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Ap art -chinese_and_korean[1]

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Ap art -chinese_and_korean[1] Ap art -chinese_and_korean[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Yuan Dynasty
    Mongol Invasion
    Mongols, led by Jenghiz Khan and his ancestors, amassed empire
    Empire stretched as far as central Europe, central Asia, present-day Iraq, and northern China
    Led by Kublai Khan, Mongols added southern China to their empire
    Kublai Khan pronounced himself emperor of China and founder of Yuan Dynasty (Yuan = origin)
    Established the capital in Dadu (now Beijing), shifting central focus of empire away from cultural centers of southern China
  • Imperial vs. Literati Taste
    Imperial court served as a patron of the arts, commissioning professional artists and artisans to construct building and gardens as well as create murals, paintings, and decorative arts
    Literati saw painting as a vehicle of self expression; painted for each other as opposed to for public display
    Created a status as artists that they felt was superior to professional painters; felt that professional artists were tainted by money and trying to please others rather than themselves
    Further developed characteristics of literati painting:
    Illustrated an “appreciation of antiquity”—revival of the past
    Rough, unassuming brushwork over gentle, refined movement
    Minimal use of color
    Use of landscape to convey a personal meaning
  • Hand Scrolls, Hanging Scrolls, and Album Leaves
    Literati favored hand scrolls, hanging scrolls, or album leaves because made it easy to share with others
  • Hand scrolls were paintings in a horizontal format, stretching several feet long
    Often hand scrolls contained a single continuous, yet they were not displayed all at once; typically, only a foot or two was unrolled at a time
    Hanging scrolls were viewed as a whole, unrolled and put up on a wall
    Albums composed of a set of paintings of identical size mounted in a book; typically paintings within an album were related in subject
    Paintings typically accompanied by colophons, or inscriptions related to the work (e.g. poems, comments, etc.)
  • Zhao Mengfu
    Zhao Mengfu was a descendant of the imperial line of Song, who chose to serve the Yuan government and was made a high official
    Known as a poet, calligrapher, and painter—especially known for paintings of horses and landscapes
    Landscapes are considered to be done in a style that focuses more on a literal laying of ground; not organized in a foreground, middle ground, and background, rather layers middle grounds at various heights to creative depth
    Artwork pervaded with characteristics of literati painting
  • Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains
    Hand scroll created in 1296
    Painted with ink and color pigments on paper
    Subject matter: Qiao and Hua Mountains of Jinan
    Painted for a friend whose ancestors came from Jinan; painting intended to depict landscape of Jinan
    Not painted in naturalism common in the era, rather in the archaic manner of Tang dynasty
    Color used sparingly
  • Fascination With Nature
    Painted by XieChufang
    Hand scroll created in 1321
    Subject matter: animals and insects feeding off one another
    Beauty and brightness of the natural world cover up the confusion and disorder caused by the fight for survival
    Representative of dilemma facing many Chinese of the period: whether to work for the Mongols or remain loyal to the fallen imperial dynasty
    Plant/insect subject matter as well as vibrant colors date back to Song dynasty marks the revivalism of earlier styles of Chinese painters
  • Ni Zan
    Rich man who was the owner of a large estate
    Pride and aloofness from daily affairs got him into trouble with authorities
    Notoriously clean; washed himself several times a day and ordered servants to wash trees in his garden
    Later in life, he is said to have given away all of his possessions and lived as a hermit in a boat
    Lifestyle served as a model for literati; lived an “ideal” lifestyle
  • The Rongxi Studio
    Hanging scroll created in 1372
    Ink on paper; free of color
    Depicts lake region in Ni’s home district; includes mountains, rocks, tree, and a pavilion
    Minimum detail included in artwork
    Created using a dry brush technique in which the brush is not fully loaded with ink but rather about to run out
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    • Replacing the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, it is known as one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history
    • Expansion:
    • Military naval and standing army
    • Trade under Zheng He expanded
    • Reconstruction:
    • Grand Canal and Great Wall
    • Emperor Hongwu strived to rebuild self-sufficient agricultural communities
    • Allows for trading class to thrive and become eligible scholars
    • Establishment:
    • Forbidden City in the center of Bejing
    • The Columbian Exchange
    • Due to natural calamity (Little Ice Age) and poor economy, rebel leader Li Zicheng could challenge the Ming authority
