Agnimantha in vishoshi kashaya dg


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Comparative evaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis.Linn.F) for medohara activity
W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimental study - POORNIMA.H.V.R, Dravyaguna Vijnana Government Ayurveda Medical College Bangalore

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Agnimantha in vishoshi kashaya dg

  1. 1. “A Comparative evaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueousextract and hydro alcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola(Clerodendron phlomidis.Linn.F) for medohara activityW.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimental study”M.D. DISSERTATION DR. POORNIMA.H.V.R2009-2010 1
  2. 2. Department of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana Government Ayurveda Medical College Bangalore CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the Dissertation entitled “A Comparative evaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis .Linn .F) for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimental study” Is a bonafide research work done by Dr. POORNIMA.H.V.R in partial fulfillment for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi, Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda) in Dravyaguna Vijnana of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore.Place: BangaloreDate: Guide: DR. ASHALATHA.M. MD Professor, Dept of Post Graduate studies in Dravyaguna Vignana, G. A. M. C Bangalore –560009. 2
  3. 3. Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology Veterinary College Hebbal, Bangalore-24 CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDEThis is to certify that the Dissertation entitled “A Comparativeevaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydroalcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendronphlomidis.Linn.F) for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia–An experimental study” is a bonafide research work done by Dr.POORNIMA.H.V.R. in partial fulfillment for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi, Doctor of Medicine (Ayurveda) inDravyaguna Vijnana of the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Bangalore.Date:Place: Bangalore Co-Guide Dr. N.B.SHRIDHAR Ph.D. Asst. Professor, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology Veterinary College Hebbal, KVAFSU Bangalore-24 3
  4. 4. Department of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna Vijnana Government Ayurveda Medical College Bangalore ENDORSEMENT BY HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT This is to certify that the Dissertation “A Comparative evaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis.Linn.F) for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimental study” under the guidance of Dr. ASHALATHA.M MD Professor, Dept of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna, G.A.M.C, B’lore.Date:Place: Bangalore HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT 4
  5. 5. GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE Bangalore - 09 ENDORSEMENT BY THE PRINCIPALThis is to certify that the Dissertation ““A Comparative evaluationof vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract ofAgnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis. Linn.F) formedohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimentalstudy”.” under the guidance of Dr. ASHALATHA.M MD,Professor, Dept of Post Graduate Studies in Dravyaguna,G.A.M.C, B’lore.Date:Place: Bangalore PRINCIPAL 5
  6. 6. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled, “A Comparative evaluation of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis. Linn. F) for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia –An experimental study” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance Dr. ASHALATHA.M. MD, Professor, Dept of P. G. Studies in Dravyaguna, GAMC, B’lore-09 and under the Co-guidance of Dr. N.B.SHRIDHAR Ph.D. Asst. Professor, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, KVAFSU, Veterinary College Hebbal, Bangalore-24Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: Bangalore (Dr. POORNIMAH.V.R) 6
  7. 7. COPYRIGHT DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: (Dr. POORNIMA.H.V.R)© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka 7
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt gives me immense pleasure to express my acknowledgement for thehelp received from various source in the course of the preparation ofthis dissertation work.I pay my obeisance to the almighty for providing me smooth andsuccessful completion of this dissertation. This work is a reflection ofthe rays of Mercy emitted from the Almighty. At this happiestjuncture, I prostrate to the lotus feet of lord “Dhanvantari” with whoseshower of blessings this task has ventured without any hindrances.At this juncture, it would be my first and foremost duty to paygratitude to my Parents, Sri.Ramappa.V and Smt.Chandrika for thelove and affection showered on me and pain staking efforts enduredfor my progress and success.I express my deepest gratitude to my beloved guide Dr. Ashalatha.MM.D, Professor, Department of Postgraduate studies in Dravyaguna,G.A.M.C, Bangalore for her valuable suggestions, care and guidancethroughout my Dissertation work.It’s my privilege to thank my co-guide Dr. N.B. Sridhar Ph.D. Asst.Professor, Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College,KVAFSU, Hebbal, Bangalore-24, for the functional freedom,guidance, encouragement & for providing me all the facilities incarrying out my work throughout the study.I express my sincere respects and immense gratitude to Dr. JagadeeshM.S, MD Professor and HOD, Post graduate studies in Dravyaguna,G.A.M.C, Bangalore, for his guidance, constant encouragement, andkind co-operation in carrying out this work. 8
  9. 9. I am grateful to Dr.S.L.Mohan. Asst. Professor, Dr.lalitha B.R Asst.Professor and Dr.Shivaram .N. Gayathri, Asst. Professor,Dr.Veena.M.S , Dr.Mamatha Acharya, Dr.Sharada Mani. Dept. ofPG studies in Dravyaguna, GAMC Bangalore, for their support andthe help during this study.I wish to express my thanks to Dr.H.T.Sreenivas, Principal, G.A.M.C,Bangalore for his kind co-operation.I whole heartedly thank Dr. Umakanth, Professor Dept of Poultry andDr. Narayanswamy professor, Dept of Pathology KVASFU,Veterinary College, Hebbal, for their timely support during the study.My heartfelt thanks to my dear colleagues Dr. Deepakini, Dr.Sujata,Dr. Naveen, Dr. Shridevi, Dr.Lakshmi and Dr.Aruna for theircooperation and constant support throughout my work. Special thanksto Dr. Deepa kini, for her timely help and cooperation rendered duringthe whole course of study.I extend my thanks to PG Scholars of Veterinary faculty Dr. Lohit,Dr. Mallikarjun, Dr.Shrikanth, Dr.Bair, for their unforgettableguidance and help during my study.My heartfelt thanks to Dr.Rajendran. Green chem., Dommaluru,Bangalore, for the help rendered to carryout alcoholic and aqueousextracts of the drugs and Dr. Ramachandra, and Dr.Roza, IIS,Bangalore who provided animals for experimentIt would be invidious to name a few from my family, when manyhave helped me; nevertheless I am grateful to each one of themspecially My Husband Mr.Devkumar.T.G, My Mother in lawSmt.Gangamma, My nephews Mr.Vinayraj, Mr. Shivraj and all myfamily members, who have helped me throughout the work. 9
  10. 10. My sincere thanks to Dr.Prakash, for making Histopathological slides, Mrs. Uma and Mr.Srivatsa who have helped in serum analysis, Dr. Revathi and the authorities of Bangalore test house for their help during Phytochemical and TLC studies and Dr.Suresh .K.P for making statistical analysis. My heartfelt thanks to my junior friends, Dr.Soumya, Dr.Vidya, Dr.Tejaswini, Dr.Pratibha, Dr.Sunitha, Dr.ParvatheGowda, Dr.Vishwanathreddy, Dr.Triveni and my beloved friends Dr.Kotresh, Dr.Gayathri, Dr.Girishkumar, Dr.Arunkumar, Dr.Ravikumar and all my seniors for their timely help during my Thesis work. Lastly I thank one and all who helped me directly & indirectly in bringing out this workDate: Dr. POORNIMA.H.V.RPlace: Bangalore 10
