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  • 1. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR VISUAL IMPAIRMENT STUDENTS(A Descriptive Study at Tenth Grade of Man Maguwoharjo Sleman Yogyakarta In The Academic Year Of 2012/2013) THESIS PROPOSAL Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For Degree of Bachelor of Education in English Education By: WAHYU HIDAYAT (083411080) TARBIYAH FACULTY WALISONGO STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES SEMARANG 2012 1
  • 2. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR VISUAL IMPAIRMENT STUDENTS (A Descriptive Study at Tenth Grade of MAN Maguwoharjo Sleman Yogyakarta in the Academic Year of 2012/2013)A. Background of Study Every citizen is entitled to education1. Education is certainly not in the sense of acquiring teaching, but the components related to the implementation and success of an educational process is also the case that cannot be separated in fulfilling the need for education. Because, lack of fulfillment of one component in education will lead to the occurrence of gaps in education. Fulfilling the educational rights of citizens would not only be given in class or a particular race, but all citizens of the country with many different background should be accommodated to achieve the basis of justice, democratic, and non-discriminatory. So we have to maintain the principles of education that Education held in democratic and just and not discriminatory to uphold human rights, religious values, cultural values, and the plurality race 2. We can realize together that the nation of Indonesia has vast archipelago, and Indonesia also has tribes, races, cultures, religions, different beliefs. In addition, the government must also consider the differences of the presence of physical and or mental, as citizens who have been visually impaired, deaf or talk-back, quadriplegic, etc. which are in the country, to be a material consideration in maintaining adaptive educational system for those who have serious physical and mental retardation. Concerning with the educational needs of citizens who have physical limitations or mental illness, the government has issued several regulations related1 1945 constitution, pass 30, verse 1.2 Law No. 20 of 2003, on National Education System, chapter III, article 4, paragraph 1. 2
  • 3. to it. One of them is the Law No. 4 of 1997 on the disabled. One article in the Law stipulates that every difable are entitled to an education at all units, bands, and levels of education3. We need to understand more it together, that the fulfillment of education is not only from the side difabel acceptable to enter on a board of education, but how the institution able to accommodate the needs of difabel? thus it is essential in fulfilling the educational rights of difabel. Because the next chapter also explained that the government and or society are obliged to fulfill the rights of working on difabel. Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System, Chapter 5, verses 1 to 4 have mentioned that 4: 1. Every citizen has a right to obtain a quality education. 2. Citizens who have a physical disadvantage, emotional, mental, intellectual, and or social groups are entitled to special education. 3. Citizens living in remote or underdeveloped and isolated indigenous communities are entitled to special education services. 4. Citizens of countries that have the potential of intelligence and special talents are entitled to special education. On the other hand, education makes people grow into his own as an individual person, as an independent social being that are part of the national. Integral education in life should be able to shelters and support all components of the nation, regardless of social background, economic, tribe, religion and belief, gender, and physical and mental differences and variations. Education like this is called education inclusion 5. Many school systems today tend toward inclusion, or incorporate students with disabilities into the general education classroom,3 Law No. 4 of 1997, concerning Disabled Persons, chapter III, article 6, paragraph 14 Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System, Chapter 5, verses 1 to 45 Adi sedia Purwanta, Inclusive Education; ideological and Socialization, Papers, p.. 2 3
  • 4. because of many benefits in inclusion. Although inclusion may not be for allstudents with disabilities. Inclusion in public education has dramatically changed how students withdisabilities are taught. Where they once learned in separate classes taught byspecial educators, many children with a range of disabilities now learn in typicalclasses led by general education teachers. Until now, the fulfillment of the educational rights for difabel students hasdone by many institutions in the form of segregation or inclusion. One of them isMAN Maguwoharjo. As like any public school, implementation of learning inMAN Maguwoharjo the same system with public colleges. But MANMaguwoharjo able to receive and accommodate students difabel. This is a veryexperienced school of students difabel building combined with normal students. Being the inclusion school is not easy. At least the school should handlethemselves with innovations for Visual impairment students to follow the processof learning well. In addition, schools also should be able to provide awareness toall academicians that undergraduate students can also follow the blind educationin public schools. Restructuring the curriculum, teaching methods, teaching aids,teacher competency, evaluation, and academic services must be arranged in sucha way that would take time and a substantial investment. This is because learningmodel requires the inclusion of media, infrastructure facilities, curriculum,teacher competence, academic and non academic services in such a way, to beable to serve all students without exception. From these various problems, the author felt interested in studyinginclusion school model developing at MAN Maguwoharjo. How MANMaguwoharjo run English language teaching and learning for students? betweenvisual impairment students that blends with the normal students, how do theteachers make learning in the classroom?. All the places to be addressed andfurther examined using more than raise the educational level of the nation, openedthe schools vision of inclusion, and aims to provide a new view of society that 4
