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  • 1. Tiế - Pretest 3 1. Last year Graham spent his holiday in Austria. One day he was skiing when he _________ into a tree. broke clashed crashed dug 2. When Mahatma Gandhi graduated he took a job in South Africa where he first ________ against injustice. knocked controlled proceeded campaigned 3. A Great White has been known to part a wire rope with a breaking ________ of 2,000 kilograms. weight strength attack pressure 4. Perhaps no creature on land or sea __________ so much terror as the Great White Shark. inspires expires originates fills 5. He broke away from his captors, but they gave ________ and saw him...climbing over the wall into Bingley prison. chase
  • 2. flight fugue pursuit 6. The British monarchy is an enormously popular ________ . architecture echelon edifice institution 7. The most striking ___________ of the town was the cathedral which was founded at the same time as the town. line creature fixture feature 8. Computer scientists are now working on the next ___________ of computers. generation institution imposition age 9. Most people are aware of their astrological __________. signs marks points signals 10. Difficulty in distinguishing between colors, particularly red and green, is an inherited __________. mistake error
  • 3. fault defect 11. One condition of this job is that you must be _________ to work at weekends. available capable acceptable accessible 12. A relief _________ has been set up to help earthquake victims. fund donation treasury collection 13. The prison was so well guarded that any thought of escape was _________. despairing aimless desperate pointless 14. Supposing I ________ to agree to your request, how do you think the others students would feel? would am were could 15. I hope you won't take _________ if I tell you the truth. annoyance offence resentment
  • 4. irritation 16. His failure _________ great disappointment to his parents. forced made caused provided 17. The government's new safety pamphlet __________ against smoking in bed. declares advises emphasises maintains 18. When he had finished the apple he threw the ________ into the bin. heart pith core kernel 19. Two months is ________ time to allow for the job to be completed. profuse protracted ample extensive 20. Don't jump _______ conclusions; we don't yet know all the relevant facts. into up to for
  • 5. 21. Even at that early stage, the school felt that she _________ a good chance of passing her exams. stood gained possessed took 22. No-one appreciated his work during his lifetime, but __________ it is clear that he was a great artist. in the aftermath by the time in retrospect in this eventuality 23. Although they had suffered heavy losses, the commanders refused to _________ defeat. grant assent concede acquiesce 24. The government spend vast sums on defence while public services are being cut _______. up back through over 25. Even ________ for inflation he thought it was a good investment. considering taking account allowing calculating
  • 6. 26. He looked like an ENglish man, but his foreign accent gave him ________ . in away up over 27. Even the most __________ drivers feel an urge to break the speed- limit occasionally. lawful legitimate law-abiding judicial 28. While politicians argue about nuclear weapons, ordinary people are simply concerned _______ staying alive. of for on in 29. I turned down his offer to stay as I did not wish to __________ upon his family. interfere disturb invade impose 30. The games were _______ (banned) in the Philippines. officially forbidden restricted confined downsized
  • 7. 31. As soon as the consumer protection law was passed, some manufacturers began to _______ to have it changed. object revolt campaign quarrel 32. I'm so tired that I can't take ________ what you're saying. up out in on 33. The first time he spoke in public he was _________ with nerves. overcome inhibited numbed forzen 34. In order to give up smoking, you need to exercise great ________. abstinence obstinacy endeavour will-power 35. For people with hearing difficulties, telephones with volume controls provide the best __________ . solution response reply result 36. It was too late to ___________ of the contract.
  • 8. back out back down back up back away 37. By going in person to the office which _________ the forms she was able to get what she wanted. controlled offered disseminated issued 38. The student failed to meet the necessary ______________ for admission to the course. fulfilments requirements qualities aptitudes 39. ____________ of recent political developments he was taken by surprise on his arrival in the capital. Unexpected Unacquainted Unaware Unknowing 40. She always _________ the smell of fresh bread with her mother, who loved baking. remembered associated exemplified attributed 41. After the theft of his car he put in an insurance _________ for £3,000.
