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1. Last year Graham spent his holiday in Austria. One day he was skiing
when he _________ into a tree.
2. When Mahatma Gandhi graduated he took a job in South Africa
where he first ________ against injustice.
3. A Great White has been known to part a wire rope with a breaking
________ of 2,000 kilograms.
4. Perhaps no creature on land or sea __________ so much terror as the
Great White Shark.
5. He broke away from his captors, but they gave ________ and saw
him...climbing over the wall into Bingley prison.
6. The British monarchy is an enormously popular ________ .
7. The most striking ___________ of the town was the cathedral which
was founded at the same time as the town.
8. Computer scientists are now working on the next ___________ of
9. Most people are aware of their astrological __________.
10. Difficulty in distinguishing between colors, particularly red and
green, is an inherited __________.
11. One condition of this job is that you must be _________ to work at
12. A relief _________ has been set up to help earthquake victims.
13. The prison was so well guarded that any thought of escape was
14. Supposing I ________ to agree to your request, how do you think the
others students would feel?
15. I hope you won't take _________ if I tell you the truth.
16. His failure _________ great disappointment to his parents.
17. The government's new safety pamphlet __________ against smoking
18. When he had finished the apple he threw the ________ into the bin.
19. Two months is ________ time to allow for the job to be completed.
20. Don't jump _______ conclusions; we don't yet know all the relevant
21. Even at that early stage, the school felt that she _________ a good
chance of passing her exams.
22. No-one appreciated his work during his lifetime, but __________ it is
clear that he was a great artist.
in the aftermath
by the time
in this eventuality
23. Although they had suffered heavy losses, the commanders refused to
24. The government spend vast sums on defence while public services are
being cut _______.
25. Even ________ for inflation he thought it was a good investment.
26. He looked like an ENglish man, but his foreign accent gave him
27. Even the most __________ drivers feel an urge to break the speed-
28. While politicians argue about nuclear weapons, ordinary people are
simply concerned _______ staying alive.
29. I turned down his offer to stay as I did not wish to __________ upon
30. The games were _______ (banned) in the Philippines.
31. As soon as the consumer protection law was passed, some
manufacturers began to _______ to have it changed.
32. I'm so tired that I can't take ________ what you're saying.
33. The first time he spoke in public he was _________ with nerves.
34. In order to give up smoking, you need to exercise great ________.
35. For people with hearing difficulties, telephones with volume controls
provide the best __________ .
36. It was too late to ___________ of the contract.
37. By going in person to the office which _________ the forms she was
able to get what she wanted.
38. The student failed to meet the necessary ______________ for
admission to the course.
39. ____________ of recent political developments he was taken by
surprise on his arrival in the capital.
40. She always _________ the smell of fresh bread with her mother, who
41. After the theft of his car he put in an insurance _________ for £3,000.
42. He'll be very upset if you __________ his offer of help.
43. Prizes are awarded __________ the number of points scored.
44. The committee took just thirty minutes to ___________ the
conclusion that action was necessary.
45. She bought the mansion _________ that she would make a fortune
out of her new novel.
46. After his girlfriend left him, George determined never ________ in
for to fall
47. The job applicant told her interviewer that she would jump
_________ the chance to work for such a prestigious firm.
48. The ability to __________ work is the sign of a good manager.
49. He failed to __________ the authorities of his change of address.
50. The children _________ at the ease with which the circus acrobats
performed their routines.
51. When her millionaire father died, the heiress __________ a fortune.
52. When he examined the gun the detective's suspicion turned into
53. The seat belt can be altered to ___________ for differences in the size
of the passenger.
54. Because of rapid technoligical progress, the computers being made
today will be ________ in five years' time.
55. Few pleasures can equal ____________ of a cool drink on a hot day.
56. I'll just _________ an eye over these figures before you type them.
57. His emotional problems _____________ from the attitudes he
encountered as a child, I think.