  • 5. children should not have school in SLB. There are schools that can teach and educate them with the inclusion, so they can mingle with all people that will improve their maturity and independence. As one of inclusion schools in Indonesia, MAN Maguwoharjo has become a model for other schools in the case of difabel service. But what are the services provided is completely MAN inclusion? How will the implementation of learning activities is the essence of education? For this reason, research and studies like this need to be held, as a reference material for government-related institutions in the implementation of learning for visual impairment students in various fields of knowledge, including the English language.B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic 1. The researcher is interested in describing an English language teaching learning for visual impairment students because the impaired students has weakness in visualization. It has a big deal to language as communication tool. 2. The researcher thinks that it is more difficult to teach visual impairment students with some weaknesses in reading the text, moreover foreign language (English). The researcher wants to know how to teach English for visual impairment students .C. Research Questions 1. What materials are covered in English course for visual impairment students at Tenth grade of MAN Maguwoharjo Sleman in The Academic Year of 2012/2013? 2. What methods are implemented in English teaching and learning process for visual impairment students at tenth grade of MAN Maguoharjo Sleman in the academic year of 2012/2013? 5
  • 6. 3. What obstacles results in English teaching and learning for visual impairment students at tenth grade of MAN Maguwoharjo Sleman in the academic year of 2012/2013? 4. How does the teacher cope with the obstacles in English teaching and learning for visual impairment students at tenth grade of MAN Maguwoharjo Sleman in the academic Year of 2012/2013?D. Objectives of the Study 1. To describe the language materials in English course for visual impairment students at MAN Maguoharjo Sleman in The Academic Year of 2012/2013. 2. To describe some teaching and learning methods applied in English for visual impairment students at MAN Maguoharjo Sleman in The Academic Year of 2012/2013. 3. To describe some obstacles results in English teaching and learning for visual impairment students at MAN Maguoharjo Sleman in The Academic Year of 2012/2013. 4. To describe some copes with the obstacles in English teaching and learning for visual impairment students at MAN Maguoharjo Sleman in The Academic Year of 2012/2013.E. Significances of the Study This research is expected to be able to give information for the researcher himself and people in educational field dealing with teaching materials, teaching methods, and learning assessments for visual impairment students effectively and efficiently. By doing this research, the researcher that it will give contribute some benefits for teachers, students with visual impairment, readers, and the researcher in the future, here are the benefits for each of them: 6
  • 7. a) Teachers It is expected to be kind of teaching method and reference for the teachers in developing or creating new more interesting methods and techniques of teaching English for the visual impairment students especially in inclusive school, so that they can teach successfully. b) Students The researcher hopes that the students will get an appropriate treatment in English learning so that they are going to learn English comfortably and do not get any difficulties anymore, and to motivate visual impairment students to compete with normal students. c) For the school, this research will be expected to be a reflection for teaching and learning process at MAN Maaguoharjo Sleman. And as the implementation guide of an evaluation of English for students with visual impairment. It can be a consideration to change the best strategy in teaching English; moreover can improve the quality of English teaching and learning.F. Review of the Related Literature 1. Previous Research 1) “English language teaching for the seventh grade students with hearing impairment”(A Descriptive Study of Methods and Material Approximately used at SLB “PRI” Buaran Pekalongan In The Academic Year of 2009/2010). This thesis was written by Nailal Maghfiroh (053411053), a bachelor of English Language Education of Tarbiyah Faculty of Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN Walisongo Semarang) 2010. The purpose of this study was to know how the English teaching process with hearing impairment students at SLB. And to find the appropriate method are applied in the teaching learning process and materials delivered to teaching English lesson in the seventh grade students with hearing impairment. Beside that to deepen the exciting data 7