  11. 11. DISEASE REVIEW ABBREVIATIONS Ashtanga Hridaya A.H Ashtanga Samgraha A.S Ashtanga Nighantu A. N Amara kosha A.K Bhaishajya Ratnavali B.R Bhavaprakasha Nighantu B.N Bhela Samhita B. S Charaka Samhita C. S Dhanvantari Nigantu D.N Gadanigraha G.N Harita Samhita H.S Kashyapa Samhita K.S Kaiyadeva Niganthu K.N Mahoushadi Nigantu M.N Nigantu Adarsha N.A Priya Nigantu P.N Raja Nigantu R.N. Saushruthi nighantu S.N Sharanghadhara Samhita S.S Shabda Kalpadruma S.K.D Sushruta Samhita Su. S Yoga Ratnakara Y.R.Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 80 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  12. 12. DISEASE REVIEW Table of contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Drug review Agnimantha 4 Clerodendrum phlomidis 26 3. Disease review Medodhatu , medoroga 41 Rasa dhatu 66 Plasma 69 Kapha Dosha 70 Hyperlipidaemia 80 4. Lekhana karma 105 5. Vishoshi kashaya 111 6. Experimental models 114 7. Materials and methods 117 8. Observations and results 142 9. Discussion 170 10. Conclusion 182 11. Scope for further study 184 12. Summary 185 13. Bibliography 187Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 81 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  13. 13. DISEASE REVIEW ABSTRACTBackground and Objectives:Hyperlipidaemia is established as a major health concern due to strong causalrelationships with ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, overall mortality, and due toits high prevalence. Prevention and control of non-communicable diseases is a highpriority for the World Health Organization and obesity and hyperlipidaemia managementis an important part of their strategy. The most effective class of these agents, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are though potent, produce skin rash, myalgia, abnormalities ofliver function and other problems in patients. The cost of these drugs may also be ofsignificant concern, especially in view of the long-term nature of the therapy.Agnimantha ( Clerodendron phlomidis .Linn. F) is one of the Brihatpanchamoola, whichhas got reference as medohara dravya in Ayurvedic samhitas.Objectives : • To compare and evaluate medohara activity of Agnimantha moola vishoshi kashaya, aqueous extract and hydro alcoholic extract in hyperlipidaemia induced Wister albino rats. • To compare and evaluate medohara activity of trial drug with that of standard drug group in hyperlipidaemic Wister albino rats.Materials and method: Agnimantha root was procured from its natural habitat, and usedin the form of vishoshi kashaya, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 82 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  14. 14. DISEASE REVIEW7groups of 8 male Wister albino rats were taken, they were induced hyperlipidaemia byfeeding vanaspati and coconut oil in the ratio of 3:2, at 10ml/kgbody weight, for 30days . Group 1.NC served as normal control which did not receive induction, Group 2 HFC served as High fat control which received induction for 30 days and was not given any drug therapy. Group 3 Received Standard hypolipidaemic drug -Atervostatin at 2mg/kgbodyweight. Group 4 Received Agnimantha moola vishoshi kashaya, at 2ml dosage. Group 5 Received Agnimantha kashaya along with induction for 30 days Group 6 Received aqueous extract of Agnimantha root at 1000mg/kg body weight Group 7 Received hydroalcoholic extract at 1000mg /kg body weight.Blood serum lipid parameters like- Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL,body weight were tested once in 30days and Histo pathology of liver, kidney and Aortawere done at the end of the study.Vishoshi kashaya showed highly significant effect in reducing TC, TG, LDL,VLDL andraising HDL . P<0.001** , Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract showed moderatesignificant effect in reducing TC,LDL,VLDL, and TG and raise in HDL was moderatelysignificant. P<0.05*, similarly the response in Histopathology, were also in accordanceto serum parameters.Key words, Medoroga, Hyperlipidaemia, Agnimantha, Serum lipids. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 83 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  15. 15. DISEASE REVIEWDRUG REVIEWAYURVEDIC REVIEW OF AGNIMANTHA References regarding the drug Agnimantha are widely available in most of thetexts of Ayurveda. A significant role in the treatment of different diseases, it is havingboth curative and nutritive values. It is used in the form of both single drug andcompound formulation. The literatures of Agnimantha which is obtained from different texts can becompiled under the following headings. • Historical review • Nama rupa vijnana • Gana and varga • Bheda and Sandhigdhata • Guna karma • Prayoga • Botanical description of Clerodendron phlomidis. • Ethno medical use and research on AgnimanthaHISTORICAL REVIEW Agnimantha is a very important plant during Vedic period where in its stem/stickswere used to produce fire. We find usage of Agnimantha in Rig-Veda and Atharvaveda.Is quoted as “The person enlightened with the knowledge of Agnimantha, Whose land isilluminated by the brightness. Agnimanthya is considered to be superior as he is alsoendowed with Brahmajnanna.1 Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 84 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  16. 16. DISEASE REVIEW Acharya Charaka considered Agnimantha in Shothahara, Sheetaprashamana andAnuvasanopaga ganas.11-13 Sushruta categorised the drugs under many ganas. Among those Agnimantha isincluded under Varunadi, Vatashamana and Virataravadi ganas. Varunadi ganas isattributed for mainly kaphamedohara karma, gulma , vidradi etc, and Veeratarvadigana is indicated for shota, rajayakshma, vidradi, bala roga etc. If we observe the ganas of Astanga Sangraha there is mentioning of Arani whichis the synonym of Agnimantha. This drug is included under Virataravadi gana which isindicated for vataja Vyadhi, ashmari, mutraghatha and also in Varunadi gana which isindicated for gulma, medoroga, vidradi etc. In Laghutrayis also wide references are available regarding the medicinalproperties of Agnimantha. Nighantukaras have also explained Agnimantha in detail not only the medicinalproperties but also morphological characters. They have given many synonyms forAgnimantha depending on its properties and its morphology. Nighantus of medieval period and modern era have also explained aboutAgnimantha. One such Dravyaguna Vijnana by P.V.Sharma contains much informationabout habit, habitat, morphology and chemical composition of drug. PARIBHASHA: 1 AÎalÉqÉljÉ:-AÎalÉÇ qÉjlÉÉÌiÉ, qÉljÉ ÌuÉsÉÉåQûlÉå |( pÉÉ.mÉë) By friction of two sticks it yields sparks. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 85 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  17. 17. DISEASE REVIEW 2. aÉÍhÉMüÉËUMü:- aÉhÉå xÉqÉÔWåû pÉuÉÉ mÉëxÉUÌiÉ cÉaÉÍhÉMüÉËUMü | (pÉÉ.mÉë) It grows along with other plants in a group 3 iÉMüÉïUÏ:- iÉMïüqÉç GcNûÌiÉ CÌiÉ| (pÉÉ. mÉë) Many people after doing tarka considered it as good one 4. uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ:- uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ mÉiÉÉMåüuÉ CÌiÉ. (pÉÉ.mÉë) As this is superior among the drugs it is compared to flag which tells its superiority. 5. lÉÉSårÉÏ:- lɱÉqÉç pÉuÉÉ lÉÉSårÉÏ pÉÉ It grows on the river bank. 7 eÉrÉÉ-eÉrÉÎliÉ: eÉrÉÌiÉ CÌiÉ. | It overcomes many diseases like shotha, pandu etc hence it is called jaya,jayanti 8´ÉÏmÉÍhÉï:- ´ÉÏ: mÉhÉåïwÉÑ AxrÉ CÌiÉ| There is shree i.e. luck, wealth in its leavesSYNONYMS In ancient time ancestors were in intimacy to the nature. ThereforeAcharyas have not given importance regarding identification of the drugs.On the basis of pharmacological actions Acharyas used to give their ownnames. Later on the nighantukaras compiled these names under the heading Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 86 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  18. 18. DISEASE REVIEW paryayanama. These synonyms play a major role in the identification of the plants. Table No. 1 Synonyms of Agnimantha: 2-10SL Synonyms C S A Su A D M R K B Sa H N Mu PNNo. S S S N N N P N N N N N A N1. Agathu +2. Agnimantha + + + + + + + + + + + + + +3. Arani + + + +4. Aranika + + +5. Aranimantha +6. Aranik + + +7. Ganika +8. Ganikarika + + + +9. Havirmantha +10. Jaya + + + + + + + +11. Jayanthi + + + + + +12. Karnika + + + +13. Kethu + + +14. Mantha +15. Manthana +16. Nadeyi + + + + +17. Shreeparani + + +18. Tarkari + + + + + + + + + +19. Thejamantha + +20. Vanhimantha + Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 87 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  19. 