  • 9. account invoice assessment claim 42. He'll be very upset if you __________ his offer of help. turn away turn from turn down turn against 43. Prizes are awarded __________ the number of points scored. resulting from adding up presented to according to 44. The committee took just thirty minutes to ___________ the conclusion that action was necessary. judge make decide reach 45. She bought the mansion _________ that she would make a fortune out of her new novel. speculating considering assuming estimating 46. After his girlfriend left him, George determined never ________ in love again. to fall
  • 10. falling for to fall having fallen 47. The job applicant told her interviewer that she would jump _________ the chance to work for such a prestigious firm. to for on at 48. The ability to __________ work is the sign of a good manager. discharge appoint deputise delegate 49. He failed to __________ the authorities of his change of address. certify report notify acquaint 50. The children _________ at the ease with which the circus acrobats performed their routines. amazed marvelled surprised baffled 51. When her millionaire father died, the heiress __________ a fortune. came into came at
  • 11. came through came to 52. When he examined the gun the detective's suspicion turned into _________. certainty confirmation reality conclusion 53. The seat belt can be altered to ___________ for differences in the size of the passenger. permit adjust calculate allow 54. Because of rapid technoligical progress, the computers being made today will be ________ in five years' time. outdone extinct obsolete retired 55. Few pleasures can equal ____________ of a cool drink on a hot day. it that such this 56. I'll just _________ an eye over these figures before you type them. cast fling toss
  • 12. throw 57. His emotional problems _____________ from the attitudes he encountered as a child, I think. stem flourish root sprout 58. This book is full of practical ___________ on home decorating and repairs. helps tips aids clues 59. If we bend the rules for one person it will _________ a dangerous precedent. create cause invent make 60. The little boyy was left in _________ his grandmother during his parents' absence. charge care of care the charge of 61. Reading for questions 61 - 65: In the 1940s I took up the growing of many types of seed on my farm on a contract basis: a great deal of grass seed, quite a lot of vegetable seed and some flower seed. Everyone of these crops demandss a different sort of technique in growing and harvesting and none of them had been grown in our area before, so it was a very demanding business, but also very satisfying and interesting. I would never previously have imagined
  • 13. that in the same year I would be harvesting beans, cabbages, carrots and several types of flowers for their seed. They are all of different sizes, have a different character and require different methods for harvesting and drying. Some are extremely easy, once you know how. For instance, when you have grown Sweet Williams flowers in a field and they are ready for harvesting, you have to gather the plants in armfuls, tie them together in bundles, and leave them in the field in piles with the heads upwards to dry. You then have to wait for a nice sunny day, when you go along with a large container, hold the bundles upside-down over the top of it and, if the air is hot and dry enough, all the seeds come out of their own accord. Carrot seed, when you harvest it, is not like the seed you buy in a packet in a shop. When grown for seed, carrot crops take up the land for much longer than most other crops. It has to be sown one July, left over the winter and harvested the following August or September. Like Sweet Williams flowers grown for seed, carrot plants have to be cut with an old-fashioned machine, allowed to dry in bundles, and then beaten using traditional tools. But it is, so to speak, only half beaten out. The result is a very light, wooly seed, which has to be sent away in large bags to a seedsman who will reduce it to relatively small seeds with special machinery which rubs off the feathery bits. I remember we sent away two railway trucks full of enormous bags of carrot seed but the whole lot weighed only a ton or two. 61. In the 1940s the farmer grew and harvested ... vegetable seeds one year and flower seeds the next. one particular type of seed crop each year. several kinds of seeds each year. seeds he had been told were easy to grow 62. What did the farmer find out about growing and harvesting seeds? It was much easier than he had imagined. It had never been done on local farms. A sunny summer was essential. It was a very profitable business. 63. The seeds from Sweet Williams flowers are harvested by... tying the plants into bundles to dry and then shaking them. cutting off the heads and collecting them in large containers. heaping the plants together and beating out the seeds.