  • 8. or information to help exceptional teacher, especially hearing impairment teacher having good ability in English teaching to hearing impairment students. 2) “English language teaching and learning for autistic students” (A Descriptive Study with Eighth Grade of SMPLB Negeri Semarang in the Academic Year of 2011/2012). This thesis was written by Anik Wulandari (08341162), a bachelor of English Language Education of Tarbiyah Faculty of Walisongo State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN Walisongo Semarang) 2010. The purpose of this study was to know how is the teaching and learning English with autistic student, and to know which method that is used for autistic students. Beside how the teacher asses the students.2. Theoretical Framework a. English Language Teaching and Learning 1. Foreign language Teaching and Learning English has been recognized as an International Language. That is, people who come from diverse backgrounds geography, religion and culture has had an agreed media to communicate with each other, namely English. In foreign language teaching and learning Edward Anthony said that there are three hierarchical elements, namely approach, method, and technique. An approach is a set of assumption dealing with nature of language, learning, and teaching. Method is described as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach. Technique is the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were 8
  • 9. consistent with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well.6 There are nine approaches in foreign language teaching and learning: 1. Grammar translation 2. Direct 3. Reading 4. Audiolingualism 5. Oral-Situation 6. Cognitive 7. Affective – Humanistic 8. Comprehension – Based 9. Communicative7 2. Characteristics of Visual Impairments a. Type of Visual Impairments Students with non-correctable vision problems have visual impairments. Depending on the severity of the condition. To qualify as a visually impaired student, certain criteria must be met, like low visual acuity, visual field limitation, progressive eye disease, or cortical visual impairment. Partially Sighted: A visual impairment that adversely affects a students educational performance even when corrected to the extent possible. Low Vision: If someones vision is between 20/70-20/160 and cannot be corrected, the student has moderate to low vision.6 H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, (NewYork: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 14.7 Marianne Celce-Murcia, teaching English as a second or foreign language.(2001) P. 5 9
  • 10. Legally Blind: From 20/200-20/400 is legally blind with severe low vision. From 20/400 20/1000 is profound visual impairment, and is very close to total blindness. Totally Blind: The lack of light perception is known as total blindness or total visual impairment. At one point the term visual impairment referred to an eye disorder at the tissue level, but subsequently, visual impairments took on a broader meaning to include the consequence of a functional loss of vision caused by a number of eye disorders8. Many factors determine how visual impairments affect students’ learning experience. Age of onset and severity of vision loss, as well as presence of multiple disabilities, are some of the factors that make each student’s situation unique. The cause of visual impairment and overall functioning level of a student also determine how the visual impairment affects a students development. In general, visual impairments have cognitive, academic, social and emotional, and behavioral effects. b. Sociological characteristic Students with visual impairments face tremendous challenges in school, both academically and socially. With struggles to keep up in inclusive classes, these students may not put forth the time and effort to learn how to develop social skills. Social difficulties in children with visual impairments are typically caused by a lack of information about the visual aspects of interacting with others. These difficulties are often reinforced by others’ hesitancy to establish relationships with and communicate appropriate expectations to individuals with visual impairments.8 10
  • 11. Visual impairment indirectly causes personal problems. Personal problems are caused incline by negative attitude by their environment. Students with visual impairment have difficulties in mastering social skill, because that skill usually comes by visualization. They also incline feel suspicious to others, offended and dependence to others9. 3. Causes of visual impairment Types of impairment are different for different causes of visual impairment. In total vision loss for example there may be total darkness of the visual fields. Other types include visual impairment in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and so forth. a. Visual impairment in glaucoma This condition is due to the rise of normal fluid pressure inside the eyes. The type of vision is usually like a tunnel. The intact vision remains in the center while progressively the peripheries start decreasing. The center of the tunnel reduces in size progressively till total vision is lost if left uncorrected. b. Age-Related Macular Degeneration A central area of woolly or cottony opacity obscures the central part of the vision. The peripheries may be normally seen. AMD usually blurs the sharp, central vision that is needed for closely viewed activities like reading, sewing, and driving. This is a painless condition. c. Cataract9 11
