Social Psychology
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Social Psychology

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An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Social Psychology
  • 3. Main Concern of Social Psychologists
    • Human Beings as Social Animals
    • How are the thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of one person influenced by real, imagined, or inferred behaviors of others?
    • Topics Include :
    • Social forces & the perception of people & things
    • The formation & adherence to beliefs and opinions
    • Group behavior
    • Like, dislike, & love
    • Prosocial, antisocial & aggressive behavior
  • 4. Important Concepts
    • Social Influence – when your behavior is affected by the behavior of another person or group.
    • Norms – social standards adhered to by a group or society: the status quo.
    • Assumed Similarity Bias – the tendency to think of people as similar to oneself, even at the first meeting.
    • Social Learning Theory – children will imitate and model their parents, other adults, and peers to produce their own attitudes and behaviors.
    • Attitude – learned evaluation of a person, behavior, belief, or thing.
    • Dispositional Causes of Behavior – a perceived cause of behavior based on internal traits or personality factors.
    • Diffusion of Responsibility – tendency for people to feel responsibility for acting is shared among those present.
  • 5. Forming Impressions
    • Schemata
    • Beliefs & expectations based on past experiences that are generalized to all members of a group.
    • Reliance on schemata can speed up information processing in the social world.
    • It allows for predictability.
    • It aids in encoding & recall of a person & information.
    What's your 1st impression of this man?
  • 6. The Primary Effect
    • The First Impression
    • Earlier information about a person carries more weight.
    • The 1 st Impression tends to last.
    • The “Halo Effect”
    • When the 1 st impression is very positive, we tend to see the person in the most positive light only.
    • What is your immediate impression of this girl?
    • Who do you have a more favorable impression of; the girl above or these beauty queens?
  • 7. Maintaining Impressions
    • The Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    • When your expectations about another elicit behaviors confirming those expectations .
    • It is an expectation that helps bring about the outcome that is expected.
    • This biases personal behavior .
    • Stereotypes
    • They are sets of characteristics assumed to be shared by all of the members of a particular group.
    • Stereotypes are generalizations.
    • They may involve any distinguishing feature (e.g. age, sex, race, occupation, residence, religion, etc.)
  • 8. Maintaining Relationships
  • 9. Attribution
    • Making judgments about the causes of behavior
    • 2 factors to explain behavior:
    • Internal (personal factors)
    • External (situational factors)
    • 3 kinds of information that help us assign causality:
    • Uniqueness of the circumstances
    • Consistency from situation to situation
    • Others acting the same way
  • 10. Attribution Biases
    • The Correspondence Bias (The Fundamental Attribution Error)
    • Overestimating the dispositional causes of another’s behavior.
    • Failure to take into account the effects of the situation.
    • Another’s behavior is caused by internal factors .
    • The Actor-Observer Bias
    • Tending to explain others’ behavior as having an internal cause while your own has an external cause .
    • Defensive Attribution Bias
    • Your successes are attributed to internal causes , while your failures have an external cause .
    • The “Just World” Hypothesis
    • “ Karma ”
    • Good things happen to good people while bad things happen to bad people.
  • 11. Interpersonal Attraction
    • Social and psychological reasons for attraction
    • Attractors
    • Physical Attractiveness
    • The #1 Attractant
    • The “Halo Effect”
    • Similarity
    • Favor Similarity
    • Incidental Similarities & Assumed Similarities vs. True Similarities
    • Proximity
    • The closer people live together, the better chance of attraction.
    • Exchange
    • We’re attracted to people we get praise from & whom we praise.
    • Intimacy
    • Self-disclosure, Reciprocity, & Trust are important.
  • 12. Cognitive Dissonance
    • The unpleasant state when 2 thoughts or a thought & behavior are incongruent.
    • In order to satisfy the emotions, a change must be made in one of the 2.
  • 13. Attitudes
    • Learned evaluative reactions toward something or someone
    • Always involve prejudging
    • 3 Components of an attitude:
    • Thoughts toward the object
    • Feelings about the object
    • Behaviors toward or away from the object
    • What do our attitudes say about this man?
    • Which of the 2 women is the chemical engineer?
  • 14. Prejudice & Discrimination
    • Prejudice
    • Unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group.
    • It is based on assumed differences.
    • Discrimination
    • Unfair behavior toward a group.
    • Discrimination generally follows prejudice .
  • 15. Sources of Prejudice
    • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
    • When goals are thwarted, frustration results & anger can become displaced.
    • An Authoritarian Personality
    • They favor rules & tradition & are hostile toward those who defy the norms.
    • Oversimplification or Overgeneralization
    • It’s an attempt to organize social thinking & the social world as much as possible.
    • Psychological
    • Low Self-Esteem
    • Anxiety
    • Insecurity
    • Social
    • Groupthink
    • Conformity
    • Parental Messages
    • Social Messages (Ads, the Media, etc.)
    • Economic
    • Majority’s Desire to Preserve the Status Quo
    • Competition for Jobs, Power, and Resources
    • Cultural
    • Ethnocentricism
    • Desire for Group Identity
    • The Justification for War
  • 16. Sources of Prejudice
    • Racism
    • Viewing certain racial or ethnic groups as innately inferior.
    • Leads to either/or thinking (in-group vs. out-group/us vs. them).
    • How is the ego defense of projection related to racism?
    • Reducing Prejudice
    • The contact hypothesis:
    • Members of opposing groups must have equal status.
    • One-on-one contact is necessary.
    • Cooperation instead of competition.
    • Social norms should encourage contact.
  • 17. Persuasion
    • The Communication Model of Persuasion
    • 1. The credibility of the source
    • 2. The message
    • 3. The way the message is presented
    • 4. The audience
    • The Process of Persuasion
    • To be persuaded you must:
    • 1. Pay attention to the message;
    • 2. Understand the message;
    • 3. Accept the message.
  • 18. Conformity
    • The tendency to adjust your behavior to actual or perceived social pressures.
    • This will be done even at the expense of personal preferences.
    • There are subtle pressures to conform in every society or group.
    • Cultural norms will influence conformity.
    • Asch conformity studies.
  • 19. Obedience
    • Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority.
    • Milgram found that people will obey even if it means hurting others.
  • 20. Conditions Which Strengthen Obedience
    • People will obey under the following conditions:
    • 1. The person giving the orders was close at hand & was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure.
    • 2. The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution or agency.
    • 3. The victim was depersonalized or at a distance even in another room.
    • 4. There were no role models for defiance; that is, no other subjects were seen disobeying the person giving the orders.
  • 21. Compliance
    • The Tendency to Accede to the Request or Demands of Others
    • Techniques that Enforce Compliance
    • Foot-in-the-door technique
    • Granting a small request increases the chance of a larger one being granted.
    • Low-ball technique
    • Induce a person to agree to something then raise the cost of the compliance.
    • Door-in-the-face technique
    • If one request is denied, another may be agreed to.
  • 22. Social Action
    • Antisocial Behavior
    • Aggression
    • Direct (expressed) or indirect (repressed)
    • Mob Violence
    • Deindividuation: The anonymity afforded by being stripped of your identity.
    • There is anonymity in a crowd.
  • 23. Social Action
    • Prosocial Behavior
    • Altruism
    • Helping that is not motivated by personal gain or notoriety.
    • Anonymity is important.
    • Cultures where individuality is prized, people are less likely to help.
    • The Bystander Effect