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Shen Zhou
    • Born wealthy in the Jiangsu providence
    • Renounced official service to take care of ill mother and become a retired artist
    • Composer of poems, usually dealing with natural undertones and thought
    • Style is informal, relaxed, and straightforward
    • Reflects his own personality
    • Share similar style to the Yuan Dynasty, but with more individual thought
    • Artists of the Ming Dynasty could live solely off of profits for art
    • Literati paintings with a mood and verse in mind
    • “Delicate Shen”
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Poet on a Mountaintop
    • Comes from the Wu School of art
    • Expresses a calm mood directly after the transition from the Yuan to Ming Dynasty
    • Monochrome painting in vogue
    • Poet has climbed mountains and now dominates the landscape
    • Reflects Ming philosophy: the mind, not the physical world, was the basis of reality
    • Synthesizes poetry, calligraphy, and painting
    Ming Dynasty. Handscroll.
    c. 1500 Ink and color on paper
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks
    • By Yin Hong
    • Birds and flower genre of the Song academy
    • Extremely symbolic:
    • Homage of birds to peacocks is the homage of court officials to the emperor
    • Ming characteristics: Large format and multiplication of detail
    • Very restricted landscape view in contrast with the lofty, unrestricted view from the prior painting
    Ming dynasty. Hanging scroll
    late 15th- early 16th century
    Ink and color on silk
  • Comparison to Western Art
    • Procession of birds similar to procession of people in the AraPacis
    • Birds common omen/symbol of Rome
    • Narrative style of relief similar to literati influences of the Ming Dynasty
    • Limited background
    • more focus on the vibrant activity in the foreground
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Spring Dawn in Han Palace
    • By Qui Ying
    • Ming dynasty. Long handscroll on silk
    • A major professional painter
    • Painted long scrolls for satisfied patrons’
    • Studies in Tang painting
    • Main concentration is on the figures, leaving the background very minimal
    • Figures contain much action
    • Depicts women working in the palace
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    Flask
    • Artist unknown
    • Ming Blue and White Wares
    • Subtle shape, refined yet vigorous decoration of dragons writhing above the sea, and the flawless glazing embody high achievement of Ming artisans
    • Dragons reminiscent of Chinese folklore
    • Wares extremely prolific under the Xuande Emperor (1426-35)
    Ming Dynasty. Procelain. 1426-35. painted with underglaze cobalt blue
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
  • Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
    The Forbidden City
    • Work of Mongols
    • Walled city of Chang’an laid out on a rectangular grid, with evenly spaced streets that ran north-south and east-west with the imperial palace on the north end
    • Must enter through the impressive Meridian Gate or the Gate of Supreme Harmony
    • Rigid city structure reflects Chinese belief in harmony of the universe and emphasis on the emperor as the Son of Heaven
    Ming Dynasty. Bejing
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    • Armies of the Manchu people to the northeast of China marched into Beijing
    • Beijing becomes the capital
    • Second time in history in which China had been ruled by foreigners
    • The first time was during the Yuan Dynasty when the Mongols controlled China
    • The Manchus had adopted many Chinese customs and institutions before their conquest and respected Chinese tradition throughout their control
    • The major trends of the late Ming dynasty continued into the Manchu, or Qing Dynasty, making China prosperous but complacent
    • They adopted the form of government used by the Ming Dynasty
    • The reigns of the first three emperors were peaceful
    • Emperor Kangxi : 1662-1722 CE
    • Emperor Yongzheng: 1722-1736 CE
    • Emperor Qianglong: 1736-1796 CE
    • Dramatic increase in population
    • Low taxes, commerce and international trade grew allowed for a revival of arts and learning
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Rule of Qianglong
    • Under Qianglong, China expanded to largest ever
    • Uprisings:
    • 1774 CE in Shantung
    • In 1775 CE led by the secret society known as the Society of the White Lotus
    • In 1813 CE, during the reign of Qianglong's successor, led by the secret society known as the Society of Heaven's Law
    • Chinese are impoverished
    Contact with Western World
    • Great Britain traded opium for silk and tea with China
    • Chinese became addicted to opium
    • Land that had previously been used for agriculture was used to produce opium
    • When opium was outlawed, the Opium Wars erupted in 1842 CE with Britain
    • At the conclusion, China virtually became a British colony
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Orthodox Painting