  • 12. There is general clouding of the vision. As the whole eye lens is affected the blurring of vision may be diffuse until it is totally lost. There may be other symptoms like photophobia – inability to see the light; diplopia – double vision etc. Cataracts are very common in older people. d. Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetes leads to damage of the smaller arteries and blood vessels at the back of the eyes over the retina. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading cause of blindness in adults. Usually vision impairment in diabetics begins as black spots or floating shapes that appear in the field of vision. Slowly complete vision may be lost if left unchecked. e. Near sightedness Myopia or near sightedness or short sightedness means a person can see nearby objects clearly but distant objects appear blurred. High myopia may lead to vision impairment. f. Retinitis Pigmentosa This is a genetic or inherited condition. Initially it manifests as night blindness. As the disease progresses there may be a tunneling of vision with loss of peripheral vision followed by complete blindness.b. Teaching students with visual Impairment Students with visual impairments must be taught compensatory skills and adaptive techniques in order to be able to acquire knowledge from methods other than sight. The presence of a visual impairment can potentially impact the normal sequence of learning in social, motor, language and cognitive developmental areas. A visual impairment can make learning very difficult. Students with visual impairments have unique educational needs which are most 12
  • 13. effectively met using a team approach of professionals, parents and students. In order to meet their unique needs, students must have specialized services, books and materials in appropriate media (including braille), as well as specialized equipment and technology to assure equal access to the core and specialized curricula, and to enable them to most effectively compete with their peers in school and ultimately in society. There must be a full range of program options and support services so that the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team can select the most appropriate placement in the least restrictive environment for each individual student with a visual impairment. c. Methods of Teaching English as Foreign Language 1. Definition of Method According to Douglas Brown that method is a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be concerned primarily with teacher and student roles and behaviors and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly applicable to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.10 Language teaching in the twentieth century was characterized by frequent change and innovation and by the development of sometimes competing language teaching ideologies. Much of the impetus for change in approaches to language teaching came about from changes in teaching method. The method concept in teaching the notion of systematic set of teaching practiced based on a particular theory of language and language learning is a powerful one and the quest for better methods was a preoccupation of many teachers10 H. Douglas Brown, Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to LanguagePedagogy, (New York: Longman, 2000 ),2nd Ed, p. 16. 13
  • 14. and applied linguists throughout the twentieth century. Common to each method is the belief that the teaching practices it supports provide a more effective and theoretically sound basis for teaching than the methods that preceded it. It can be define that method is a procedure or process for attaining an object as a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction during the process of teaching and learning, when the latter suggests the dynamic interplay between teachers and learners. 2. Several methods used in English Language Teaching These are several methods that used in English Language Teaching: a. Grammar Translation Method (GTM) This method out the traditional teaching of classical Latin and Greek when living language began to be widely taught in the nineteenth century. It was the dominant method until the end of century and has continued to be used in one form or another until the present day. But it has long been “out of fashion”. Grammar Translation Method are used for whom foreign language learning meant a tedious experience of memorizing endless lists of unusable grammar rules and vocabulary and attempting to produce perfect translations of stilted or literary prose.11 b. Direct Method (DM) This method developed as a revolution against the Grammar- Translation Method at the end of nineteenth century. It was based some extent on the new sciences of the nineteenth century,11 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in LanguageTeaching, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001) Second Edition, p. 6. 14
  • 15. especially linguistics and psychology. The direct method receives it is name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students’ native language. 12 Languages are seen as system of communication, primarily oral, in which word are used together in sentences, a sentences are used discourse. Languages are believed to be learned best in a natural way, by haring words and sentences in context and imitating what you hear. c. Total Physical Response (TPR) Total Physical Response method was developed by James Asher. Total Physical Response consists basically of obeying commands given by the instructor that involve an overt physical response.13 This method is suitable for beginners’ course only, and later needs to be supplemented by activities and techniques from other methods. It aims to develop listening comprehension before production, to associate language with action, and to reduce stress in language learning. d. The Silent Way According to Jack and Theodore that The Silent Way is the name of a method of language teaching devised by Caleb Gattegno. It is based on the premise that the teacher should be silent as much as possible in the classroom but the learner should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible.14 These method contrasts almost totally with TPR, instead of giving extensive active listening comprehension practice, the teacher is silent for most of the time,12 Diane Larsen and Freeman, Techniques and Principles In Language Teaching, (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 23.13 Stephen D. Kranshen, Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, (NewYork: Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd. 1987), p. 140.14 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Op.cit., p. 81. 15