  • 14. storing the plants upside-down until the seeds drop out. 64. Why might farmers be reluctant to produce carrot seed? The plants do not yied much seed. The seeds take a long time to dry. Growing and harvesting takes more than a year. The seedsmen do not pay much for the seeds. 65. Carrot seed in a packet looks different from carrot seed when the farmer harvests because it is... much darker in color much lighter in color less smooth less feathery 66. Reading for questions 66-70: Design is the act of making something better. Everything, no matter how ordinary, has been designed. That some objects give us no special pleasure or are not fashionable does not alter the fact that somebody decided what they would look like, what they would do and how they would be used. Every time you buy a new kettle or toaster, the quality of the design is influential, encouraging you to choose one kettle or toaster over the others. Good design works well. Excellent design works well and gives pleasure. Look at it the other way round. Some objects look very good but do not work well. Take the Alessi kettle, with its curved handle and two-tone whistle. It looks very exciting but the handle can get too hot to touch. Compare this with the familiar Russel Hobbs automatic electric kettle. It has been in production since the late 1950s, works perfectly and looks good. Poor designs are easy to find. If you cannot see what is at the back of the kitchen cupboard without getting down on your hands and knees, that is bad design. If you catch your sleeve on a door handle, that is bad design. If you cannot understand how to use the controls on your cooker without searching for the instruction book - and if, when you find the book, you still cannot work the timing switch, that is unpardonably bad design. The question is: how, when these kinds of faults are so obvious, have some designs ever reached our homes? The answer is that in most cases, bad designs emerge because not enough energy and time is given to thinking through all the different questions that should be asked about the product. Kitchen cupboard makers will say that they are making cupboards as economically as possible. This kind of "cheapness" is one of the main
  • 15. reasons for the absence of good design in our homes. To make a cupboard where the shelves swing out to display the contents when the door is opened is expensive. 66. What does the passage say that good designers think about? how things will be used. what people are used to. what is fashionable. what will influence people. 67. Things which are excellently designed ... work perfectly last a long time always get chosen by shoppers both work well and look good. 68. What was wrong with the Alessi kettle? It was too round. It was unreliable. The design was impractical. The design was old-fashioned. 69. In what way are some cookers badly designed? The handles stick out too far. It is difficult to find the controls. Using the timing switch is a confusing process. The instruction books have no diagrams. 70. Why do badly-designed things get made and sold? They are quicker and cost less to make. Manufacturers pay low wages to designers. Designers do not know enough about manufacturing processes. There are too few good designers.
  • 16. 71. Questions 71-76: Sir Anthony Van Dyck, one of the world's greatest masters of portraiture, was born in Antwerp and was the seventh of twelve children. His affluent father apprenticed him to a painter when he was just a little over ten. Having become a member of the Antwerp Guild of painters before he was nineteen, he worked in the studio of Peter Paul Rubens for several years. In Italy, Van Dyck studied the great Venetian masters and painted flattering portraits of gorgeous ladies and haughty nobles in gilded velvet robes with lace and pearls. While he was sought after by the aristocracy for his acclaimed loose brushwork, his engravings and etchings also evinced his outstanding talent. Upon his return to Antwerp in 1628, he was influenced by Rubens's interpretation of the artistic form and produced numerous religious paintings while holding an appointment as the court painter. During his tenure, he proved that his use of color, his sensitive elegance, and his remarkable insight were unexcelled. His fame preceded him to England, where he was invited by King Charles I. After years of faithful service, he was knighted in recognition of achievements in painting countless portraits of the king, the queen, the royal children, and the titled nobility of England. However, Van Dyck's greatest piece is one of his religious works, a true masterpiece displayed in the Antwerp gallery. This group scene exhibits his artful polish in painting the folds of fabric, the delicacy of human skin, landscape, and other externals, and puts him above other accomplished contemporary masters. Although Charles paid Van Dyck a salary and granted him a pension, the painter's extravagant life-style and penchant for luxuries led him into debt, and he died without means. 71. What did Van Dyck do in his early youth? He was hired as a painter. He was a brush cleaner. He studied painting. He sold paintings. 72. It can be inferred from the passage that after Van Dyck left Rubens ... he accrued considerable wealth. he became a militant aristocrat. he refined his artistic tastes and skills. he incorporated southern styles in his art. 73. The author of the passage implies that Van Dyck's fame had largely to do with his ...