19. DISEASE REVIEW21. Vyjanthika + + + + + + + + + + GANA VARGA The Acharyas have classified the drugs on the basis of morphological characters and pharmological actions. The Gana-varga means group of drugs, which are having almost similar properties and action. Charaka’s classification of the drugs into fifty Mahakashayas which is unique classification based on main action of the drugs. Nomenclature to the varga has been done on the basis of Karma. Acharya Sushrutha arranged the drugs in thirty-seven groups and named according to the main drug of the group. Vagbhata has followed both. Similarly the Nighantukars have classified the drugs on the basis of morphology. Thus originated the gana or varga. 5 Brahatpanchmoola + 6 Guduchayadivarga + + + 7 S.No Haritakyadigana C S AS A S A D M R K Su B N Mau + P Gana 8 Nirgundyadi varga S S + H N N N N N N N N A N N 9 1 Prabhadradi varga Anuvasnopaga + + 10 2 Sheetaprasamana Araninamagana + + 11 3 Shotahara Aushadhivarga + + 12 4 Varunadigana Bilwadivarga + + + + + + + + Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 88 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  20. 20. DISEASE REVIEW13 Vatashamana +14 Virataravadigana +Table no. 2 Showing Gana-varga of Agnimantha:BHEDA AND SANDHIGDHATA During literary research it is noticed that there are controversy regarding varietiesof Agnimantha. Many of the scholars did not mention the varieties of Agnimantha, someof them mentioned two varieties of Agnimantha i.e. Kshudraghnimantha and Brihadaghnimantha. There is difference of opinion among the commentators of modernnighantus. They consider genus of Premna and Clerodendron as Agnimantha, opinions ofdifferent authors is compiled below. Charaka has mentioned two varieties - Agnimantha and Tarkari. Sushruta while explaining Varunadi gana Tarkari and Agnimantha are mentionedseparately, this indicate these two are separate drugs. Astanga Sangraha mentiones ‘Tarkari dwayam’, while writing vimarsha for thissloka the commentator explains the Agnimantha is of two varieties Tarkari andAgnimantha. Tarkari is also called as Laghu arani and botanically it is identified asPremna integrifolia Linn.Mont. Agnimantha is also called as Vruddha arani andbotanically identified as Clerodendron phlomidis. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 89 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  21. 21. DISEASE REVIEW In Dhanwantari nighantu two varieties of Agnimantha are mentioned Agnimanthaand Kshudraghnimantha or Kshuraghnimantha. Commentator considered Clerodendronplomoides Linn. as Agnimantha. Premna integrifolia as kshudragnimantha. In Mahoushadhi nighantu and Madanapala nighantu , no types of Agnimantha hasbeen mentioned, Arani and Agnimantha are used synonymously. The commentatorconsidered Premna integrifolia Linn. Mont. as Agnimantha. In Priya nighantu also no classification of Agnimantha has been mentioned. In Raja nighantu and Shaligrama nighantu two varieties are mentioned asAgnimantha and Kshudraghnimantha. In Bhavaprakasha there are no varieties of Agnimantha but the editor whilewriting the vimarsha highlights the following points. According to Ganga saya Pandeyand K.C.Chunekar while editing Bhavaprakasha nighantu, explained two types ofAgnimantha Brihat and Kshudraghnimantha. They have mentioned that, BrihatAgnimantha is Premna integrifolia and laghu Agnimantha is Clerodendron phlomidis. According to Dravya guna Vijnana written by P.V.Sharma, Agnimantha is of twotypes Agnimantha and Tarkari. He considered Premna mucronata Agnimantha,Clerodendron phlomoides Linn. as Tarkari. According to Gyanendra Pandey, Agnimantha is of two varietiesBrihataghnimantha and Kshudraghnimantha. They are Clerodendron phlomidis andPremna integrifolia and respectively. According to Bapalal vaidya, two varieties have been told laghu and brihatAgnimantha, Clerodendron phlomidis and Premna integrifolia are considered Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 90 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  22. 22. DISEASE REVIEWrespectively. He has compiled that in south, Premna is used as Agnimantha and in northClerodendron phlomidis is used as Agnimantha. According to API and “Data base on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda”,Clerodendron phlomidis is considered as Agnimantha. But as the Guna karma of both are considered as same both can be used in theplace of other. By compiling all these factors the plant used with the name of Agnimanthaare as follows – • Clerodendron phlomoides Linn. • Clerodendron inforttunatum Linn. • Clerodendron multiflorum • Premna integrifolia Linn. Mont. • Premna latifolia Roxb. Hort, Beng. • Premna mucronata. RoxbGUNA KARMAS Guna-karma vignana in Ayurveda deals with the properties and actions of thedrugs. The mode of action of the drugs depends on its pancha-mahabhutas configuration.These five elementary principles in different combinations affect the human constitutionin different ways. The gunas, which are there in the body, are also present in the drugswhenever there is deficiency of gunas in the body they are fulfilled by providing the sameentity in the form of drug; hence it is very much necessary to study the pharmacological Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 91 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  23. 23. DISEASE REVIEWproperty of the drug. Thus Rasa, Guna, Veerya and vipaka, which are simplestparameters to ascertain the actions of the drugs and diets, are considered as the base ofthe pharmacology in Ayurveda. The pharmacological properties of Agnimantha is mentioned in both samhita andnighantus. There is no much difference of opinion regarding the properties. Most of theAcharyas mentioned laghu, ruksha, guna, katu tikta, kashaya, rasa and katu vipaka,ushna veerya. The guna karma mentioned according to different Acharyas are tabulatedbelowTable no. 3 Showing Guna – karma: 19-26Guna-karma D R K Sa B N Mau P N I A Dg N N N N N A N N R M P Pv P I Guru +Guna Laghu + + Rooksha + + Katu + + + + + + + + + + +Rasa Tikta + + + + + + + + + + + + Kashaya + + + + + + + Madura + + +Veerya Ushna + + + + + + + + + + +Vipaka Katu + +Table no. 4 Showing Karma of Agnimantha Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 92 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  24. 24. DISEASE REVIEWSl. D M R K B Mau P N I Dg KarmaNo. N N N N N N N R M pv P1 Kaphavathahara + + + +2 Sothahara + + +3 Deepana + + +4 Jwaraghna + +6 Shophaghna + + + +7 Admananasha +8 Vishahara +9 Vatahara - + +10 Kaphaghna + + + +11 Anuvasanopaga +12 Agnimandyanasha + + + + +13 Seetaprasamana14 Vatakaphahara + +15 Hrudya +16 Amavatahara + +17 Swayathuhara + +18 Vibandha + +PRAYOGA By an exclusive study of samhita and nighantu it is found that it was usedsince vedic period. The drug Agnimantha is used as single drug and also ascompound formulation. The drug Agnimantha is indicated as a single drug in Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 93 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  25. 25. DISEASE REVIEWmany diseases, Varunadi gana, virataravadi gana, vata shamana gana, indicatedfor shirashoola, gulma, ashmari, mutraghata, Charaka included Agnimanthaunder ganas such as sheetaprashamana, shothahara, anuvasanopaga. Vagbhataalso mentioned in Varunadi gana indicated for svayathu etc. The recent authors also mentioned the use of Agnimantha as a single drug someof the references are Agnimantha moola kashaya indicated for vatashamana, puyameha,Agnimantha moola kalka is indicated for sheeta pitta, shotha. Agnimantha patra swarasaindicated in pandu, dourbalya and shotha. The drug Agnimantha is used as an ingredient of many yogas which are indicatedfor many diseases, eg. In dashamoola it is one of the ingredients. In Charaka samhita the drug Agnimantha is used in formulations such asAgarwadi taila, indicated for jwara. Dasha moola ghrita indicated for hikka swasa, Baladilepa indicated for granthi. In Sushruta samhita also the drug Agnimantha is being mentioned in formulationssuch as Dvipanchamoola kwatha, indicated for shoola, pravahika and panchamooladighrita indicated for shiroroga, karna roga. Astanga sangraha also has mentioned in many preparations like Agastya haritakirasayana , indicated for Kasa, Kshaya, Prameha. Gandeeraarista indicated for Shotha,Amavata, Gulma roga. Similarly in nighantus Agnimantha is used in yogas as tabulated below. 