  • 16. giving only singe examples of new sentence and produce similar ones. e. The Audio-Lingual Method Audio-lingual is primarily an oral approach to language teaching, it is not surprising that the process of teaching involves extensive oral instruction. The focus is on immediate and accurate speech, there is little provision for grammatical explanation or talking about the language.15 Audio Lingual holds that language learning is like other forms of learning. Since language is a formal, rule governed system; it can be formally organized to maximize teaching and learning efficiency. f. Communicative Language Learning Method Communicative Language Learning (CLL) is the name of a method developed by Charles A. Curran which was given to a set of belief which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach , but also a shift in emphasis in how to teach.16 g. Suggestopedia Developed by Georgi Lozanov, Suggestopedia sees the physical surroundings and atmosphere of the classroom as of vital importance. By ensuring that the students are comfortable, confident and relaxed, the affective filter is lowered, thus enhancing learning17. By using suggestopedia method, the learners learn not only from the effect of direct instruction but from the environment in which the instruction takes place. 3. Material Selection15 Ibid., p. 64.16 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (England: PersonEducational Ltd, 2001), 3rd Ed. p. 84.17 Ibid., p. 89. 16
  • 17. 1. Concept of Material Selection Language instruction has five important component: students, a teacher, materials, teaching methods, and evaluation.18 Allwright argues that materials should teach students to learn, that they should be resource books for ideas and activities for instruction/learning, and that they should give teachers rationales for what they do. From allwright we know that He emphasizes that materials control learning and teaching. Materials are the center of instruction and one of the most important influences on what goes on in the classroom. In this case, the role of technology should be applied as much as possible so that the visual impairment students can compete and follow the lessons well. very important for them to be able to read Braille writing. As we know the visual impairment students cannot see or look the textbook, we need suitable materials for them and also understand their accommodation. 2. Material for Tenth Grade All teaching materials need to possess certain characteristics, and these apply equally whether we are considering printed course books, ancillary readers, visuals of many kinds, recordings, films, or any other kind of instructional materials. They need to be realistic, relevant, interesting, encouraging, and compatible.19 There are some materials for tenth grade students, according to education curriculum unit level (KTSP), the materials cover introduction, meeting and leaving, offering, invitation and agreement. They also cover some genres (recount, narrative and procedure). Teaching process also uses18 Peter Strevens, New Orientations in the Teaching of English, p. 27. 17
  • 18. some media (textbooks, video and audio tapes, computer software, and visual aids). 3. Material for Visual Impairment Students The form of teaching material is analyzing which presents or informs about the language to be learned. 20 So how to make a suitable materials for visual impairment students? we need special materials in order to the lessons can be informed to visual impairment students. we can use special hardware for the visual impairment students, such as scanners and Braille displays, vocal syntheses and screen readers. Besides we should know some common accommodations for visual impairment students : a) Alternative print formats, which may require text conversion b) Magnification devices c) Bright, incandescent lighting d) Raised lettering or other tactile cues e) Adaptive computer equipment f) Readers for exams g) Priority registration h) Recorded lectures i) Lab or library assistants21G. Research Methodology20 Brian Tomlinson, Material Development in Language Teaching, (UK: Cambridge University Press,2003), p. 1.21 18
  • 19. The research method is used in ways in which research in the research process. This is done to determine the selection of appropriate methods in influencing the success or failure of research, as with any method, is expected to obtain objective data. 1. Type of Research. The type of research is case study research. The case study is the investigation depth (in-depth study) of a social unit such that it produces well- organized picture and details on these social units.22 2. Research Approach. The approach in this study is a qualitative approach, namely the research procedures which produce descriptive data in the form of words written or spoken about people and behaviors that can be observed.23 3. Subject In a qualitative study did not use the term population, but according to Spradley called "Social Situation" or social situation that consists of three elements: places, actors, and activities that interact synergistically. 24 So the subjects of this study are visual impairment students.H. Techniques of Data Collection In terms of the way or data collection techniques, the data collection techniques can be done by observation, interviews, questionnaires, documentation, and fourth combined. As in this study, the researcher will use data collection methods as follows: a. Observation22 Saifudin Azqar, Metode Penelitian, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1998), p.823 Lexy J Moleong, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif , (Bandung: PT Remaja Rosda Karya, 2005), p. 424 Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, (Bandung: Alfa Beta, 2010), p.297 19
