A combination of top-down and bottom-up processing, or what has come to be called interactive reading, is almost always a primary ingredient in successful teaching methodology because both processes are important. (Brown, Teaching by Principles ) In practice, a reader continually shifts from one focus to another, now adopting a top-down approach to predict probable meaning, then moving to the bottom-up approach to check whether that is really what the writer says. (Nuttall, 1996, p.17)
A reader will rely on knowledge about a known topic to sort out word meaning; conversely, a reader who has a mastery of the text’s vocabulary but is unfamiliar with the topic will rely on word knowledge in order to comprehend a text. (Mikulecky, What is Reading? )
Readers can easily be overwhelmed by a long string of ideas of events. The strategy of semantic mapping, or grouping ideas into meaningful clusters, helps the reader to provide some order to the chaos. ( Brown, Teaching by Principles )
Why Use Semantic Maps / Graphic Organizers?
process and get the information more effectively
Joy, Book 5, Unit 8
Graphic Organizer of Joy, Book 5, Unit 8
a visual and graphic display that depicts the relationships between facts, terms, or ideas
a one-page form with blank areas for the student to fill in with related ideas and information.