    • Literati painting was established as the dominant or orthodox tradition
    • Based upon Don Quichang’s recommendation to base their approach on past masters and paint in the manner of Song and Yuan artists
    • It was “orthodox” in the Confucian sense of continuing traditional modes
    • Qing emperors of 17th and 18th centuries were painters and collected literati painting
    • Their taste was inspired by Wang Hui
    • Literati painting became an academic style of the court and was no longer art for reclusive scholars
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Wang Hui (1632-1717)
    • Represents “orthodox” painting
    • Most well-known of the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin (1592-1680), Wang Jian (1598-1677), and Wang Yuangi (1642-1715)
    • Wang Shimin and Wang Jian were his teachers
    • His fame became known in Beijing
    • From 1691-98 he was commissioned to supervise the production of a series of hand scrolls marking the Kangxi emperor’s tour of the South
    • Returned to private life
    • Painted landscapes
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Wang Hui (1632-1717)
    • Painted A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines in 1693
    • Hanging scroll
    • Exemplifies basic elements of Chinese landscape painting: mountains, rivers, waterfalls, trees, temples, pavilions, houses
    • Features an inscription inspired by lines from a Tang-dynasty poem as well as the works of Dong Yuan and Juran
    • Painting shows the scene from afar
    • No individual identity of elements
    • This goal started in the Song Dynasty
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    • Artist unknown
    • Example of orthodox painting
    • Guan Yu was a warrior of the late Han dynasty renowned for his bravery and loyalty was later venerated as a saint in the Daoist pantheon
    • Served as a virtual patron saint of the Manchus in the Qing dynasty
    • Guan is shown descending from the heavens with two attendants
    • Features religious images used in the "water and land" ritual, which is a Buddhist ceremony conducted for the salvation of "all the souls on land and sea“
    • It is distinguished by its high level of craftsmanship, intricate detail, and lavish use of precious mineral pigments.
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    • Augustus of Primaporta, restored, and Emperor Guan
    • Both make use of bright colors
    • Both depict heroic emperors meant to be idealized
    • Both idealize military prowess of the subjects
    • Both use drapery to create an imposing figure
    • Both are associated with divinity and religious significance to cement their power
    • Augustus is depicted with Cupid, who is Venus’ son
    • Reference to the claim that the Augustus is a descendant of Venus through her human son Aeneas
    • Both are intricately detailed
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Individualist Painting
    • Individualists adapted Don Qichang’s idea of painting as an expression of personal emotions
    • The beginning of the Qing rule was dangerous for those loyal to the Ming
    • Some committed suicide or fled to masteries or the countryside
    • Painters expressed anger or disobedience in their art
    • Individualist art often had political significance
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    • Painting of courtiers, officials, and professional artists
    • Zhu Da, later known as BadaShanren, and Zhu Ruoji, later known as Shitao, were descendants of the Ming royal house
    • Zhu Da became a Buddhist monk, feigning deafness and madness to escape persecution after the fall of the Ming dynasty
    • Frustration and vulnerability are evident in his art
    • He created a deeply personal expressionist style that reflects his ambivalence about his life in hiding and his failure to acknowledge his identity as a Ming prince
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    Shitao (1642-1707)
    • Chinese painter and theoretician who was one of the most famous of the Individualist painters in the early Qing period
    • Descended from the first Ming emperor
    • Fled to Buddhist temples and became an Buddhist monk
    • He trained himself to paint and then moved to Yangzhou around 1695, where he renounced his status as a Buddhist monk and supported himself through his painting
    • Excelled in landscape painting, bird-and-flower painting, and figure painting
    • Sought to expand from past knowledge and creations
    • Wrote Huaya Lu, or Comments on Painting,in which he speaks of a “style of no style”
    • Landscape
    Monk sits in a small hut, looking out to tumultuous mountains
    Rocks and vegetation (dots) seem alive
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
  • Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
    • Yangzhou became a prosperous commercial center during the Qing dynasty due to the salt monopoly centered thereTwo groups of artists emerged:
    • Yuan Jiang
    • Worked in the courtly tradition, producing large-scale, richly detailed works in mineral pigments on silk
    • Exemplify Yangzhou taste for ostentatious display.