  • 20. The observation is carried out by means of observation and recording of the object under study, then recording conducted necessary to obtain the corresponding data to the research. Methods of data collection will be conducted to see firsthand how the evaluation techniques applied in English course for students with visual impairment in MAN Maguwoharjo and to observe directly form about the English language. b. Interview The interview is a process of interaction, dialogue, question and answer verbally committed by two or more persons directly to obtain the required information. In the interview, the interview took only a guideline that outlines the things that will be requested.25 The targeted interviews conducted by researchers directly is : 1) Visual impairment students of MAN Maguoharjo. Information to be excavated is about how their English language teaching and learning experience as well as the obstacles they encountered in the teaching and learning process. 2) English teacher who teaches visual impairment students. The information will be applied on the subject of this study that related to how the planning process of teaching and learning English. c. Documentation Documentation is a technique of data collection by gathering and analyzing documents, whether written documents, pictures, and electronic.26I. Data analysis technique25 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, ( Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1991),p.12826 Nana Syauhid Sukma Dinata, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, ( Bandung: PT Remaja RosdaKarya, 2004) , p.221. 20
  • 21. Data analysis is the process of systematically searching and compiling the data obtained from interviews, field notes, and other materials, so it can be understood easily, and its findings can inform others.27 In analyzing data had been collected, the researcher uses descriptive qualitative research. As using this technique, the researcher collects data, arranges data and presents data. The qualitative method is kind of research without using any calculation or statistic procedure. To know the English learning process at MAN Maguoharjo Sleman, the steps done are as follow: 1. Data Reduction. Data reduction is a form of analysis that classifying, directing, and organizing data in such way, so that it can be reduced data verification. 28 Collecting the data obtained from interviews, observations, and documentations. 2. Data Display. The data have been reduced and then made the presentation of data. The presentation of data can be done in the form of brief description, charts, relationship between categories, and so on. The most frequent form of data display for qualitative research data in the past has been narrative text. By data display, then the data is organized, arranged in a pattern of relationships that would be easily understood.29 3. Conclusion Drawing/Verification. conclusion drawing and verification. Presented preliminary conclusion is still tentative and will change if not found evidence that supports strong data collection on the next stage.30 The conclusion in qualitative research may be able to answer the formulation of the problem that formulated from the beginning, but maybe not, because as has been stated issues and problems in the qualitative research is still tentative and will be developed after research in27 Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan, p.334.28 Mattew B. Meles, dkk., Analisa Data Kualitatif, (Jakarta: UI Press, 1993) , p..1629 Ibid., p. 34130 Ibid., p. 345 21
  • 22. the field. From the explanation above, the researcher will apply this techniqueto describing and analyzing data from the result or research about Englishlanguage teaching for students with visual impairment systematically. REFERENCES 22
  • 23. Arikunto, Suharsimi, 1991, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik,Jakarta: Rineka Cipta Johnson,Elaine B. Contextual Teaching and Learning, (California: CorwinPress, Inc,2002), Harmer,Jeremy The Practice of English Language Teaching, (England:Person Educational Ltd, 2001), Larsen, Diane and Freeman, Techniques and Principles In LanguageTeaching, (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 2000) Meles, Mattew B., dkk.,1993, Analisa Data Kualitatif, Jakarta: UI Press Moleong, Lexy J, 2005, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif , Bandung: PTRemaja Rosda Karya Purwanta, Adi sedia, Inclusive Education; ideological and Socialization,Papers Saifudin, Azqar, 1998, Metode Penelitian, Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar Sukmadinata, Nana Syauhid, 2004, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan,Bandung: PT Remaja Rosda Karya Wiraatmaja, Rokhiyati, 2004, Metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, Bandung:Rosda Karya Woolkfolk, Anita E. Education Psychology, (Canada: Pearson EducationCanada Inc.2006) 23