Andrea Kuszewski@AndreaKuszewskiCreative DisobedienceHow,When, andWhy to Break the RulesApril 29, 2013
Creative DisobedienceIn this age of innovation, even more important than being an effectiveproblem solver, is being a prob...
Creative DisobedienceWhat is Creativity?
Creative Disobedience
Creative DisobedienceFAIL
•	 Thinking with BOTH sides of your brain•	 Switching back and forth between conventional and unconventional thinking•	 Ma...
Creative DisobedienceCreativity is:An original, novel solution that is both useful andappropriate given the context, envir...
Creative DisobedienceBy definition,creativity involves breaking rules.This can cause problems.
Creative DisobedienceBy definition,creativity involves breaking rules.This can cause problems.(because we want to live)
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)•	 Asked teachers to identi...
Creative DisobedienceEven when people say they wantcreativity,often they reject it in practice.
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)•	 The...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative ContributionsRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	ReplicationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	RedefinitionRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Crea...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementationRobert Ste...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1.	Replication2.	Redefinition3.	Forward incrementation4.	Advance...
Creative DisobedienceHow to Teach and Encourage Creativity(and when not to)
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with ...
Creative DisobedienceTraining people to ask questions and think about problemsbefore they receive a solution encourages an...
Creative DisobedienceDoes this method makeprogress toward the overallgoal?YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoAbout thesameMoreprogressGoo...
Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT
Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly c...
Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly c...
Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly c...
Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly c...
Creative DisobedienceThank you!Andrea Kuszewski@AndreaKuszewski
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Creative Disobedience: How, When, & Why to Break the Rules

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Creative Disobedience: How, When, & Why to Break the Rules

  1. 1. Andrea Kuszewski@AndreaKuszewskiCreative DisobedienceHow,When, andWhy to Break the RulesApril 29, 2013
  2. 2. Creative DisobedienceIn this age of innovation, even more important than being an effectiveproblem solver, is being a problem finder. It’s one thing to look at a prob-lem and be able to generate a solution; it is another thing to be able tolook at an ambiguous situation, and decide if there is a problem thatneeds to be solved.That’s a skill that isn’t really targeted by traditional teaching methods, andin fact, it is often discouraged. In order to teach problem finding, more cre-ative methods must be utilized. Rule-breaking , to an extent, should be tol-erated and encouraged, and yes—even taught.““Andrea Kuszewski, “The Educational Value of Creative Disobedience”, Scientific American, 2011
  3. 3. Creative DisobedienceWhat is Creativity?
  4. 4. Creative Disobedience
  5. 5. Creative DisobedienceFAIL
  6. 6. • Thinking with BOTH sides of your brain• Switching back and forth between conventional and unconventional thinking• Making remote associations between concepts• ‘Zooming in and zooming out’of information, from convergent to divergent• Constantly weeding out & checking for relevance and usefulness of the ideasCreative Cognition is:Creative Disobedience
  7. 7. Creative DisobedienceCreativity is:An original, novel solution that is both useful andappropriate given the context, environment, andthe task at hand
  8. 8. Creative DisobedienceBy definition,creativity involves breaking rules.This can cause problems.
  9. 9. Creative DisobedienceBy definition,creativity involves breaking rules.This can cause problems.(because we want to live)
  10. 10. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity
  11. 11. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity• High creativity: determined, independent, individualistic
  12. 12. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity• High creativity: determined, independent, individualistic• Low creativity: responsible, sincere, reliable, dependable, clear-thinking, tol-erant, understanding, peaceable, good-natured, steady, practical, and logical
  13. 13. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity• High creativity: determined, independent, individualistic• Low creativity: responsible, sincere, reliable, dependable, clear-thinking, tol-erant, understanding, peaceable, good-natured, steady, practical, and logical• Asked teachers to rates students from favorite to least favorite, based onthose characteristics
  14. 14. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity• High creativity: determined, independent, individualistic• Low creativity: responsible, sincere, reliable, dependable, clear-thinking, tol-erant, understanding, peaceable, good-natured, steady, practical, and logical• Asked teachers to rates students from favorite to least favorite, based onthose characteristics• The students rated as least favorite by teachers were also rated as mostcreative
  15. 15. Creative Disobedience“Creativity: An Asset or a Burden in the Classroom?”Westby & Dawson (1995)• Asked teachers to identify personality characteristics associated with cre-ativity• High creativity: determined, independent, individualistic• Low creativity: responsible, sincere, reliable, dependable, clear-thinking, tol-erant, understanding, peaceable, good-natured, steady, practical, and logical• Asked teachers to rates students from favorite to least favorite, based onthose characteristics• The students rated as least favorite by teachers were also rated as mostcreative• Teachers like the students who followed the outline and didn’t break rules
  16. 16. Creative DisobedienceEven when people say they wantcreativity,often they reject it in practice.