27-33Table No: 5 Therapeutic effects of Agnimantha.Disease C S A A A D M R K Su B N Mu P N A DG KB S S H S N N N N N N N A N N R P PV DG Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 94 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  26. 26. DISEASE REVIEW IAdamana + +Amavata + + +Arsha + + + + +Balaroga + +Granthi +Gulma + +Hrudhya +Jwara + +Kasa +Kota +Medaroga + + + + +Mutrakrichrahara +Nadishoola +Pandu + + + + + + +Peenasanasha +Pramehaghna + + +Pratishayanasha + +Rajayakshma +Sitapitahara + +Sophaghna + + + + +Sotha + + + + + + + Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 95 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  27. 27. DISEASE REVIEWSthoulya + +Swasahara +Swayathu +Udavartha + +Udarda +UrusthambaVasameha +Vibandhanasha + + +Vishaghna + +PRAYOJYA ANGA Active principle of the drugs differs according to its part. Hence the concept ofPrayojya anga is developed. Agnimantha is having different pharmacological actions forits different parts of it. Panchanga of Agnimantha is used i.e. Moola, patra, phala, shakaand pushpa are useful. In ‘Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India’ root is mentioned asofficial part used as a medicine. In ‘Wealth of India’ medicinal properties of its root ismentioned.POSOLOGY Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 96 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  28. 28. DISEASE REVIEW The word posology is derived from Greek word ‘posos’ meaning how much and‘Logas’- science. It is a branch of medical science, which deals with doses or quantity ofdrug, which is to be administered to produce the required pharmacological action. Dose of a drug can not be fixed rigidly. Because while prescribing a drug manyfactors are to be considered. According to which dose differs. Dose depends upon someof the factors like age, sex, severity of the disease, potency of the drug, withstandingcapacity of the patient, Locality of the drug and the patient etc. General adult doseaccording to Sharangadhara samhita Madhyama kanda for swarasa is 12ml for kwatha is100ml and that of churna is 10g. Agnimantha can be used in the form of swarasa, churnaand kwatha for internal administration. According to Dravyaguna P.V.Sharma dose of churna 1 to 3gm, Swarasa form10-20ml, Kwatha 50 – 100ml.VISHISHTA YOGA Different types of compound preparations are mentioned in ancient texts, whichcontain various drugs. The ingredients may have similar properties to enhance the actionof main ingredient or else have quite opposite properties to diminish the severity ofadverse effects of the main ingredient but never inhibits the main action. Such formulations are named on the basis of main drug or on the main action orelse depending on the founder of formula etc. Agnimantha is being used as a mainingredient or one among the ingredients in various preparations as tabulated below:Table No.6 Showing Vishistayogas of Agnimantha by different Acharyas. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 97 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  29. 29. DISEASE REVIEW(a)Charaka Vishista yoga Rogaghnata References1 Shonakadi lepa Urustambha Cha.Chi.27/572 Baladi lepa Granthi Cha.Chi.21/1253 Agaruwadi taila Jwara, sheetajwara Cha.Chi.3/2694 Kansaharitaki leha Raktapitta, amlapitta, Cha.Chi.12/50 amavata, gulma, swasa5 Brahma rasayana Rasayana, deergayu, Cha.Chi.1.1/43 manoabhilasha6 Chavanprasha leha Rasayana, kasa, swasa, Cha.Chi.1/697 Tarkaryadi lepa Urustambha Cha.Chi.27/528 Dashamooladi ghrita Kasa, Hikka, Swasa Cha.Chi.17/1409 Dashamoola kwatha Kasa, Swasa Cha.Chi.17/10510 Dwipanchamooladi ghrita Kshaya, kasa Cha.Chi.18/16011 Dashamooladi yavagu Swasa, Hikka Cha.Chi.19/10312 Agastya haritaki Vishama jwara, kshaya, Cha.Chi.18/62 kasa13 Patoladi basti kashaya Udavartha, vibandha Cha.Chi.2/1314 Moola kashaya Kaphaja meha Cha chi 6/2815 Kashaya sechana Urustambha Cha.chi 27/5216 Taila Kaphaja peenasa Cha.chi 26/15217 Kshara Udara roga Cha.chi 13/171 Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 98 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  30. 30. DISEASE REVIEW18 Agnimanthadi swarasa Medoroga stoulya Cha.Chi.21/24(b) Sushruta samhita:Sl.No. Vishista yoga Rogaghnata References1. Aushadheeya ayaskriti Sthoulya, mutrakrichra, Su.Chi.10/13 prameha2 Kalyanaka lavana Vataroga, gulma,pleeha, 4/32 ajeerna ,arochaka3 Moola Kashaya Ikshumeha , vasameha 11/84 Kashaya Naigamesha graha dosha 36/3 (ut.sta)5 Nadi sweda Karna shoola 21/6(u.s)6 sura Kushta 10/87 Panchamooladi ghrita Shiroroga, karnaroga Su.Chi.26/58 Dashamoola ksheera basti Shoola, pravahika Su.Ut.9. Dwipanchamoola kwatha Shoola, pavahika Su.Ut.40/14410. Bilwadi sura Garbhini vyapat Su.Ut(c)Astanga Hridaya:Sl.No. Vishista yoga Rogaghnata References1. Agnimanthadi lepa Vatajashopha A.H.Chi.172. Agnimantha dhumapana Dushtapeenasa A.H.Chi.20/163. Dashamooladi avaleha Svayathu, jwara, gulma, amavata A.H.Chi.17/164. Kalamushkakadi kshara Ashmari, gulma, agnimandya, arbuda A.H.Su.10/12 Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 99 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  31. 31. DISEASE REVIEW5. Agasthya haritaki rasayana Rasayana, kasa, swasa, kshaya, A.S.Chi.5/81 prameha,6. Dashamoola haritaki Shotha, amavata, gulmaroga, pandu A.S.Chi.19/297 Lepa Vataja galaganda 22/668 Dhoomapana Kaphaja pratishyaya 20/169. Gandeerarista Pandu, granthi, arbuda, A.S.Chi.18/21(d) Chakradatta chikitsa sangraha:Sl.No. Vishista yoga Rogaghnata References1. Guggulu prayoga Kaphaja vidradhi 43/112. Punarnavadi pralepa Kaphavataja shotha, 44/93. Punarnavadya ghritam Shotha 39/314. Punarnavadya avaleha Shotha 39/46References for drug review 1. rÉÉå uÉæ iÉå ÌuÉkrÉÉSUhÉÏÈ rÉÉqrÉÉÇ ÌlÉqÉïjrÉjÉå uÉxÉÑ| xÉ ÌuɲÉlÉç erÉå¹qÉlrÉåiÉxrÉ ÌuÉkrÉÉiÉç oÉëqWûhÉÉqÉWûiÉç|| (AjÉuÉïuÉåS) 2. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå WûÌuÉqÉïljÉÉå aÉlkÉmÉ§É¶É MüÐÌiÉïiÉÈ| oÉÉsÉlÉÉå aÉlkÉuÉëÑ¨É¶É iÉåeÉÉåqÉljÉ¶É zÉoSiÉÈ|| (xÉÉæ.ÌlÉ) 3. eÉrÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉÉåÅUÍhÉMüiÉMüÉïËUuÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÈ|| (A.ÌlÉ) 4. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå ÅAÎalÉqÉrÉlÉxiÉMüÉïËU uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ| Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 100 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  32. 32. DISEASE REVIEW uÉÌ»ûqÉljÉÉåÅUhÉÏMåüiÉÑÈ ´ÉÏÈmÉhÉÏïMühÉÏïMüÉeÉrÉÉ|| (kÉ.ÌlÉ) 5. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå qÉjÉ: MåüiÉÑUUÍhÉ uÉæeÉrÉÎljÉMüÉ|| (qÉ.mÉÉ.ÌlÉ) 6. iÉMüÉïUÏ MüiÉÑÃwhÉ cÉ ÌiÉ£üÅÌlÉsÉMüTüÉmÉWû|| (UÉ.ÌlÉ) 7. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉåÅUÍhÉMüÉ iÉMüÉïËU uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ| |qÉjÉlÉÉå uÉÌ»ûqÉjÉlÉÉå aÉÍhÉMüÉ aÉÍhÉMüÉËUMüÉ|| (Mæü.ÌlÉ) 8. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå eÉrÉÈ xrÉÉiÉç ´ÉÏmÉhÉÏï aÉhÉÏMüÉËUMü| eÉrÉÉ eÉrÉliÉÏ iÉMüÉïUÏ lÉÉSåÌrÉ uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ|| (pÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ) 9. iÉMüÉïËU MüOÒûMüÉÎxiÉ£üÉiÉrÉÉåwhÉÉÌlÉsÉ mÉÉhQÒûÎeÉiÉç|| (xÉÉ.ÌlÉ) 10. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉUÍhÉqÉljÉÉÈ MüÍhÉïMüÉ aÍhÉMüÉËUMüÉ| eÉrÉÉ eÉrÉÎliÉ lÉÉSårÉÏ iÉMüÉïËU uÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ|| (qÉWûÉæ.ÌlÉ) 11. UÉxlÉÉxÉÑUÉSÉÂÌoÉsuÉqÉSlÉzÉiÉmÉÑwmÉÉuÉëÑwcÉÏUmÉÑlÉlÉïuÉ ÉµÉSÇw§ÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉ| zrÉÉålÉÉMüÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉlrÉlÉÑuÉÉxÉlÉÉåmÉaÉÉÌlÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ| (cÉ. xÉÔ. 4/26) 12. mÉÉOûsÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉzrÉÉålÉMüÌoÉsuÉMüÉzqÉrÉïMülOûMüÉËU oÉëÑWûiÉÏ zÉÉsÉmÉhÉÏï mÉëÑÎzlÉmÉhÉÏï aÉÉå¤ÉÑUMüÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉ µÉrÉiÉÑWûUÉÍhÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ|| (cÉ.xÉÔ.4/37) 13. iÉaÉUÉaÉÃkÉÉlrÉMüÉ ´ÉÑÇaÉuÉåU pÉÔiÉÏMü uÉcÉÉMülOûMüÉrÉÉïÎalÉqÉljÉzrÉÉålÉMü ÌmÉmmÉsrÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉ|| (cÉ.xÉÔ 4/42) 14. ÌoÉsuÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉÌOûhOÒûMümÉÉOûsÉÉÈ MüÉzqÉrÉÉïzrÉåÌiÉ qÉWûiÉç|| (xÉÑ.xÉÔ. 39/69) 15. uÉÏUiÉà xÉWûcÉU²rÉ SpÉïuÉëѤÉÉSlÉÏaÉÑlSìÉlÉsÉMÑüzÉMüÉzÉqÉpÉåSMüÉÎalÉqÉljÉqÉÉåEvaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 101 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  33. 