    • "Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou“]
    • Inspired by individualistic works of Shitao.
    • Specialize in figural subjects or flower and bird images that appealed to more people and were commercially viable than landscape painting
  • Modern Period (1911- Present Day)
    Qing dynasty overthrown in 1911 ending 2,000 of imperial rule
    New ideas from Japan and the West filtered in, calling for political and cultural reforms
    First decades of 20th century, Chinese artists traveled to Japan and Europe to study Western art; returned to China hoping to introduce new ideas and techniques
    Communist government in 1949 decreased artistic freedom; arts were pressed into service of the state and its vision of social order
    After 1979, cultural attitudes began to relax and Chinese painters pursued own paths
  • Wu Guanzhong
    Chinese painter who emerged in 1980s as “father of modern Chinese art”
    Combining French training with Chinese background, developed a semiabstract style
    Took preliminary sketches of landscape, then developed sketches into free interpretations
  • Pine Spirit
    Created in 1984
    Ink on paper
    Depicts a scene in the Huang Mountains in China
    Technique of sweeping brushstrokes, dots, and lines shows minimal concern for naturalistic shape and link to Abstract Expressionism
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
    • Founded by Taejo Yi Seong-gye after the overthrow of the Goryeo Kingdom
    • Capital is located in modern day Seoul and titled the land Korea
    • The last royal/imperial dynasty in Korea; employed Confucian philosophy and borrowed much of Chinese culture
    • Early 17th century: the Qing dynasty and Japan attack and devastate Korea and the Joseon Dynasty
    • Qing dominance creates isolationist policy and the land becomes “Hermit Kingdom”
    • 18th century: faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure, and rebellions the Joseon Dynasty declined rapidly
    • 1895: Treaty of Shimonoseki shows Joseon Dynasty independence from the Qing Dynasty after the Japanese win First Sino-Japanese War
    • 1910: Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty adds all of Korea and the Joseon Dynasty to the Japanese Empire
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
    JeongSeon
    • Pen name Gyeomjae meaning “humble study”
    • Not wealthy, but discovered by an aristocratic neighbor who noticed his talent and gave him an official government position
    • Although influenced by the Ming Wu School of art, he was one of the first Korea painters to truly depart from traditional Chinese style
    • Painted the world around him and painted daily until old age
    • His paintings are known as the Southern School of art, but in his lifetime he was unique with brush wrinkles of bold strokes in paralells
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
    Panoramic View of the Diamond Mountains (Geumgang-san)
    • 18th century: true Korean style emerged inspired by the silhaki, or “practical learning” movement
    • Emphasized study of things in Korean plus Chinese classics
    • Jeong chose Korean mountains rather than Chinese themes like the artists before him
    • Energetic spirit and the intensely personal style, with crystalline mountains, distant clouds of delicate ink wash, and individualistic brushwork
    • Craggy peaks show brilliance and boldness of the Korean landscape
    Late Joseon Period. Hanging scroll. 1734. Ink and colors on paper
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
  • Joseon Dynasty of Korea 1392-1910
    Horizontal Wine Bottle With Decoration of a Bird Carrying a Newly Caught Fish
    • Artist unknown
    • Example of Bucheong stoneware
    • Decoration relies on the use of white slip that makes the humble stoneware resemble more expensive white porcelain
    • Embellished with fluid, calligraphic brushwork painted in iron-brown slip