58. This book is full of practical ___________ on home decorating and
59. If we bend the rules for one person it will _________ a dangerous
60. The little boyy was left in _________ his grandmother during his
the charge of
61. Reading for questions 61 - 65:
In the 1940s I took up the growing of many types of seed on my farm on
a contract basis: a great deal of grass seed, quite a lot of vegetable seed
and some flower seed. Everyone of these crops demandss a different sort
of technique in growing and harvesting and none of them had been
grown in our area before, so it was a very demanding business, but also
very satisfying and interesting. I would never previously have imagined
that in the same year I would be harvesting beans, cabbages, carrots and
several types of flowers for their seed. They are all of different sizes, have
a different character and require different methods for harvesting and
drying. Some are extremely easy, once you know how. For instance,
when you have grown Sweet Williams flowers in a field and they are
ready for harvesting, you have to gather the plants in armfuls, tie them
together in bundles, and leave them in the field in piles with the heads
upwards to dry. You then have to wait for a nice sunny day, when you go
along with a large container, hold the bundles upside-down over the top
of it and, if the air is hot and dry enough, all the seeds come out of their
Carrot seed, when you harvest it, is not like the seed you buy in a packet
in a shop. When grown for seed, carrot crops take up the land for much
longer than most other crops. It has to be sown one July, left over the
winter and harvested the following August or September. Like Sweet
Williams flowers grown for seed, carrot plants have to be cut with an
old-fashioned machine, allowed to dry in bundles, and then beaten using
traditional tools. But it is, so to speak, only half beaten out. The result is
a very light, wooly seed, which has to be sent away in large bags to a
seedsman who will reduce it to relatively small seeds with special
machinery which rubs off the feathery bits. I remember we sent away
two railway trucks full of enormous bags of carrot seed but the whole lot
weighed only a ton or two.
61. In the 1940s the farmer grew and harvested ...
vegetable seeds one year and flower seeds the next.
one particular type of seed crop each year.
several kinds of seeds each year.
seeds he had been told were easy to grow
62. What did the farmer find out about growing and harvesting seeds?
It was much easier than he had imagined.
It had never been done on local farms.
A sunny summer was essential.
It was a very profitable business.
63. The seeds from Sweet Williams flowers are harvested by...
tying the plants into bundles to dry and then shaking them.
cutting off the heads and collecting them in large containers.
heaping the plants together and beating out the seeds.
storing the plants upside-down until the seeds drop out.
64. Why might farmers be reluctant to produce carrot seed?
The plants do not yied much seed.
The seeds take a long time to dry.
Growing and harvesting takes more than a year.
The seedsmen do not pay much for the seeds.
65. Carrot seed in a packet looks different from carrot seed when the
farmer harvests because it is...
much darker in color
much lighter in color
66. Reading for questions 66-70:
Design is the act of making something better. Everything, no matter how
ordinary, has been designed.
That some objects give us no special pleasure or are not fashionable does
not alter the fact that somebody decided what they would look like, what
they would do and how they would be used.
Every time you buy a new kettle or toaster, the quality of the design is
influential, encouraging you to choose one kettle or toaster over the
others. Good design works well. Excellent design works well and gives
pleasure. Look at it the other way round. Some objects look very good
but do not work well. Take the Alessi kettle, with its curved handle and
two-tone whistle. It looks very exciting but the handle can get too hot to
touch. Compare this with the familiar Russel Hobbs automatic electric
kettle. It has been in production since the late 1950s, works perfectly and
Poor designs are easy to find. If you cannot see what is at the back of the
kitchen cupboard without getting down on your hands and knees, that is
bad design. If you catch your sleeve on a door handle, that is bad design.
If you cannot understand how to use the controls on your cooker without
searching for the instruction book - and if, when you find the book, you
still cannot work the timing switch, that is unpardonably bad design.
The question is: how, when these kinds of faults are so obvious, have
some designs ever reached our homes?
The answer is that in most cases, bad designs emerge because not enough
energy and time is given to thinking through all the different questions
that should be asked about the product.
Kitchen cupboard makers will say that they are making cupboards as
economically as possible. This kind of "cheapness" is one of the main
reasons for the absence of good design in our homes. To make a
cupboard where the shelves swing out to display the contents when the
door is opened is expensive.
66. What does the passage say that good designers think about?
how things will be used.
what people are used to.
what is fashionable.
what will influence people.
67. Things which are excellently designed ...
last a long time
always get chosen by shoppers
both work well and look good.
68. What was wrong with the Alessi kettle?
It was too round.
It was unreliable.
The design was impractical.
The design was old-fashioned.
69. In what way are some cookers badly designed?
The handles stick out too far.
It is difficult to find the controls.
Using the timing switch is a confusing process.
The instruction books have no diagrams.
70. Why do badly-designed things get made and sold?
They are quicker and cost less to make.
Manufacturers pay low wages to designers.
Designers do not know enough about manufacturing processes.
There are too few good designers.