33. DISEASE REVIEW UOûuÉxÉÑMü uÉÍxÉUpÉssÉÔMüMÑüU LOûMåülSÏuÉUMümÉÉåiÉuÉlMü µÉSÇw§ÉÉcÉåÌiÉ|| (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.39/10) 16. uÉÂhÉÉiÉïaÉsÉzÉÏaÉëÑqÉkÉÑzÉÏaÉëÑiÉMüÉïËUqÉåwÉ´ÉÑÇaÉÏ mÉÔiÉÏMü lÉ£üqÉÉsÉÉ qÉÉåUOûÉÎalÉqÉljÉqÉæUårÉMü²ÉÌoÉqoÉÏuÉxÉÑMüuÉÍxÉUÍcɧÉMü zÉiÉuÉUÏ ÌoÉsuÉÉeÉ´ÉÑlaÉÏ SÉpÉÉï oÉëÑWûÌiɲrɶÉåÌiÉ|| (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.39/8) 17. uÉÂhÉxÉæUårÉMürÉÑaqÉzÉiÉÉuÉUÏSWûlÉqÉÉåUOûÌoÉsuÉÌuÉwÉÉhÉ ÏMüÉ:| ̲oÉëÑWûiÉÏ̲MüUleÉ eÉrÉɲrÉÇ –oÉWûsÉmÉssÉuÉSpÉïÂeÉÉMüUÈ|| (A.¾Òû.xÉÔ.15/21) 18. uÉÂhÉxÉæUårÉMürÉÑaqÉzÉiÉÉuÉUÏSWûlÉqÉÉåUOûÌoÉsuÉÌuÉwÉÉhÉ ÏMüÉ:| ̲oÉëÑWûiÉÏ̲MüUleÉ eÉrÉɲrÉÇ –oÉWûsÉmÉssÉuÉSpÉïÂeÉÉMüUÈ|| (A.xÉÇû. xÉÔ.16) aÉÑhÉMüqÉï: 19. iÉMüÉïUÏ MüOÒûMüÉ ÌiÉ£üÉ iÉjÉÉåwhÉÉÅÌlÉsÉ mÉÉlQÒûÎeÉiÉç| zÉÉåjÉzsÉåzqÉÉÎalÉqÉÉlkrÉÉqÉÌuÉoÉlkÉɶÉç ÌuÉlÉÉzÉrÉåiÉç|| (kÉ.ÌlÉ) 20. AÎalÉqÉljɲrÉÇ cÉæuÉ iÉÑsrÉ uÉÏrÉïUxÉÉÌSwÉÑ| iÉimÉërÉÉåaÉÉlÉÑxÉÉUåhÉ rÉÉåeÉrÉiÉç xuÉqÉlÉÏwÉrÉÉ|| (UÉ.ÌlÉ) 21. iÉMüÉïUÏï MüOÒûMüÉ ÌiÉ£üÉiÉÑuÉUÉ qÉkÉÑUÉÎalÉS| | uÉÏrÉÉåïwhÉ WûUiÉå uÉÉiÉMüTüµÉrÉjÉÑ mÉÉhQÒûiÉÉ:|| (Mæü.Så.ÌlÉ) 22. AÎalÉqÉljÉ: µÉrÉjÉÑlÉÑiÉç uÉÏrÉÉåïwhÉ: MüTüuÉÉiɾÒûiÉç| mÉÉhQÒûMüOÒûMüÎxiÉ£üxiÉÑuÉUÉå qÉkÉÑUÉåÎalÉS|| (pÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ) 23. iÉMüÉïUÏ MüiÉÑÃwhÉÉ cÉ ÌiÉ£üÉÌlÉsÉMüTüÉmÉWûÉ|| (ÌlÉ.AÉ) 24. AÎalÉqÉljÉ; MüOÒûÎxiÉ£ü: MüwÉÉrÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÉåÎalÉkÉÉ:|| (qÉWûÉæ.ÌlÉ) 25. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå UxÉÉåÌiÉ£üÈ MüwÉÉrÉÈ MüTüuÉÉiÉlÉÑiÉç|Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 102 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  34. 34. DISEASE REVIEW uÉÏrÉÉåïwhÉ: zÉÉåjɾÒû²è uÉÌ»ûSÏmÉlÉÉå euÉUlÉÉzÉlÉ|| (ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ) 26. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå ÌoÉëWûimÉëÉå£üÈ MüiÉÑÃwhÉÉ¶É qÉÉkÉÑUÈ| ÌiÉ£üxiÉÑ iÉÑuÉU¶ÉÉÎalÉSÏmÉMüÉå uÉÉiÉlÉÉzÉlÉ|| (ÌlÉ.U) 27. iÉMüÉïUÏMüOÒûMüÌiÉ£üÉ iÉjÉÉåwhÉÅÌlÉsÉ mÉÉhQÒûÎeÉiÉç| zÉÉåjÉ zsÉåwqÉÉÎalÉqÉÉlkrÉÉqÉÌuÉoÉlkÉÉ¶É ÌuÉlÉÉzrÉåiÉç|| (kÉ.ÌlÉ) 28. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå qÉjÉÈ MåüiÉÑUUÍhÉuÉæeÉrÉÎliÉMüÉ| AÎalÉqÉljÉ: µÉrÉjÉѲÏrÉÉåïwhÉMüTüuÉÉiÉlÉÑiÉç|| (qÉ.mÉÉ.ÌlÉ) 29. iÉMüÉïUÏ MüOÒûÃwhÉÇ cÉ ÌiÉ£üÉÅÌlÉsÉ MüTüÉmÉWû| zÉÉåTüzsÉåwqÉÉÎalÉqÉÉlkrÉÉzÉïÌuÉQèoÉlkÉÉkqÉÉlÉlÉÉÍzÉÌlÉ||(UÉ.ÌlÉ) 30. AÎalÉqÉljÉÈ µÉrÉjÉÑlÉѲÏrÉÉåïwhÉÈ MüTüuÉÉiɾÒûiÉç| mÉÉhQÒûlÉÑMüOÒûMüÉÎxiÉ£üxiÉÑuÉUÉå qÉkÉÑUÉåÅÎalÉSÈ|| (pÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ) 31. AÎalÉqÉljÉÈ MüOÒûÎxiÉ£üÈ MüwÉÉrÉÉå qÉkÉÑUÉåÅÎalÉSÈ| MüTüuÉÉiÉWûUÈ mÉÉhQÒûzÉÉåTüÉqÉzÉÉåï ÌuÉwÉÉmÉlÉÑiÉç|| (qÉWûÉæ.ÌlÉ) 32. AÎalÉqÉljÉÉå UxÉÉåÌiÉ£üÈ MüwÉÉrÉÈ MüTüuÉÉiÉlÉÑiÉç |uÉÏrÉÉåïwhÉÈ zÉÉåjɾÒûSè uÉÌ»ûSÏmÉlÉÉå euÉUlÉÉzÉlÉ|| (ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ) 33. mÉëÌiÉzrÉÉrÉÇ MüTÇü zÉÉåjÉqÉzÉï¶ÉæuÉÉqÉuÉÉiÉWûUqÉç| qÉsÉUÉåkÉÇ cÉÉÎalÉqÉÉlkrÉÇ mÉÉhQÒûUÉåaÉÇ ÌuÉwÉÇ iÉjÉÉ|| AÉqÉÇ cÉ qÉåSÉåUÉåaÉÇ cÉ lÉÉzÉrÉåÌSÌlÉ MüÐÌiÉïiÉÈ| aÉÑhÉÈ sÉbuÉÉÎalÉ qÉljÉxrÉ mÉëÉå£üÉÈ uÉëѬÎalÉqÉljÉuÉiÉç| ÌuÉzÉåwÉÉsÉåmÉlÉå cÉÉåmÉlÉWåû zÉÉåTåü cÉ MüÐÌiÉïiÉÈ|| (ÌlÉ.U) Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 103 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  35. 35. DISEASE REVIEW PLATE: 1 AGNIMANTHA PLANT Clerodendrum phlomidis.Linn.F Leaves and fruit Fruit of Agnimantha Agnimantha Clerodendron phlomidis.Linn.F Roots of Agnimantha Flowers of AgnimanthaEvaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 104 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  36. 36. DISEASE REVIEW CLERODENDRON PHLOMIDIS.LINN.FNomenclature: AgnimanthaScientific name: Clerodendron phlomidis. Linn .f The word Clerodendron is made of two words i.e., ‘kleros’ and ‘dendron’ wherekleros stands for fate or fortune and dendrum or dendron is a tree. Together it means “Atree of fate” it is said that Clerodendron’s are plants of maluy magic.Vernacular names: The drug is universally known and accepted by its scientific name. Still theknowledge of Local name and the name in regional language is necessary to get genuinedrug for the practice. Hence the vernacular names are necessary. Some of the vernacularnames are as follows. 1. Bengali : Ganiyari, Ganira 2. Gujarati : Aranel, Airanamula 3. Hindi : Arni, Agathu, Ganiyari 4. Kannada : Arani, Taggiberu, Taggi 5. Malayalam : Tirutali 6. Marathi : Airana, Takalu, Chamari 7. Oriya : Hontari 8. Sanskrit : Ganikarika, Jaya, Jayanthi Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 105 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  37. 37. DISEASE REVIEW 9. Tamil : Talanaju, Munnay 10. Telugu : Gabbunulli 11. French : Arbe a la migraineClassification:Division - AngiospermaeClass - DicotyledanaeaeSubclass - GamopetalaeSeries - BicarpellateOrder - LamicealesFamily - VerbenaceaeGenus - ClerodendronSpecies - phlomidisFAMILY FEATURES OF VERBENACEAEHabit: Mostly annual and perennial herbs may be shrubs or trees (tectona) or rarelywoody climbers or halophyte in tropical shores.Leaves: Simple or palmately or pinnately compound, opposite or whorled, exstipulate,entire or divided.Inflorescence: Cymose, Racemose or spike. Cymes often compound or paniculate.Bracts usually small.Flowers: Often brightly coloured. Hermaphrodite (rarely polygamous) usually irregular.Zygomorphic, hypogynous. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 106 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  38. 38. DISEASE REVIEWCalyx: Compamelate, truncate or 5 toothed or sub-5 partite, partite persistent oftenaccrescent or coloured.Corolla :Gamopetalous, tube usually cylindrical or dilated above. Often curved limb, 2-lipped or subsequent lobed. Lobes 5-4(rarely more).Androceium: Stamens-4. Didynamous (rarely 2, very rarely 5-6) inserted on the corollatube. Filaments free anthers 2-celled opening by longitudinal slits disc usuallyinconspicuous.Gynoecium: Ovary superior, sessile 2-4 (rarely 8) celled entire or 4 lobed. Bicarpellarysyncarpous 2 celled becomes 4 celled due to false septum ovule one in each locule asaxile placentation. Ovules variously attached 2 (sometimes 1) in each all style terminal.Stigma usually entire, less commonly 2 or more lobed.Fruit: Fruit more or less drupaceous. 2-4 or 1 celled mesocarp- juicy. Fresh or dry.Endocarp usually bony. Seed erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cell. Albumen -0 inIndian genera.Pollination: Entomophilous.Root : Tap, branched, pneumatophore { avicennia}Stem : Erect, herbaceous or woody, young branches quadrangular, in some branchesspiny.Diagnostic features.Plants, herbs, shrubs or trees, leaves simple, exstipulate, opposite or whorled; Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 107 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  39. 39. DISEASE REVIEWInflorescence: cymose, racemose or spike. Flowers: Hermaphrodite, zygomorphic,hypogynous. Calyx : Gamosephalous, persistent. Corolla: 5 lobed, gamopetaloussometimes two lippedStamens: Four, didynamous unequally paired, epipetalousCarpel: Two, syncarpous, superior, axile placentationFruit: Drupe. In Verbenaceae there are about 77 genera, 3020 species , out of which21 generaand 125 species occur in India. All most in all tropical and sub tropical areas also extendinto temperate lands.Characters of - Clerodendron phlomidisHabit: A large bushy shrub.Leaves: Simple, opposite, exstipulate, broadly ovate, petiolate, puberulous with crenatemargin. In young plants they are much larger while very small ones occur on and nearpanicle of old stems. Leaf is dorsiventral with 1 to 2 or three layers of palisade cells. Bothglandular and non glandular hairs are present. Stomata are cruciferous. Palisade ratio is2.4, Stomatal index is 8.26(upper) and 10.29 (lower), vein islet number 11 and veinlettermination number 17.Flower: In 3-9 axillary cymes, white coloured, fragrant, borne in a terminal, roundedpanicle.Calyx: companulate, truncate or 5 toothed or sub-5 partite, persistent often accrescent orcoloured. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 108 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  40. 