  17. 17. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty
  18. 18. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty• “...effective creative problem solving includes both generating many novel options and subsequently reducinguncertainty by identifying the single best option from the set.” (Cropley, 2006)
  19. 19. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty• “...effective creative problem solving includes both generating many novel options and subsequently reducinguncertainty by identifying the single best option from the set.” (Cropley, 2006)• Identifying the optimal solution may prime an uncertainty reduction motive or intolerance for uncertainty, andthereby evoke the creativity bias
  20. 20. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty• “...effective creative problem solving includes both generating many novel options and subsequently reducinguncertainty by identifying the single best option from the set.” (Cropley, 2006)• Identifying the optimal solution may prime an uncertainty reduction motive or intolerance for uncertainty, andthereby evoke the creativity bias• People seek to avoid and diminish uncertainty: Kill the creative idea
  21. 21. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty• “...effective creative problem solving includes both generating many novel options and subsequently reducinguncertainty by identifying the single best option from the set.” (Cropley, 2006)• Identifying the optimal solution may prime an uncertainty reduction motive or intolerance for uncertainty, andthereby evoke the creativity bias• People seek to avoid and diminish uncertainty: Kill the creative idea• By requiring gate-keepers to identify the single“best”and most“accurate”idea, you are promoting that uncer-tainty, thereby creating an unacknowledged aversion to creativity.
  22. 22. Creative Disobedience“The Bias Against Creativity: Why People Desire But RejectCreative Ideas” Meuller, et al (2011)• There is a bias against creativity, fueled by uncertainty• “...effective creative problem solving includes both generating many novel options and subsequently reducinguncertainty by identifying the single best option from the set.” (Cropley, 2006)• Identifying the optimal solution may prime an uncertainty reduction motive or intolerance for uncertainty, andthereby evoke the creativity bias• People seek to avoid and diminish uncertainty: Kill the creative idea• By requiring gate-keepers to identify the single“best”and most“accurate”idea, you are promoting that uncer-tainty, thereby creating an unacknowledged aversion to creativity.There is always more than one good solution to a problem,but the value varies depending on context
  23. 23. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative ContributionsRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  24. 24. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. ReplicationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  25. 25. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. RedefinitionRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  26. 26. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  27. 27. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  28. 28. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. RedirectionRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  29. 29. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirectionRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  30. 30. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirection7. ReinitiationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  31. 31. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirection7. Reinitiation8. IntegrationRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  32. 32. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirection7. Reinitiation8. IntegrationAccept current paradigms and attempt to extend themRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  33. 33. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirection7. Reinitiation8. IntegrationReject current paradigms and attempt to replace themAccept current paradigms and attempt to extend themRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  34. 34. Creative DisobedienceThe 8 Types of Creative Contributions1. Replication2. Redefinition3. Forward incrementation4. Advanced forward incrementation5. Redirection6. Reconstruction/redirection7. Reinitiation8. Integration Merges disparate current paradigmsReject current paradigms and attempt to replace themAccept current paradigms and attempt to extend themRobert Sternberg, “Handbook of Creativity”, 1999
  35. 35. Creative DisobedienceHow to Teach and Encourage Creativity(and when not to)
  36. 36. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children
  37. 37. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children• When children were given a problem and told to figure out how something works, they were ableto generate the most intelligent solutions through experimentation.
  38. 38. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children• When children were given a problem and told to figure out how something works, they were ableto generate the most intelligent solutions through experimentation.• When they were shown a working sequence (one of many), they imitated that solution, and thenstopped looking for a more intelligent solution.
  39. 39. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children• When children were given a problem and told to figure out how something works, they were ableto generate the most intelligent solutions through experimentation.• When they were shown a working sequence (one of many), they imitated that solution, and thenstopped looking for a more intelligent solution.Take-home points?