71. Questions 71-76:
Sir Anthony Van Dyck, one of the world's greatest masters of
portraiture, was born in Antwerp and was the seventh of twelve
children. His affluent father apprenticed him to a painter when he was
just a little over ten. Having become a member of the Antwerp Guild of
painters before he was nineteen, he worked in the studio of Peter Paul
Rubens for several years. In Italy, Van Dyck studied the great Venetian
masters and painted flattering portraits of gorgeous ladies and haughty
nobles in gilded velvet robes with lace and pearls. While he was sought
after by the aristocracy for his acclaimed loose brushwork, his
engravings and etchings also evinced his outstanding talent. Upon his
return to Antwerp in 1628, he was influenced by Rubens's interpretation
of the artistic form and produced numerous religious paintings while
holding an appointment as the court painter. During his tenure, he
proved that his use of color, his sensitive elegance, and his remarkable
insight were unexcelled.
His fame preceded him to England, where he was invited by King
Charles I. After years of faithful service, he was knighted in recognition
of achievements in painting countless portraits of the king, the queen, the
royal children, and the titled nobility of England. However, Van Dyck's
greatest piece is one of his religious works, a true masterpiece displayed
in the Antwerp gallery. This group scene exhibits his artful polish in
painting the folds of fabric, the delicacy of human skin, landscape, and
other externals, and puts him above other accomplished contemporary
masters. Although Charles paid Van Dyck a salary and granted him a
pension, the painter's extravagant life-style and penchant for luxuries led
him into debt, and he died without means.
71. What did Van Dyck do in his early youth?
He was hired as a painter.
He was a brush cleaner.
He studied painting.
He sold paintings.
72. It can be inferred from the passage that after Van Dyck left Rubens
he accrued considerable wealth.
he became a militant aristocrat.
he refined his artistic tastes and skills.
he incorporated southern styles in his art.
73. The author of the passage implies that Van Dyck's fame had largely
to do with his ...
elegance in clothing
74. How did Charles I honor Van Dyck?
Van Dyck painted members of the royal court.
Van Dyck received a noble tittle.
Van Dyck was allowed to travel widely.
Van Dyck displayed his work in the royal palace.
75. What does Van Dyck's masterpiece attest to?
His remarkable religious fervor.
His refined sense for texture.
His keen eye for polished surfaces.
His exorbitant tastes and habits.
76. What are the reasons given for Van Dyck's financial decline?
His employer's lack of generosity.
His ill health and lack of revenue.
His lavish spending.
His miserly attitudes.
77. Questions 77-81:
Linen is yarn, thread, or fabric made from the stem fibers of flax, one of
the oldest cultivated plants. Because the plant is grown in temperate
climates, its production is limited. Archaeological evidence shows that
flax was used for making ropes and fishing nets in Switzerland over
10,000 years ago. Ancient Egyptians used flax more than any other fiber
for making linen, which was employed in the manufacture of a diverse
array of other materials. When the use of linen spread from the
Mediterranean to Europe, linen became second only to wool as the most
prevalent material for fabric, primarily because the spindle was no
longer teh sole device used for winding thread. It was during that time
that the spinning wheel replaced the spindle and distaff for twisting and
winding the flax fibers. By the end of the seventeenth century, a spinning
wheel for linen was a fixture in almost every European and North
Linen is relatively scarce now because the process of weaving flax fabric
is comparatively work - and time - consuming. Upon harvesting, flax
must be hackled to separate the linen fibers from the tow. Then the
fibers are soaked and dried. Bundling the gleaned fiber precedes raking
and thinning. The latter are essential steps since unravelling the fibrous
mass of stems can facilitate winding. After the threads have been spun,
they are laid on a loom and woven into the finished product, known as
linen. As is the case with some other natural fibers, such as slik and wool,
the price of linen fabric is rather high, and it is not as easy to care for as
fabrics made of synthetic rayon, acetate, and viscose.
77. According to the passage, what precludes world-wide cultivation of
Archaeologists do not put much stock in flax longevity.
Linen production has been restricted to increase prices.
Flax can be farmed only in certain geographical areas.
Flax plants are no longer grown where they used to be.
78. What promoted the proliferation of linen?
A shortage of materials in Europe.
The replacement of wool by linen in textiles.
Technological advancements in fiber processing.
The dissipation of need for various materials.
79. According to the passage, which of the following is the crucial phase
in fiber preparation?
Harvesting and tying it.
Towing and pulling it.
Combing it to make it fine.
Spinning it rapidly.
80. It can be inferred from the passage that the high cost of linen can be
attributed to ...
its relative popularity
its laborious fabrication
the labor-intensive care
looming and weaving
81. The author of the passage implies that currently, linen is NOT as
prevalent as ...