40. DISEASE REVIEWCorolla tube: Slender, cylindrical, usually long filiform; spreading more or less oblique,Stamens-4.Anthers: Long exerted.Ovary Imperfectly 4 celled, 4 ovuled.Style ; Filiform, shortly bifidDrupe – Globose, succulent, 4 grooved, separating into 4 pyrenes of which 1-3 areoften suppressed. Obovoid, black when ripe.Seeds; oblongFlowers are seen in the month of April-may and fruits in the month of JuneDistribution: This is available in all most all the forest of India especially the nearestforest of Gangatata, bihar , Orissa, in sub Himalayan tracts, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, BengalPunjab, Gujarat , konkan, deccan and Karnataka. In Karnataka- Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar,coorg, north kanara, raichur.Propagation and Cultivation: It can be propagated by seeds and root suckers and growswell on a variety of soil. In nature, it is found generally on waste lands, along railwaytracks etc.Phormacognasy of Root: A drug can be identified by thorough observation of the plant which includesmacroscopic and microscopic study of the drug. Characters of Agnimantha are explainedbelow.Macroscopic characters: Drug pieces 7-15cm long, 0.2-3.0cm thick, occasionallybranched, cylindrical, tough, yellowish-brown externally, bark thin, occasionally easily Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 109 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  41. 41. DISEASE REVIEWpeeled, outer surface rough due to exfoliation, wood yellow, fracture hard: taste slightlyastringent.Microscopic characters: Root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of 10-15, occasionallymore, rows of tangentially elongated, thin-walled cells; secondary cortex consists ofround to oval parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal crystals of calciumoxalate; secondary phloem consists of iso diametric, thin walled, parenchymatous cells, afew of them containing rhomboidal crystals of calcium oxalate; phloem rays distinct ,consisting of radially elongated cells; secondary xylem shows a wide zone, consisting ofusual elements, all being lignified; vessels found in single or in groups of 2-3, scatteredthroughout xylem region; xylem parenchyma simple pitted, squarish wide lumen; xylemrays 1-5 serriate, consisting of radially elongated cells. Rhomboidal crystal of calciumoxalate packed in xylem parenchyma and xylem rays; abundant simple, round starchgrains measuring 6-17 mue in diameter found scattered throughout.Powder : dull yellow, shows fragment of cork cells, small, pointed, aseptate, lignifiedfibres, simple pitted vessels, lignified cells packed with rhomboidal crystals of calciumoxalate and numerous simple, round to oval starch grains having narrow hilum,measuring 6-11 mue in diameter.IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH:Foreign matter: Not more than 2%Total ash: Not more than 6%Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 1%Alcohol soluble extractive- Not less than 2%Water soluble extractive- Not less than 5% Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 110 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  42. 42. DISEASE REVIEWPHYTO CHEMISTRYRoots contain- Ceryl alcohol, clerodin, clerosterol and clerodendrin A . B –sitosterol,diterpinoid, tannins, lupeol ester, unidentified ester.Stem contains: D manitol, B –sitosterol- B-D-Glucoside and Ceryl alcoholLeaves contains: Scutellarein, pectolinarigenin (4’, 6-dimethyl scuttelarin), ethylcholesta-5, 22, 25, trine-3beeta-ol, monoglucoside, beta and gama sitosterols, anunidentified sterol, ceryl alcohol and palmitic and cerotic acidsFlowers contains: pectolinargenin, hispudulin, apigenin and luteolinSUBSTITUTES AND ADULTERANTS Two varieties have been mentioned in literature which may be botanicallyspecified as Agnimantha, Clerodendron phlomidis Linn and second one is Premnalatifolia Roxb, syn. Premna Mucronata Clarke. The regional names such as Gineri,Agethu, Tekara or Tankali are only disorted forms of more recent Sanskrit namesGanikarika, Agnivadhu and tarkari. There is not much difference in the tree sizes of thetwo kinds and thus any attempt to differentiate them as Bruhat and Kshudra kindsuntenable on the base of plant size may however be limited to different species of Premnaonly. It is however reasonable and useful for the sake of field identification to name thePremna species. In the south Premna has been used as Agnimantha by the vaidyas. In Gujarat andNorth, Clerodendron genus is used as Agnimantha. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 111 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  43. 43. DISEASE REVIEW Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India suggest Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. as aactual drug of Agnimantha. It is found throughout India. According to Wealth of India, in Assam and Nepal the drug Premna integrifoliaand Premna obtusifolia are used as Agnimantha, but in the absence of these twosubstitutes are Premna coriaceae, B.clark and Premna latifolia. Roxb.Hort.Beng. In Punjab Premna mucronata Roxb and Premna latifolia used as Agnimantha, In Unani the drug Agnimantha root is used for laxative, stomachic, livercomplaints. The root bark has a characteristic agreeable odour, the fresh bark isfirst sweetish but bitter and astringent later. The supplies of the drug comemostly from Sundarabans and Travancore. The roots of a few other species, suchas Premna coriacea C.B. Clarke and Premna latifolia Roxb.Hort.Beng. are used assubstitutes or adulterants. (Datta and Mukherji, Bull. Pharmacogn, lab. No.1,1950 113). The Ayurvedic formulary of India suggest Clerodendron phlomidias Linn. fas Agnimantha and Premna obtusifolia R.Br. and Premna mucronata Roxb. In Bombay, Malaysia, Ceylon, Andaman- Premna intigrefolia Linn. used asAgnimantha. In Bengal, Premna latifolia is used as Agnimantha. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 112 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  44. 44. DISEASE REVIEWRESEARCH PROFILE 1. On medoroga: Gomootra arka bhavita agnimanthamoola (Clerodendron phlomidis) in sthoulya showed a significant reduction of obesity. ( Dr. Shah Chinmayi. C, Jamnagar 2004). Agnimantha kwatha bhavita shilajatu in Medoroga by Dr.V Muralikrishna, Hyderabad. 2. Antifungal Activity: The ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of Clerodendron phlomidis were screened for antifungal activity. Both ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of C. phlomidis stem and leaf exhibited appreciable inhibition on all the studied plant and human pathogenic fungi. (Shyama et all) 3. Immunomodulatory Activity: The present study was aimed at evaluating the two roots for their immunomodulatory potential. Oral administration of methanol extracts of both the roots (300 mg kg-1 x 7 days) in mice prior to immunization with Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) resulted in a significant increase inEvaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 113 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  45. 45. DISEASE REVIEW haemagglutinating antibody titre, plaque forming cell assay and delayed type hypersensitivity to SRBC. C. phlomidis showed higher specific immune activity as compared to P. integrifolia, C. phlomidis and P. integrifolia enhanced the non specific immune response in carbon clearance test and showed significant immune prophylactic effect, when tested on E. coli induced abdominal sepsis. In the present study C. phlomidis showed higher response to specific immune activity as compared to P. integrifolia. (R.H. Gokani et all) 4. Anti inflammatory activity. Clerodendron phlomidis roots decoction showed potent anti inflammatory bydecreasing paw oedema induced by cararageenan in rats at a dose of 1g /kg body wt(Surendrakumar 1988) 5. Anti amnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. Bark extract in mice . In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropicagent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) wasadministered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptivebehavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm wereemployed to evaluate short term and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine (0.4mg/kg, i.p.), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were employed to induce amnesia in mice. Todelineate the mechanism by which C. phlomidis exerts nootropic action, its effect on Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 114 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  46. 46. DISEASE REVIEWbrain acetyl cholinesterase levels were determined. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was usedas a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.)for 6 successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice. It reversedthe amnesia induced by scopolamine, diazepam and natural ageing. It also decreased theacetyl cholinesterase levels in the whole brain. The bark of C. phlomidis can be ofenormous use in the management of treatment of cognitive disorders such as amnesia andAlzheimers disease . (Hanumanthachar Joshi) 6. Acute toxicity studies C. phlomidis aqueous extract at different doses (50-5000 mg/kg) wasadministered orally to the rats with the help of a specially designed oral needle connectedto a polythene tube. Mice, which received extracts in doses above 2000 mg/kg, exhibitedptosis (dropping of upper eyelids) and were found lethargic. The parameters such ashyperactivity, grooming, convulsions, sedation, hypothermia and mortality wereobserved. The dose selected were 1000 mg/kg. (Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Scienceand Biotechnology 1(1), 142-150 ©2007 Global Science Books) 7. Antimicrobial activities Anti infective compounds from natural resources are of great interest as theexisting drugs are getting less effective due to increased tolerance of micro organisms. A Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 115 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  47. 47. DISEASE REVIEWnumber of species from the genus Clerodendron were documented in ancient texts fortheir antimicrobial action. To validate these claims, research work was carried out withvarious Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains and also with fungal and viralpathogens.). Pectolinarigenin and chalcone glycoside isolated from leaf of C. phlomidisshowed antifungal activity (Roy et al. 1995). 8. Hepato protective activity. Clerodendron phlomidis root aqueous extract is proved to be potent hepato protective in CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats at 800mg/kg body wt. it was effective as silimarine which was taken as standard ( N.Gopal etal 2002, Pune) ETHNOMEDICAL USES A number of species from this genus were documented to be used as folkmedicine by various tribes in Asian and African continents. Many species of the genushave also been documented in traditional systems of medicine practiced in countries likeIndia, China, Korea, Thailand and Japan. Roots and leaf extracts of C. indicum, C. phlomidis, C.serratum, C. trichotomum,C. chinense and C. petasites have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, asthma andother inflammatory diseases (Anonymous 1992; Hazekamp et al. 2001; Kang et al. 2003;Panthong et al. 2003; Choi et al. 2004; Sungwook et al. 2004; Kanchanapoom et al.2005). Plant species such as C. indicum and C. inerme were used to treat coughs,serofulous infection, buboes problem, venereal infections, skin diseases and as a Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 116 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  48. 48. DISEASE REVIEWvermifuge, febrifuge and also to treat Beriberi disease (Anonymous 1992; Rehman et al.1997; Kanchanapoom et al.2001). It was also reported that tribals use C. inerme as an antidote of poisoning fromfish, crabs and toads (Rehman etal. 1997; Kanchanapoom et al. 2001; Pandey et al.2003). C. phlomidis, C. colebrookianum, C. calamitosum and C. trichotomum have beenreported to have antidiabetic, antihypertensive and sedative properties (Singh et al.1980;Chaturvedi et al. 1984; Khan et al. 1996; Cheng et al. 2001;Kang et al. 2003; Chaeet al. 2004; Choi et al. 2004). C. phlomidis has been used as an astringent and also in the treatment of gonorrhea(Rani et al. 1999; Murugesan et al.2001). This plant is also reported to have diuretic andantibacterial properties (Cheng et al.2001)., while in China the plant is used as medicinefor malaria (Hazekampet al. 2001; Panthong et al. 2003). Leaves of C. buchholziiarereported in African pharmacopeia for treatment of furunculosis, echymosis and gastritis(Nyegue et al. 2005). Other than their therapeutic use, some of the species of thegenussuch as C. inerme, C. thomosonae, C. indicum and C. speciosumare also cultivatedand used as ornamental plants. References for Drug review 1. http/medicinal plants/ Clerodendron phlomidis/07/21/14. 2. Pandey,Gyanendra “Uncommon plant drugs of Ayurveda” Sri Satguru publications, division of Indian Books center, Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 117 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  49. 49. DISEASE REVIEW 3. Pandey Gynanendra, Dravyaguna Vijnana (Materia Medica Vegetable Drugs) Part III 3rd Edition,Varanasi,chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy,2005,Tpg:933. 4. Shastry .J.L.N., Dravyaguna Vijnana Vol II Foreward by Prof.K.C.Chunekhar,2nd Edition,Varanasi,Chaukhamba Orientalia,2005,Tpg:1134 5. Magadi R. Gurudeva, “Botonical and Vernacular Names of South Indian Plants” Divya Chandra Prakashana, Basaveshwara Nagar, Bangalore, 1st Edn, 2001, : 1004. 6. Saxena and Saxena, Plant Taxonomy 5th Revised Edition, Meerut, Praghathi Prakhashan ,2006, Tpg:628. 7. D.B.Basu, Kirthikar K.R, Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol 1 Dehradun, International Book Distributors ,Reprint 1999 Tpg:838 8. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of India, 1st Edition, Dept of Indian Science of Medicine and Homeopathy, New Delhi, Controller of Publication Civil Lines, Reprint 2001,Tpg:260. 9. P.C Sharma, M.B Yelne, “Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda” , Central council for research in Ayurveda and Sidda: Department of ISM&H, ministry of health and family welfare, Govt of India , 2001 pp,590 10. D.B.Basu, Kirthikar K.R, Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol 1 Dehradun ,International Book Distributors ,Reprint 1999 Tpg:838 11. Y.K.Sarin, “Illustrated manual of herbal drugs used in Ayurveda”, New Delhi, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and Indian Council of Medical Research, 1996:132.Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 118 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  50. 50. DISEASE REVIEW 12. Sri Bapalal Vaidya, “Some Controversial drugs in Indian medicine ”, Varanasi, Choukambha orientala , 1982 13. Neeta shrivastava and Tejas patel “Clerodendron and health care an overview” published by PERD publishers, available in herb and 14. http// 15. RH gokhani,S.K Lahari, international journal of pharmacology 3(4): 352- 356,2007 16. Medicinal and aromatic plant science and biotechnology. 1(1),142-150, 2007 Global Science Books.MEDO DHATUMeda is an important dhatu among Sapta dhatu and its main functions is to smoothen thebody by its sneha Property. “Medhyati Snihyati Anena Iti Medah”Utpatti: It is derived from the word ‘medh’ by adding ‘ach’ pratyaya.1Shabdhartha : 2 1 Meda : Fat 2 Medas: Fat, marrow (one of the seven dhatu of the body and suppose to lie in the abdomen) 3 Corpulence, fat of the body 4 Excessive fatness, morbid corpulence. 5 Medaswin: . Fat corpulence, Strong robust Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 119 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  51. 51. DISEASE REVIEW Synonyms of Meda: 3 1. Mamsaja and Mamsatej: Medadhatu is found from mamsa dhatu by mamsa agnipaka. So it is known as Mamsaja or Mamsatej. 2. Asthikruta: Formation of Asthi is done from meda so it is known as Asthikruta. 3. Vasa and Vapa: The fatty substance which locates in mamsa is called as Vasa and when its depot in abdomen, it is termed as Vapa. 4. Majja: Asthi Madhyagata Sneha is known as Majja. 5. Goda: “Mashtishkagata Sneha” is known as Goda or MastulungaHistorical concept :Vedas : (10,000 – 500 B.C) In Yajurveda a disease named “upachita” has been described. In the same contextthey have advised to strengthen and harden the body like a stone indicating the hazard offlabbiness of the body due to morbid obesity which is mainly due to meda.4Above references denote us regarding the then existing knowledge of meda and itsdiseases in Vedic era.Samhita kala: (200 B.C to 400 A.D)Charaka samhita. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 120 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  52. 