  • 17. artful portraits. wealthy family elegance in clothing religious beliefs 74. How did Charles I honor Van Dyck? Van Dyck painted members of the royal court. Van Dyck received a noble tittle. Van Dyck was allowed to travel widely. Van Dyck displayed his work in the royal palace. 75. What does Van Dyck's masterpiece attest to? His remarkable religious fervor. His refined sense for texture. His keen eye for polished surfaces. His exorbitant tastes and habits. 76. What are the reasons given for Van Dyck's financial decline? His employer's lack of generosity. His ill health and lack of revenue. His lavish spending. His miserly attitudes. 77. Questions 77-81: Linen is yarn, thread, or fabric made from the stem fibers of flax, one of the oldest cultivated plants. Because the plant is grown in temperate climates, its production is limited. Archaeological evidence shows that flax was used for making ropes and fishing nets in Switzerland over 10,000 years ago. Ancient Egyptians used flax more than any other fiber for making linen, which was employed in the manufacture of a diverse array of other materials. When the use of linen spread from the Mediterranean to Europe, linen became second only to wool as the most prevalent material for fabric, primarily because the spindle was no longer teh sole device used for winding thread. It was during that time that the spinning wheel replaced the spindle and distaff for twisting and winding the flax fibers. By the end of the seventeenth century, a spinning wheel for linen was a fixture in almost every European and North American household.
  • 18. Linen is relatively scarce now because the process of weaving flax fabric is comparatively work - and time - consuming. Upon harvesting, flax must be hackled to separate the linen fibers from the tow. Then the fibers are soaked and dried. Bundling the gleaned fiber precedes raking and thinning. The latter are essential steps since unravelling the fibrous mass of stems can facilitate winding. After the threads have been spun, they are laid on a loom and woven into the finished product, known as linen. As is the case with some other natural fibers, such as slik and wool, the price of linen fabric is rather high, and it is not as easy to care for as fabrics made of synthetic rayon, acetate, and viscose. 77. According to the passage, what precludes world-wide cultivation of linen? Archaeologists do not put much stock in flax longevity. Linen production has been restricted to increase prices. Flax can be farmed only in certain geographical areas. Flax plants are no longer grown where they used to be. 78. What promoted the proliferation of linen? A shortage of materials in Europe. The replacement of wool by linen in textiles. Technological advancements in fiber processing. The dissipation of need for various materials. 79. According to the passage, which of the following is the crucial phase in fiber preparation? Harvesting and tying it. Towing and pulling it. Combing it to make it fine. Spinning it rapidly. 80. It can be inferred from the passage that the high cost of linen can be attributed to ... its relative popularity its laborious fabrication the labor-intensive care looming and weaving
  • 19. 81. The author of the passage implies that currently, linen is NOT as prevalent as ... wool silk synthetic fibers woven textiles 82. Questions 82-90: Many of the computing patterns used today in elementary arithmetic, such as those for performing long multiplications and divisions, were developed as late as the fifteenth century. Two reasons are usually advanced to account for this tardy development, namely, the mental difficulties and the physical difficulties encountered in such work. The first of these, the mental difficulties, must be somewhat discounted. The impression that the ancient numeral systems are not amenable to even the simplest calculations is largely based on lack of familiarity with these systems. It is clear that addition and subtraction in a simple grouping system require only ability to count the number symbols of each kind and then to convert to higher units. No memorization of number combinations is needed. In a ciphered numeral system, if sufficient addition and multiplication tables have been memorized, the work can proceed much as we do it today. The physical difficulties encountered, however, were quite real. Without a plentiful and convenient supply of some suitable writing medium, any very extended development of the arithmetic process was bound to be hampered. It must be remembered taht our common machne-made pulp paper is little more than a hundred years old. The old rag paper was made by hand and was consequently expensive and scarce. 82. What is the main purpose of the passage? To emphasize the importance of the mental process in performing calculations. To explain why some elementary computing systems were not developed until the fifteenth century. To decribe how ancient counting systems differ from those of the twentieth century. To compare the mental and physical processes used in arithmetic. 83. The word "tardy" in line 4 is closest in meaning to... historical basic
