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Social Psychology
 

Social Psychology

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An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

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    Social Psychology Social Psychology Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Social Psychology
    • Main Concern of Social Psychologists
      • Human Beings as Social Animals
      • How are the thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of one person influenced by real, imagined, or inferred behaviors of others?
      • Topics Include :
      • Social forces & the perception of people & things
      • The formation & adherence to beliefs and opinions
      • Group behavior
      • Like, dislike, & love
      • Prosocial, antisocial & aggressive behavior
    • Important Concepts
      • Social Influence – when your behavior is affected by the behavior of another person or group.
      • Norms – social standards adhered to by a group or society: the status quo.
      • Assumed Similarity Bias – the tendency to think of people as similar to oneself, even at the first meeting.
      • Social Learning Theory – children will imitate and model their parents, other adults, and peers to produce their own attitudes and behaviors.
      • Attitude – learned evaluation of a person, behavior, belief, or thing.
      • Dispositional Causes of Behavior – a perceived cause of behavior based on internal traits or personality factors.
      • Diffusion of Responsibility – tendency for people to feel responsibility for acting is shared among those present.
    • Forming Impressions
      • Schemata
      • Beliefs & expectations based on past experiences that are generalized to all members of a group.
      • Reliance on schemata can speed up information processing in the social world.
      • It allows for predictability.
      • It aids in encoding & recall of a person & information.
      What's your 1st impression of this man?
    • The Primary Effect
      • The First Impression
      • Earlier information about a person carries more weight.
      • The 1 st Impression tends to last.
      • The “Halo Effect”
      • When the 1 st impression is very positive, we tend to see the person in the most positive light only.
      • What is your immediate impression of this girl?
      • Who do you have a more favorable impression of; the girl above or these beauty queens?
    • Maintaining Impressions
      • The Self-fulfilling Prophecy
      • When your expectations about another elicit behaviors confirming those expectations .
      • It is an expectation that helps bring about the outcome that is expected.
      • This biases personal behavior .
      • Stereotypes
      • They are sets of characteristics assumed to be shared by all of the members of a particular group.
      • Stereotypes are generalizations.
      • They may involve any distinguishing feature (e.g. age, sex, race, occupation, residence, religion, etc.)
    • Maintaining Relationships
    • Attribution
      • Making judgments about the causes of behavior
      • 2 factors to explain behavior:
      • Internal (personal factors)
      • External (situational factors)
      • 3 kinds of information that help us assign causality:
      • Uniqueness of the circumstances
      • Consistency from situation to situation
      • Others acting the same way
    • Attribution Biases
      • The Correspondence Bias (The Fundamental Attribution Error)
      • Overestimating the dispositional causes of another’s behavior.
      • Failure to take into account the effects of the situation.
      • Another’s behavior is caused by internal factors .
      • The Actor-Observer Bias
      • Tending to explain others’ behavior as having an internal cause while your own has an external cause .
      • Defensive Attribution Bias
      • Your successes are attributed to internal causes , while your failures have an external cause .
      • The “Just World” Hypothesis
      • “ Karma ”
      • Good things happen to good people while bad things happen to bad people.
    • Interpersonal Attraction
      • Social and psychological reasons for attraction
      • Attractors
      • Physical Attractiveness
      • The #1 Attractant
      • The “Halo Effect”
      • Similarity
      • Favor Similarity
      • Incidental Similarities & Assumed Similarities vs. True Similarities
      • Proximity
      • The closer people live together, the better chance of attraction.
      • Exchange
      • We’re attracted to people we get praise from & whom we praise.
      • Intimacy
      • Self-disclosure, Reciprocity, & Trust are important.
    • Cognitive Dissonance
      • The unpleasant state when 2 thoughts or a thought & behavior are incongruent.
      • In order to satisfy the emotions, a change must be made in one of the 2.
    • Attitudes
      • Learned evaluative reactions toward something or someone
      • Always involve prejudging
      • 3 Components of an attitude:
      • Thoughts toward the object
      • Feelings about the object
      • Behaviors toward or away from the object
      • What do our attitudes say about this man?
      • Which of the 2 women is the chemical engineer?
    • Prejudice & Discrimination
      • Prejudice
      • Unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group.
      • It is based on assumed differences.
      • Discrimination
      • Unfair behavior toward a group.
      • Discrimination generally follows prejudice .
    • Sources of Prejudice
      • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
      • When goals are thwarted, frustration results & anger can become displaced.
      • An Authoritarian Personality
      • They favor rules & tradition & are hostile toward those who defy the norms.
      • Oversimplification or Overgeneralization
      • It’s an attempt to organize social thinking & the social world as much as possible.
      • Psychological
      • Low Self-Esteem
      • Anxiety
      • Insecurity
      • Social
      • Groupthink
      • Conformity
      • Parental Messages
      • Social Messages (Ads, the Media, etc.)
      • Economic
      • Majority’s Desire to Preserve the Status Quo
      • Competition for Jobs, Power, and Resources
      • Cultural
      • Ethnocentricism
      • Desire for Group Identity
      • The Justification for War
    • Sources of Prejudice
      • Racism
      • Viewing certain racial or ethnic groups as innately inferior.
      • Leads to either/or thinking (in-group vs. out-group/us vs. them).
      • How is the ego defense of projection related to racism?
      • Reducing Prejudice
      • The contact hypothesis:
      • Members of opposing groups must have equal status.
      • One-on-one contact is necessary.
      • Cooperation instead of competition.
      • Social norms should encourage contact.
    • Persuasion
      • The Communication Model of Persuasion
      • 1. The credibility of the source
      • 2. The message
      • 3. The way the message is presented
      • 4. The audience
      • The Process of Persuasion
      • To be persuaded you must:
      • 1. Pay attention to the message;
      • 2. Understand the message;
      • 3. Accept the message.
    • Conformity
      • The tendency to adjust your behavior to actual or perceived social pressures.
      • This will be done even at the expense of personal preferences.
      • There are subtle pressures to conform in every society or group.
      • Cultural norms will influence conformity.
      • Asch conformity studies.
    • Obedience
      • Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority.
      • Milgram found that people will obey even if it means hurting others.
    • Conditions Which Strengthen Obedience
      • People will obey under the following conditions:
      • 1. The person giving the orders was close at hand & was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure.
      • 2. The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution or agency.
      • 3. The victim was depersonalized or at a distance even in another room.
      • 4. There were no role models for defiance; that is, no other subjects were seen disobeying the person giving the orders.
    • Compliance
      • The Tendency to Accede to the Request or Demands of Others
      • Techniques that Enforce Compliance
      • Foot-in-the-door technique
      • Granting a small request increases the chance of a larger one being granted.
      • Low-ball technique
      • Induce a person to agree to something then raise the cost of the compliance.
      • Door-in-the-face technique
      • If one request is denied, another may be agreed to.
    • Social Action
      • Antisocial Behavior
      • Aggression
      • Direct (expressed) or indirect (repressed)
      • Mob Violence
      • Deindividuation: The anonymity afforded by being stripped of your identity.
      • There is anonymity in a crowd.
    • Social Action
      • Prosocial Behavior
      • Altruism
      • Helping that is not motivated by personal gain or notoriety.
      • Anonymity is important.
      • Cultures where individuality is prized, people are less likely to help.
      • The Bystander Effect