1. The Cell in Action!!!
STATE UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA
By: Ms. Dhita
2. Section 1 Objectives:
•Explain the process of diffusion
•Describe how osmosis occurs
•Compare passive transport with active
•Explain how large particles get into
and out of cells
3. Exchange with the Environment
 An organism must be able to obtain energy and
raw materials and get rid of waste.
 Cell division allows organisms to grow and repair
 Exchange of materials between a cell and its
environment takes place at the cell’s membrane.
4. What is Diffusion?
 Everything is made up of moving particles.
 Particles travel from where they are crowded to
where they are less crowded.
 This movement from areas of high concentration
(crowded) to areas of low concentration (less
crowded) is called DIFFUSION
 Cells do not need energy to use energy for diffusion
5. Example of Diffusion
6. Diffusion of Water
 Cells of organisms are surrounded by and filled with
fluids that are made mostly of water.
 OSMOSIS – the diffusion of water through cell
 Water is made of up molecules
 Pure water has the highest concentration of water
molecules, but when you mix something, you lower the
concentration of water molecules.
7. Osmosis Continued…
 Semipermeable means only certain substances can
 If certain substances pass through a semipermeable
membrane, over time the water molecules move
from the liquid with the high concentration of water
to the liquid with low concentration of water
8. Osmosis Example
9. The Cell and Osmosis
The Animal Cell The Plant Cell
 Plasma (surrounds red  Osmosis occurs in plant
blood cells) is made up of cells
water, salts, and sugars.  When a wilted plant is
 Concentration of these watered, osmosis makes
particles is kept in the plant firm again!
balance by osmosis.
10. Hypotonic, Isotonic, & Hypertonic Solution
 If environment is:
 MORE SOLUTES outside cell
 MORE WATER IN CELL
 over time, cell loses water
 “Iso-” means environment “=” cell
 No change in cell volume
 LESS SOLUTES outside cell
 LESS WATER IN CELL, more solutes in cell.
 over time, cell gains water
11. Comparison of 3 Types of Solutions
HYPERTONIC ISOTONIC HYPOTONIC
12. Moving Small Particles
 Small particles, such as sugars, cross the cell membrane
through passageways called CHANNELS.
 Channels are made up of proteins in the cell membrane.
 Particles travel through the channels either through:
 Passive Transport
 Active Transport
13. Passive Transport Active Transport
 Movement of particles across  Process of transporting
a cell membrane without the
particles that requires
use of energy by the cell.
the cell to use energy.
 Particles move from an area
 Usually involves the
of high concentration to an
area of low concentration. movement of particles
 Diffusion and Osmosis are from an area of low
examples of Passive concentration to an area
of high concentration!
14. Moving Large Particles
 Large particles move into and out of the cell by
 Endocytosis = “Within the Cell”
 Exocytosis = “Outside the Cell”
 Active transport process that surrounds a large particle.
 Encloses the particle in a vesicle.
 Brings the particle into the cell.
 2 types of endocytosis:
 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
 What are Vesicles??
 Sacs formed from pieces of cell membrane
16. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
 Active transport which moves large particles out of
 A vesicle forms around a large particle within the
 Vesicle carries the particle to the cell membrane.
 Vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases
the particle to the outside of the cell.
18. Quiz . . .
 Describe Diffusion!
 Describe Osmosis!
 What is the difference between active
transport and passive transport!
 Endocytosis means…?
 Exocytosis means…?