52. DISEASE REVIEW Maharshi Atreya who is the father of Indian medicine conducted earliest scientificstudies on medo pradoshaja vikaras and dealt under “Ashta nindita purusha” which isrecorded by Agnivesha in Charaka samhita. Sushrutha samhita : The father of surgery has narrated the nidana lakshanas chikitsa and Upadrava ofthis at various places.Ashtanga Hridaya: Acharya Vagbhata has also given a wide explanation ofmedodhatu, medoroga and chikitsaTable no: 7 Reference of medo dhatu in brihatrayeesReference Charaka Sushrutha VagbhataAshta nindita purusha + - -Medovaha sroto moola + + +Medo vruddi kshaya lakshana + + +Medo dhatu utpatti + + +Medo sara purusha lakshana + + +Medodushti kaarana , lakshna , chikitsa + + +Santarpana nimittaja vyadhi + + +Langana yogya Vyadhi + + +Rasa as kaarana for sthoulya and kaarshya - + +Laghutrayi: Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 121 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  53. 53. DISEASE REVIEW Madhava Nidana: A separate chapter has been dedicated to describe the vikaras of meda called“medoroga”, in an elaborate manner. New symptoms like moha were mentioned in thisbook.Sharangadhara samhita : This text book has described medodosha in purvakhanda. He has mentionedmadhu as the single drug treatment for meda vriddhi.Bhava Prakasha: Pharmacological aspects of many Ayurvedic drugs have been explained in thisbook. Sthoulya has been explained in separate chapter. Treatment aspects have beenstressed more in this text, when compared to brihatrayis. Special dhupa like malayaniladhupa, various lepa and udvartana are being quoted in order to treat sthoulya.Others:Kashyapa samhita - Ashta nindita purusha (sutra 28/6)Harita samhita - No references in the present available incomplete workBhela samhita - Vitiated meda and Sthoulya (sutra 2nd)Yogaratnakara - Many formulations for treatmentChakradatta - Sthoulya chikitsa (chapter 36)Baishajya ratnavali - Chikitsa aspects (chapter 39)Gada Nigraha - Vyadhi as whole (chapter 31)Rasaratnasamucchaya - Many rasaoushadis mentioned (chapter 18) Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 122 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  54. 54. DISEASE REVIEWMany other commentators like Dalhana, Indu, Arunadatta, Hemadri, Gangadhahara,Vijayarakshita etc..,contributed a lot to understand this disease in better methods.Patho-Physiological considerations: The vital role of maintenance of sneha in the body for sustainment of life is carriedby meda and thus the importance of meda.The literal meaning of the word medaaccording to Vachaspatyam denotes sneha which stands for fat, oil, lipid etc.., thissignifies meda is predominant of snigdha guna in it. Many other structures also possesssnigdhatva in them. On the whole we can see sneha in the body as 3 types. 1. Meda which is Sandra and like ghrita 2. Vasa which is present with in mamsa 3. Majja which is present inside the asthiVasa: It is considered different from medas in form as it is snehamsha of shuddha mamsa. 5aAccording to Sushruta and Charaka. After dhatwagnipaka of mamsa dhatu vasa isformed as upadhatu. It is ghee like fatty substance situated underneath the skin asdescribed by Gananathsen. As per C. Dwarakanath, this is included under connectivetissue. Even by the views of different scholars it is clear that vasa is upadhatu of mamsaand different from meda. Still it possess similar qualities of meda like snigdhata becausemeda is produced from the sara bhaga of mamsa and the same mamsa dhatu producesvasa as its upadhatu. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 123 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  55. 55. DISEASE REVIEWMajja : It is completely different dhatu as mentioned and different in all other aspects likevriddhi lakshanas, kshaya lakshanas, Sara purusha lakshanas etc..,Sthana and Swarupa of Meda dhatu: 5b The site of medodharakala is Udara and Anuasthi, Sphik, Sthana, Gala are also depotsof poshya meda . Medadhatu is also considered as a sneha dominant drava dhatu which isGuru, Snigdha guna yukta and dominance of Pruthvi, Ap and Teja mahaboothas.Utpatthi: 5c,6b On contact of medhodatwagni the sukshma bhaga of mamsa dhatu gets paka due toits agni and ambu guna and is transformed into medodhatu. The ambu guna present inmeda increases sneha guna making meda snigdha predominant dhatu. Rakta Sukshmabhaga 5c Mamsa Dhatwagni Sthulabhaga Sukshmabhaga Kittabhaga Mamsa dhatu Vasa & twak MedhoDhatwagni Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 124 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  56. 56. DISEASE REVIEW Sthula bhaga Sukshmabhaga Kittabhaga Meda dhatu Snayu and sandhi Asthi Dhatwagni Sthula bhaga Sukshmabhaga Kittabhaga Asthi Dhatu Dhatuparinama Continues upto Shukra Fig No Schematic representation of Meda dhatu Utpathi through their respective Dhatus The process of nourishment of Dhathus is explained with the help of 3 theoriesnamely 5d - (i) Khale kapota Nyaya – Selective permeability (ii) Kedarikulya Nyaya – Reservoirs and Tributaries (iii) Ksheeradadhi Nyaya – Total conversion. All the 3 theories are applicable at various levels. When the nutrition is flowing inchannels / vessels (Srothas) it refers to Kedarikulya Nyaya. During the effect ofDhatvagni & Bhoothagni on the nutrient factors the total change that can occur inDhathus can be compared to Ksheeradadhi Nyaya.At different levels of Dhathu Poshana, Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 125 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  57. 57. DISEASE REVIEWdhathu / Cell has selectivity to identify the respective nutrient fraction is compared withKhale kapota nyaya, Pigeon selecting the grains. 5e,6cPramana of Meda dhatu: Total quantity of meda is two anjali and vasa (muscle fat) are three anjali. Thustotal content of snehamsha in the body is considered as 5 anjali. The total measurablebody elements are counted as 56.5 anjali and sneha content of the body contributesapproximately 11 to 12%. This quantity may vary from person and exact measurement ofbody humors is not possible due to unpredictability and ever changing nature of body.16Karma of Meda dhatu: 5f,7a On compilation of opinions by different Acharyas, following information about guna and karma of medas are listed out. Snehana is the prime function of meda dhatu. It is having guru and snigdha guna resulting in bala and brimhanatva of body. It is responsible for the production of sneha and sweda in the body, gives drudata to shareera and provides poshana to asthi dhatu. According to Sushrutha, snehana, swedana, drudata and asthipushti are the functions of meda dhatu Netra snigdhata and gatrasnigdhata are the additional functions of meda mentioned by Vagbhata. With the property of Snehana it helps to maintain the luster of skin, hair, eye and other structures. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 126 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna
  58. 58. DISEASE REVIEW Nourishment of succeeding dhatu and also nourishes upadhatu snayu, which provides support to the asthi for maintaining the postural structure. Production of sweda as mala. 5g,Medovaha srotas:The internal transport system of the body is represented as srotas. It has been given aplace of fundamental importance in Ayurveda both in health and disease conditionsDhatu nourished through their respective srotas and are dhatu specific.The meda dhatu gets nutrition from the preceding poshaka dhatu i.e. mamsa dhatuthrough its own srotas called medovaha srotas which are two in number.Moola of Medovaha Srotas: 5g,6d Each srotas has its origin from any one of the koshtangas which is identified as themoola of that specific srotas, these structure helps in the transportation, transformation ofthe nutrient material, dhatu, malas etc to their respective places in the body. There is difference of opinion regarding the moola of medavaha srotas. Charaka: Vrikka and vapavahana. Sushrutha: Vrikka and katiCharaka gives importance more for physiology where as Sushrutha for anatomical sitealso.Vrikka: 9 Formed by the sara of rakta and meda dhatu and one among the 15 koshtangas.They are two in number situated on cavity. According to Sharangadhara’s version theynourish meda dhatu present inside the stomach area of abdominal cavity. Evaluation of Agnimantha moola (Clerodendron phlomidis ) ….. for medohara activity W.S.R to hyperlipidaemia 127 Dept of PG studies dravyaguna