  • 20. unusual late 84. The word "these" in line 7 refers to ... patterns reasons systems calculations 85. The word "discounted" in line 8 is closest in meaning to... reduced contradicted disregarded interpreted 86. The author states that doing calculations in simple grouping system requires ... memorizing numerical combinations using an adding machine producing large quantities of a writing medium converting number symbols to higher units 87. The word "encountered" in line 17 is closest in meaning to ... faced caused increased discussed 88. The word "hampered" in line 20 is closest in meaning to ... impeded concluded unnoticed rejected
  • 21. 89. The author describes old rag paper as all of the following EXCEPT... handmade costly scarce delicate 90. The passage supports which of the following conclusions? Physical difficulties hindered the development of computing patterns. Memorizing addition and multiplication tables is necessary for most elementary arithmetic processes. Most people experience mental difficulties in learning long divisions and multiplications. Numeral systems invented before the fifteenth century could not have been used to perform elementary calculations. 91. Questions 91-100: The temperature of the Sun is over 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit at the surface, but it rises to perhaps more than 16 million degrees at the center. The Sun is so much hotter than the Earth that matter can exist only as a gas, except at the core. In the core of the sun, the pressures are so great against the gases that, despite the high temperature, there may be a small solid core. However, no one really knows, since the center of the Sun can never be directly observed. Solar astronomers do know that the Sun is divided into five layers or zones. Starting at the outside and going down into the Sun, the zones are the corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, and finally the core. The first three zones are regarded as the Sun's atmosphere. But since the Sun has no solid surface, it is hard to tell where the atmosphere ends and the main body of the Sun begins. The Sun's outermost layer begins about 10,000 miles above the visible surface and goes outward for millions of miles. This is the only part of the Sun that can be seen during an eclipse such as the one in February 1979. At any other time, the corona can be seen only when special instruments are used on cameras and telescopes to shut out the glare of the Sun's rays. The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light, about as bright as the full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse. The corona's rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spikelike rays near the Sun's north and south poles. The corona is thickest at the Sun's equator. The corona rays are made up of gases streaming outward at tremendous speeds and reaching a temperature of more than 2 million degrees Fahrenheit. The rays of gas thin out as they reach the space around the planets. By the time the Sun's corona rays reach the Earth, they are
  • 22. weak and invisible. 91. The word "great" in line 5 is closest in meaning to ... dangerous unknown variable strong 92. With what topic is the second paragraph mainly concerned? How the Sun evolved. The structure of the Sun. Why scientists study the Sun The distance of the Sun from the planets. 93. All of the following are parts of the Sun's atmostpheres EXCEPT the... corona chromosphere photosphere core 94. The word "one" in line 19 refers to ... the Sun the corona an eclipse the surface 95. The purpose of the special instruments mentioned in lines 20-21 is to ... magnify the image of the Sun block out the Sun's intense light. measure the amount of energy emitted by the Sun. photograph the Sun
  • 23. 96. It can be inferred from the passage that a clear view of the Sun's outer layer is usually prevented by ... the Sun's rays an eclipse lack of light the great distance 97. The word "sensational" in line 23 is closest in meaning to ... spectacular predictable bizarre constant 98. According to the passage, as the corona rays reach the planets, they become ... hotter clearer thinner stronger 99. The paragraphs following the passage mostlikely discuss which of the following? The remaining layers of the Sun. The evolution of the Sun to its present form. The eclipse of February 1979 The scientists who study astronomy. 100. Where in the passage does the author compare the light of the Sun's outermost layer to that of another astronomical body? Lines 3-4 Lines 13-15 Lines 20-21 Lines 30-31