  40. 40. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children• When children were given a problem and told to figure out how something works, they were ableto generate the most intelligent solutions through experimentation.• When they were shown a working sequence (one of many), they imitated that solution, and thenstopped looking for a more intelligent solution.Take-home points?Encouraging critical thinking and finding more than one correct solutionto a given problem helps to develop creativity1
  41. 41. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : THE EARLY YEARSPsychology researcher Allison Gopnik: Creative behavior in young children• When children were given a problem and told to figure out how something works, they were ableto generate the most intelligent solutions through experimentation.• When they were shown a working sequence (one of many), they imitated that solution, and thenstopped looking for a more intelligent solution.Take-home points?Encouraging critical thinking and finding more than one correct solutionto a given problem helps to develop creativityEncouraging one to‘follow the outline’prevents deep understanding ofthe problem, and decreases ability to creativly problem-solve12
  42. 42. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENT
  43. 43. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
  44. 44. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines
  45. 45. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines• Keep the integrity of the fundamental pillars of therapeutic goals, & understand WHY
  46. 46. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines• Keep the integrity of the fundamental pillars of therapeutic goals, & understand WHY• You have room to be creative within each step of the treatment plan, given those fundamental corepillars are kept intact and met, and making progress towards overall goal
  47. 47. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines• Keep the integrity of the fundamental pillars of therapeutic goals, & understand WHY• You have room to be creative within each step of the treatment plan, given those fundamental corepillars are kept intact and met, and making progress towards overall goal• Modifying one step may make that particular stage‘less efficient’, but make exponentially increaseprogress towards later goal
  48. 48. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines• Keep the integrity of the fundamental pillars of therapeutic goals, & understand WHY• You have room to be creative within each step of the treatment plan, given those fundamental corepillars are kept intact and met, and making progress towards overall goal• Modifying one step may make that particular stage‘less efficient’, but make exponentially increaseprogress towards later goal• Individual workers may need to make adjustments to their own timelines, to better meet end goal
  49. 49. Creative DisobedienceTEACHING CREATIVITY : IN THE WORK ENVIRONMENTTraining Behavior Therapists for treating children with Autism Spectrum Disorders• Teach them to ask and answer questions, not memorize outlines• Keep the integrity of the fundamental pillars of therapeutic goals, & understand WHY• You have room to be creative within each step of the treatment plan, given those fundamental corepillars are kept intact and met, and making progress towards overall goal• Modifying one step may make that particular stage‘less efficient’, but make exponentially increaseprogress towards later goal• Individual workers may need to make adjustments to their own timelines, to better meet end goalThe result?Autonomy, while consistently meeting the therapeutic goals
  50. 50. Creative DisobedienceTraining people to ask questions and think about problemsbefore they receive a solution encourages and teaches creativethinking, to produce better innovators, problem solvers, &problem finders.Main message:
  51. 51. Creative DisobedienceDoes this method makeprogress toward the overallgoal?YesYesYesYesNoNoNoNoAbout thesameMoreprogressGood ideato do it.Less progressCan this methodscale up?Will others be required tolearn this?Don’t do this.Does this method maintainthe integrity of the funda-mental pillars of the project?Does this methodmake the current stepmore efficient?a how-to guide to Creative Disobedience
  52. 52. Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT
  53. 53. Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly check-ups are not. Creativity involves linking concepts, whichmeans holding several things in your working memory -- a balance that can be disrupted easily, so abuffer against distractions are essential.1
  54. 54. Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly check-ups are not. Creativity involves linking concepts, whichmeans holding several things in your working memory -- a balance that can be disrupted easily, so abuffer against distractions are essential.Don’t micromanageAllow free time for employees to work on anything they want; intrinsic motivation (working on some-thing just because it’s interesting) leads to creativity.12
  55. 55. Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly check-ups are not. Creativity involves linking concepts, whichmeans holding several things in your working memory -- a balance that can be disrupted easily, so abuffer against distractions are essential.Don’t micromanageAllow free time for employees to work on anything they want; intrinsic motivation (working on some-thing just because it’s interesting) leads to creativity.Open your mindGetting stuck in a hyper-focused, linear thinking pattern can stall finding a creative solution. Takebreaks when working, just to think about nothing.123
  56. 56. Creative DisobedienceHOW TO ENCOURAGE A CREATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENTGive them some spaceDeadlines are important, but hourly check-ups are not. Creativity involves linking concepts, whichmeans holding several things in your working memory -- a balance that can be disrupted easily, so abuffer against distractions are essential.Don’t micromanageAllow free time for employees to work on anything they want; intrinsic motivation (working on some-thing just because it’s interesting) leads to creativity.Open your mindGetting stuck in a hyper-focused, linear thinking pattern can stall finding a creative solution. Takebreaks when working, just to think about nothing.Tolerate creativityReward creative thinking, not with financial incentives, which, alone, have been shown to decreasecreativity, but by promoting the conditions that permit it. Tolerate the occasional failure and allowrules to be broken when there is a social benefit.1234
  57. 57. Creative DisobedienceThank you!Andrea Kuszewski@AndreaKuszewski
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