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Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
Social Psychology
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Social Psychology


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An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

An overview of Social Psychology for a General Psychology class.

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Social Psychology
  • 3. Main Concern of Social Psychologists
    • Human Beings as Social Animals
    • How are the thoughts, feelings, & behaviors of one person influenced by real, imagined, or inferred behaviors of others?
    • Topics Include :
    • Social forces & the perception of people & things
    • The formation & adherence to beliefs and opinions
    • Group behavior
    • Like, dislike, & love
    • Prosocial, antisocial & aggressive behavior
  • 4. Important Concepts
    • Social Influence – when your behavior is affected by the behavior of another person or group.
    • Norms – social standards adhered to by a group or society: the status quo.
    • Assumed Similarity Bias – the tendency to think of people as similar to oneself, even at the first meeting.
    • Social Learning Theory – children will imitate and model their parents, other adults, and peers to produce their own attitudes and behaviors.
    • Attitude – learned evaluation of a person, behavior, belief, or thing.
    • Dispositional Causes of Behavior – a perceived cause of behavior based on internal traits or personality factors.
    • Diffusion of Responsibility – tendency for people to feel responsibility for acting is shared among those present.
  • 5. Forming Impressions
    • Schemata
    • Beliefs & expectations based on past experiences that are generalized to all members of a group.
    • Reliance on schemata can speed up information processing in the social world.
    • It allows for predictability.
    • It aids in encoding & recall of a person & information.
    What's your 1st impression of this man?
  • 6. The Primary Effect
    • The First Impression
    • Earlier information about a person carries more weight.
    • The 1 st Impression tends to last.
    • The “Halo Effect”
    • When the 1 st impression is very positive, we tend to see the person in the most positive light only.
    • What is your immediate impression of this girl?
    • Who do you have a more favorable impression of; the girl above or these beauty queens?
  • 7. Maintaining Impressions
    • The Self-fulfilling Prophecy
    • When your expectations about another elicit behaviors confirming those expectations .
    • It is an expectation that helps bring about the outcome that is expected.
    • This biases personal behavior .
    • Stereotypes
    • They are sets of characteristics assumed to be shared by all of the members of a particular group.
    • Stereotypes are generalizations.
    • They may involve any distinguishing feature (e.g. age, sex, race, occupation, residence, religion, etc.)
  • 8. Maintaining Relationships
  • 9. Attribution
    • Making judgments about the causes of behavior
    • 2 factors to explain behavior:
    • Internal (personal factors)
    • External (situational factors)
    • 3 kinds of information that help us assign causality:
    • Uniqueness of the circumstances
    • Consistency from situation to situation
    • Others acting the same way
  • 10. Attribution Biases
    • The Correspondence Bias (The Fundamental Attribution Error)
    • Overestimating the dispositional causes of another’s behavior.
    • Failure to take into account the effects of the situation.
    • Another’s behavior is caused by internal factors .
    • The Actor-Observer Bias
    • Tending to explain others’ behavior as having an internal cause while your own has an external cause .
    • Defensive Attribution Bias
    • Your successes are attributed to internal causes , while your failures have an external cause .
    • The “Just World” Hypothesis
    • “ Karma ”
    • Good things happen to good people while bad things happen to bad people.
  • 11. Interpersonal Attraction
    • Social and psychological reasons for attraction
    • Attractors
    • Physical Attractiveness
    • The #1 Attractant
    • The “Halo Effect”
    • Similarity
    • Favor Similarity
    • Incidental Similarities & Assumed Similarities vs. True Similarities
    • Proximity
    • The closer people live together, the better chance of attraction.
    • Exchange
    • We’re attracted to people we get praise from & whom we praise.
    • Intimacy
    • Self-disclosure, Reciprocity, & Trust are important.
  • 12. Cognitive Dissonance
    • The unpleasant state when 2 thoughts or a thought & behavior are incongruent.
    • In order to satisfy the emotions, a change must be made in one of the 2.
  • 13. Attitudes
    • Learned evaluative reactions toward something or someone
    • Always involve prejudging
    • 3 Components of an attitude:
    • Thoughts toward the object
    • Feelings about the object
    • Behaviors toward or away from the object
    • What do our attitudes say about this man?
    • Which of the 2 women is the chemical engineer?
  • 14. Prejudice & Discrimination
    • Prejudice
    • Unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward a group.
    • It is based on assumed differences.
    • Discrimination
    • Unfair behavior toward a group.
    • Discrimination generally follows prejudice .
  • 15. Sources of Prejudice
    • Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
    • When goals are thwarted, frustration results & anger can become displaced.
    • An Authoritarian Personality
    • They favor rules & tradition & are hostile toward those who defy the norms.
    • Oversimplification or Overgeneralization
    • It’s an attempt to organize social thinking & the social world as much as possible.
    • Psychological
    • Low Self-Esteem
    • Anxiety
    • Insecurity
    • Social
    • Groupthink
    • Conformity
    • Parental Messages
    • Social Messages (Ads, the Media, etc.)
    • Economic
    • Majority’s Desire to Preserve the Status Quo
    • Competition for Jobs, Power, and Resources
    • Cultural
    • Ethnocentricism
    • Desire for Group Identity
    • The Justification for War
  • 16. Sources of Prejudice
    • Racism
    • Viewing certain racial or ethnic groups as innately inferior.
    • Leads to either/or thinking (in-group vs. out-group/us vs. them).
    • How is the ego defense of projection related to racism?
    • Reducing Prejudice
    • The contact hypothesis:
    • Members of opposing groups must have equal status.
    • One-on-one contact is necessary.
    • Cooperation instead of competition.
    • Social norms should encourage contact.
  • 17. Persuasion
    • The Communication Model of Persuasion
    • 1. The credibility of the source
    • 2. The message
    • 3. The way the message is presented
    • 4. The audience
    • The Process of Persuasion
    • To be persuaded you must:
    • 1. Pay attention to the message;
    • 2. Understand the message;
    • 3. Accept the message.
  • 18. Conformity
    • The tendency to adjust your behavior to actual or perceived social pressures.
    • This will be done even at the expense of personal preferences.
    • There are subtle pressures to conform in every society or group.
    • Cultural norms will influence conformity.
    • Asch conformity studies.
  • 19. Obedience
    • Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority.
    • Milgram found that people will obey even if it means hurting others.
  • 20. Conditions Which Strengthen Obedience
    • People will obey under the following conditions:
    • 1. The person giving the orders was close at hand & was perceived to be a legitimate authority figure.
    • 2. The authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution or agency.
    • 3. The victim was depersonalized or at a distance even in another room.
    • 4. There were no role models for defiance; that is, no other subjects were seen disobeying the person giving the orders.
  • 21. Compliance
    • The Tendency to Accede to the Request or Demands of Others
    • Techniques that Enforce Compliance
    • Foot-in-the-door technique
    • Granting a small request increases the chance of a larger one being granted.
    • Low-ball technique
    • Induce a person to agree to something then raise the cost of the compliance.
    • Door-in-the-face technique
    • If one request is denied, another may be agreed to.
  • 22. Social Action
    • Antisocial Behavior
    • Aggression
    • Direct (expressed) or indirect (repressed)
    • Mob Violence
    • Deindividuation: The anonymity afforded by being stripped of your identity.
    • There is anonymity in a crowd.
  • 23. Social Action
    • Prosocial Behavior
    • Altruism
    • Helping that is not motivated by personal gain or notoriety.
    • Anonymity is important.
    • Cultures where individuality is prized, people are less likely to help.
    • The Bystander Effect