945 C) 1946 D) 19478. Who was appointed as Finance Minister in interim Government of 1946-47?A) Liaqat Ali Khan B) Choudri Muhammad Ali C) Sardar Abdurrab NishtarD) Husain Shaheed Saharwardi9. Who was the last viceroy of India?A) Lord Atilee B) Lord Wavell C) Lord Mount Batton D) Lord Curzon10. When the Muslim league session was held in Delhi in 1947?A) 9th June B) 10th June C) 10th July D) 12th JulyCompiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 18
  • 19. thPak.Studies for Class 9 Chapter.2 MAKING OF PAKISTAN11. Which provinces were to be divided according to 3rd June Plan?A) Bombay and Sindh B) Punjab and Bengal C) KPK and BaluchistanD) Calcutta and Madras12. When did the Radcliff award declare?A) 14th July 1947 B) 30th July 1947 C) 14th August 1947 D) 17th August 194713. When the Nawab Sirajudaula was defeated by British?A) 1757 B) 1857 C) 1957 D) 186814. When Quaid-e-Azam Joined Muslim League?A) 1905 B) 1906 C) 1913 D) 192315. To whom was given the title of “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”?A) Jawahir Lal Nehru B) Mahatama GhandiC) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad D) Quaid-e-Azam16. When did Quaid-e-Azam Address Pakistan constituent Assembly?A) 11th August 1947 B) 12th August 1947 C) 14th August 1947 D) 15th August 194717. Who was the founder of All India National Congress?A) Lord Minto B) Lord Wavell C) Hume D) Lord Dollhouse18. What was the name of last Mughal emperor?A) Shah Jahan B) Jahanghir C) Auragzeb D) Bahadar Shah ZafarAnswers: 1. B 2. D 3.C 4. B 5. A 6. D 7.C 8. A 9. C 10. B 11. B 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. D 16. A 17. C 18. DCompiled by Maaz, Hayatabad Model School, Hayatabad, Peshawar Page 19