Transcript of "Sociolinguistics - Language Contact"
SOCIOLINGUISTICS Language ContactAhmet Mesut AteşMarch 20, 2013Applied LinguisticsKaradeniz Technical University
Before moving on…Monolingual a person who speaks only one languageBilingual a person who can speak two languagesMultilingual a person who can speak more than one languageBilingualism the process of a monolingual learning a second languagePolygot a person who is capable of speaking and writing several languages with a hight level of proficiency Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
When two languages are not enough…When bilinguals fail to communicate properly with theirinterlocutors they can resort to one or more of the followingavenues: 1. Use a third language 2. Mix the two languages 3. Use different languages for different purposesThus we can suggest that bilingual problems betweeninterlocutors lead to: – Lingua Franca – Pidgin (Creole) – Code-switching Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
Outcomes of language contact • Language Z Lingua Franca used for communicationLanguage X Meets • Language X and PidginLanguage Y Y are mixed • Language X and Code Switching Y are used successively Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1 Lingua FrancaLingua Franca is a language used between two interlocutors butis not the first language (or native tongue) of either of theinterlocutors.Many Languages throughout the history served as lingua franca: – Chinese – French – Arabic – Turkish – EnglishWe can conclude that mainly political and economical powerdefines the Lingua Franca. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1.1 English as an International LanguageEnglish as a «second language» or «foreign language»?Second Language: any additional language used in a country forcommunicative purposes.Foreign Language: any language learned after native (mother) tongue.English is the second language in French Canada* but is a foreignlanguage in Turkey.Many countries have multiple languages spoken and used officially; amajority of these countries are conolized African and Latin countriesby French and British empires.*Canada is officially bilingual under the Official Languages Act and theConstitution of Canada that require the federal government to deliver servicesin both official languages. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1.1 English as an International Language Expanding circle • English is spoken by 2 billion user either as a first, second language or lingua franca. Outer circle • The number of international English speakers (also can be referred as non-native English speakers) has outnumbered the native English speakers. inner circle • We can no more speak of an English language but of Englishes. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1.1.1 Inner Circle EnglishesInner circle countries are those where English is spokenmonolingually, where it is the first and only language of thespeakers. – British English – American English – Canadian English – Australian English – New Zealand English Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1.1.2 Outer Circle EnglishesOuter circle countries are those using English as secondlanguage. English is exported to these countries throughcolonialism and later acquired the status of communitylanguage.The distinctive status of outer circle Englishes is the nativization process, thatis to say they have undergone their own independent development influencedby local languages.• Indian English• Pakistani English• Ghanaian English• Singapor English Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
1.1.3 Expanding Circle EnglishesExpanding circle Englishes are those shaped under directinfluence of the dominant language. In these countries Englishhas the foreign language status. – Turkish English – Japanese English – Chinese English – German English – Egyptian English – French English – Italian English Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
2 Pidgin and CreolePidgin is a sociolinguistic phenomenon where two people whose firstlanguages are different attempt to communicate using elements from both oftheir languages in a mixed manner. They:• Use words from both languages,• Mix morphology and syntax,• Use the simplest sounds from both languages.Obtained language is called pidgin. Characteristics of pidgin language:• Limited vocabulary• Simple grammatical rules• Small inventory of sounds• Spoken by a small fraction of the community• Used for specific purposes such as trade, religion. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
2 Pidgin and CreoleSome of pidgin languages are listed below:• Patois (Jamaican and English)• Basque-Icelandic pidgin (Basque, Germanic and Romance)• Béarlachas (Gaelic Irish and English)• Hawaiian (Portuguese, Hawaiian, Cantonese, English, Spanish)• Nigerian (English and Nigeria Krio)*• Portuñol (Spanish and Portugese)• Denglisch (Deutsch and English)• Siculish (Sicilian and English)*Nigerian pidgin is used as lingua franca throughout Africa. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
2 Pidgin and CreoleWhen a contact language is passed onto new generations in the same fashiona mother tongue is acquired by children, pidgin is called ‘creole’.A creole language, is a stable natural language developed from the mixing ofparent languages; creoles differ from pidgins in that creoles have beennativized by children as their primary language.Pidgin EtymologyAssumed to be coming from a Chinese attempt to pronounce the Englishword business during trades in the Far East.Creole EtymologyAn adaptation of the Castilian Spanish criollo ("homey, local yokel"), fromPortuguese crioulo, diminutive of cria ("person raised in one’s house,servant"), from Portuguese criar ("to rear, to bring up"), from Latin creo ("tocreate"). Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
3 Code-switchingCode switching is a well-known event in bilingual communities. Itrefers to usage of two languages in a mixed manner, generally in oralinteraction. There are two types of code swtiching:1. Inter-sentential (code-switching)2. Intra sentential (code-mixing)Some of the reasons for code switching:• Desire to reveal mixed identity or to show off• Inability to express an idea in one language• Inability to recall a word• Existence of lexical gap*• More effective communication• Wish to obtain a special effect.*Lexical gap (lacuna) is the absence of a word in a particaular language. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
3 Code-switchingInter-sentential switching is to use sentences from two languagesfollowing each other.Intra sentential switching involves the use of a word or an axpressionfrom one language in a sentence whose structure belongs to anotherlanguage. Mum! Your friend, Alev, geldi. Anne benim books nerede? Yazar narrative tekniği ile dikkat çekti. He entered the line for the Nişantaşı dolmuş. Bana trouble vermek için.Ben ağlayınca o da fun yapacak. All right. Buyursun. Kitchendayım. All İstanbullular spend their weekend on Bosphorus. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
3.1 Code-switching vs PidginPidgin Code-mixingPhonological, morphological and lexical Grammatic or pronunciation features areintegration is extensive and effective over kept intact, shift is restricted tothe sentence. vocabulary. Language Contact in "Sociolinguistics" by Ahmet Mesut Ateş
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