82. Questions 82-90:
Many of the computing patterns used today in elementary arithmetic,
such as those for performing long multiplications and divisions, were
developed as late as the fifteenth century. Two reasons are usually
advanced to account for this tardy development, namely, the mental
difficulties and the physical difficulties encountered in such work.
The first of these, the mental difficulties, must be somewhat discounted.
The impression that the ancient numeral systems are not amenable to
even the simplest calculations is largely based on lack of familiarity with
these systems. It is clear that addition and subtraction in a simple
grouping system require only ability to count the number symbols of
each kind and then to convert to higher units. No memorization of
number combinations is needed. In a ciphered numeral system, if
sufficient addition and multiplication tables have been memorized, the
work can proceed much as we do it today.
The physical difficulties encountered, however, were quite real. Without
a plentiful and convenient supply of some suitable writing medium, any
very extended development of the arithmetic process was bound to be
hampered. It must be remembered taht our common machne-made pulp
paper is little more than a hundred years old. The old rag paper was
made by hand and was consequently expensive and scarce.
82. What is the main purpose of the passage?
To emphasize the importance of the mental process in performing
To explain why some elementary computing systems were not
developed until the fifteenth century.
To decribe how ancient counting systems differ from those of the
To compare the mental and physical processes used in arithmetic.
83. The word "tardy" in line 4 is closest in meaning to...
84. The word "these" in line 7 refers to ...
85. The word "discounted" in line 8 is closest in meaning to...
86. The author states that doing calculations in simple grouping system
memorizing numerical combinations
using an adding machine
producing large quantities of a writing medium
converting number symbols to higher units
87. The word "encountered" in line 17 is closest in meaning to ...
88. The word "hampered" in line 20 is closest in meaning to ...
89. The author describes old rag paper as all of the following EXCEPT...
90. The passage supports which of the following conclusions?
Physical difficulties hindered the development of computing patterns.
Memorizing addition and multiplication tables is necessary for most
elementary arithmetic processes.
Most people experience mental difficulties in learning long divisions
Numeral systems invented before the fifteenth century could not have
been used to perform elementary calculations.
91. Questions 91-100:
The temperature of the Sun is over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the
surface, but it rises to perhaps more than 16 million degrees at the
center. The Sun is so much hotter than the Earth that matter can exist
only as a gas, except at the core. In the core of the sun, the pressures are
so great against the gases that, despite the high temperature, there may
be a small solid core. However, no one really knows, since the center of
the Sun can never be directly observed.
Solar astronomers do know that the Sun is divided into five layers or
zones. Starting at the outside and going down into the Sun, the zones are
the corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, and finally the
core. The first three zones are regarded as the Sun's atmosphere. But
since the Sun has no solid surface, it is hard to tell where the atmosphere
ends and the main body of the Sun begins.
The Sun's outermost layer begins about 10,000 miles above the visible
surface and goes outward for millions of miles. This is the only part of
the Sun that can be seen during an eclipse such as the one in February
1979. At any other time, the corona can be seen only when special
instruments are used on cameras and telescopes to shut out the glare of
the Sun's rays.
The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light, about as bright as the
full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse.
The corona's rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spikelike
rays near the Sun's north and south poles. The corona is thickest at the
The corona rays are made up of gases streaming outward at tremendous
speeds and reaching a temperature of more than 2 million degrees
Fahrenheit. The rays of gas thin out as they reach the space around the
planets. By the time the Sun's corona rays reach the Earth, they are
weak and invisible.
91. The word "great" in line 5 is closest in meaning to ...
92. With what topic is the second paragraph mainly concerned?
How the Sun evolved.
The structure of the Sun.
Why scientists study the Sun
The distance of the Sun from the planets.
93. All of the following are parts of the Sun's atmostpheres EXCEPT
94. The word "one" in line 19 refers to ...
95. The purpose of the special instruments mentioned in lines 20-21 is to
magnify the image of the Sun
block out the Sun's intense light.
measure the amount of energy emitted by the Sun.
photograph the Sun
96. It can be inferred from the passage that a clear view of the Sun's
outer layer is usually prevented by ...
the Sun's rays
lack of light
the great distance
97. The word "sensational" in line 23 is closest in meaning to ...
98. According to the passage, as the corona rays reach the planets, they
99. The paragraphs following the passage mostlikely discuss which of the
The remaining layers of the Sun.
The evolution of the Sun to its present form.
The eclipse of February 1979
The scientists who study astronomy.
100. Where in the passage does the author compare the light of the Sun's
outermost layer to that of another astronomical body?