    • Most have floral decoration, rarely is it pictoral
    Joseon. Light gray stoneware with decoration painted in iron-brown slip on a white slip ground. 16th century
  • Modern Korea 1910-Present
    Modern Korea
    • “The Hermit Kingdom”
    • Joseon Dynasty maintains a policy of isolationism
    • Close its borders to all except China until 1876
    • 1910 Japan annexes Korea and ends the Joseon dynasty, but extends Korea’s isolation
    • Isolation continues through hardships of World War II (1939-1945) and Korean War (1950-1953)
    • Artistic and cultural progression decreases
    • Modern influences reach Korea indirectly, through China and Japan
    • Starting in the 1920’s and 1930’s, Korean artists experiment with Western artistic styles
    • Economic and culture progress in South Korea starting in the 1980’s
    • Most paint in the manner of Cezanne or Gauguin, but some in abstract, nonrepresentational styles
     
  • Modern Korea 1910-Present
    GimHwangi
    • One of 20th century Korea’s most influential painters
    • Influenced by Constructivism and geometric abstraction
    • After the Korean War, he investigates Westernism
    • Travels to Paris in 1956 and New York from 1964-1974
     
  • Modern Korea 1910-Present
    5-IV-71
    • Two circular radiating patterns of small blue, black, and gray dots
    • Heavily influenced by Western style
    • Title is the date of creation
    • Resembles Asia’s tradition of monochrome ink painting
    • Suggests a transcendence with a Daoist or Buddhist feeling
    • Started the precedent of combining traditional and Western styles, inspiring other Korean-born artists
     
  • Modern Korea 1910-Present
    Nam June Paik (1932-2006)
    • Video artist
    • Electronic Superhighway: Continental U.S.
    • Created for Holly Solomon Gallery in New York in 1995
    • Combination of live, recorded, computer-generated images shown on video monitors that he makes into a sculptural design
    • Features a map of Continental U.S. outlined in neon and backed by video monitors, flashing colors and moving with sound
    • Monitors show images that demonstrate each state’s culture and history
  • Modern Korea 1910-Present
  • Bibliography
    • Spencer Art. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.spencerart.ku.edu/exhibitions/ reviving_gathering.shtml>.
    • Academon. N.p., 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.academon.com/ Descriptive-Essay-Minimalism-in-Ni-Zan's-The-Rongxi-Studio/114129>.
    • Musuem of Modern Art. Musuem of Modern Art, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.moma.org/ collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O:AD:E:4675&page_number=2&template_id=1&sort_order=1>.
    • Danto, Arthur. Artchive. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.artchive.com/artchive/F/ frankenthaler/frankenthaler_mtns.jpg.html>.
    • Whitfield, R. Musuem of British Art. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.britishmuseum.org/ explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/x/xie_chufang,_fascination_of_na.aspx>.
    • Ming Blue and White. Koh-Antique, 2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.koh-antique.com/bandw/ bandw.html>.
    • Ah-young, Chung. "Jeon Song's Paintings Brought to Life." Korea Times. Korea Times, 2009. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://211.234.126.9/www/news/art/2010/12/148_51861.html>.
    • Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Ed. Sarah Toubourg. New York, New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.
    • Metmusuem. Metropolitan Musuem, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ works-of-art/2001.442>.
    • Ji, Dae. Instructional. Instructional, 2008. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/bevans/Art101/Art101B-10-China/WebPage-Full.00071.html>.
    • "Shitao." Shitao Online. Artcyclopedia, 2010. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <http://www.artcyclopedia.com/ artists/shitao.html>.