Norme smart city publication

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Les smart cities font d’ores et déjà l’objet de normes et standards visant à :
Définir des indicateurs de performance et de comparaison
Mettre en place des approches bonnes pratiques dans leurs développements

C’est l’objet de ce document que de présenter une norme ISO et un standard anglo-saxon.

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Norme smart city publication

  1. 1. ,Standards Smart City PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING September 2015 Quels standards et normes pour la Smart City Eric Pradel ; mob. +212 6 47 00 00 07 Exxing Strategy Consultants www.exxing.consulting
  2. 2. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standards et normes Smart City Introduction Les smart cities font d’ores et déjà l’objet de normes et standards visant à : • Définir des indicateurs de performance et de comparaison • Mettre en place des approches bonnes pratiques dans leurs développements C’est l’objet de ce document que de présenter une norme ISO et un standard anglo-saxon.
  3. 3. EXXING La création de valeur au coeur de nos recommandations
  4. 4. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,E-MADINA Mars 2014 EXXING La création de valeur au coeur de nos recommandations 6 2 1 4 3 5 7 Opération, processus, organisation, gouvernance, externalisation, PCA (Plan de Continuité d’Activité) Expertises : Relation client, 
 Supply chain Mutation technologique, stratégie IT, stratégie digitale Développement stratégique : stratégie d’entreprise, stratégie de groupe, études économiques, étude d’opportunité, modèle économique… Fusion Acquisition, conseil financier, levée de fonds Pilotage des programmes (PMO), des projets et de la performanceRestructuration d’entreprise Conduite de changement, conseil en ressources humaines, coaching Eric Pradel Directeur stratégie 
 & finance Said Slassi Directeur mutation technologique Kaouthar Baji Directrice marketing & communication Patrick Bellin Conseiller, membre Mission Ecoter France Palette de services large au secteur ICT & Offshoring Equipe expérimentée et réseau de conseil marocain 10 PARTNERS Groupement d’expertises
  5. 5. Partie I Présentation générale de la norme ISO 37120
  6. 6. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Développement durable des collectivités - Indicateurs pour les services urbains et la qualité de vie La norme ISO 37120 ne propose pas de définition de la ville intelligente ou smart city ou ville connectée ou ville durable mais plutôt des indicateurs mesurant sa performance et qualité Source : ISO 37120 Concrètement, Qu’est-ce que l’ISO 37120 ? • Ensemble d’indicateurs standardisés avec une approche uniforme de mesure • 100 indicateurs - 46 coeurs et 54 supports • 1 langue unique de reporting : l’anglais 17 thèmes évalués. Des extensions sont à l’étude
  7. 7. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Les premières villes comparées Développement durable des collectivités - Indicateurs pour les services urbains et la qualité de vie Source : ISO 37120
  8. 8. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Comment devenir une ville suivie par l’ISO37120 ? Développement durable des collectivités - Indicateurs pour les services urbains et la qualité de vie Source : ISO 37120
  9. 9. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité Fonctionnalités Des cartes Des graphs de données Des projections Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Source : WCCD
  10. 10. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité Source : ISO 37120 4. Profile indicators 4.1 Total city population Persons 4.2 City land area km2 4.3 Population density Persons / km2 4.4 Country gross domestic product Current US Dollars 4.5 City gross operating budget Current US Dollars 4.6 City gross capital budget Current US Dollars 4.37 Country GDP per capital (USD) Current US Dollars 5. Economy 5.1 City's unemployment rate % 5.2 Assessed value of commercial and industrial properties as a percentage of total assessed value of all properties % 5.3 Percentage of city population living in poverty % 5.4 Percentage of persons in fulltime employment % 5.5 Youth unemployment rate % 5.6 Number of businesses per 100 000 population /100 000 5.7 Number of new patents per 100 000 population per year /100 000/yr
  11. 11. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 6. Education 6.1 Percentage of female school-aged population enrolled in school % 6.2 Percentage of students completing primary education: Survival rate % 6.3 Percentage of students completing secondary education: Survival rate % 6.4 Primary education student/teacher ratio 6.5 Percentage of male school-aged population enrolled in school % 6.6 Percentage of school-aged population enrolled in school % 6.7 Number of higher education degrees per 100 000 population /100 000 7. Energy 7.1 Total residential electrical energy use per capita (kWh/ year) kWh/yr/capita 7.2 Percentage of city population with authorized electrical service % 7.3 Energy (electricity) consumption of public buildings per year (kWh/m²) kWh/m2 7.4 Percentage of total energy derived from renewable sources, as a share of the city's total energy consumption % 7.5 Total electrical energy use per capita (kWh/year) kWh/yr/capita 7.6 Average number of electrical interruptions per customer per year /customer/yr 7.7 Average length of electrical interruptions (in hours) hours Source : ISO 37120
  12. 12. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 8. Environment 8.1 Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) concentration μg/m³ 8.2 Particulate Matter (PM10) concentration μg/m³ 8.3 Greenhouse gas emissions measured in tonnes per capita t/capita 8.4 NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) concentration μg/m³ 8.5 SO2 (sulphur dioxide) concentration μg/m³ 8.6 O2 (ozone) concentration μg/m³ 8.7 Noise pollution % 8.8 Percentage change in number of native species % 9. Finance 9.1 Debt service ratio (debt service expenditure as a percentage of a municipality's own- source revenue) % 9.2 Capital spending as a percentage of total expenditures % 9.3 Own-source revenue as a percentage of total revenues % 9.4 Tax collected as percentage of tax billed % Source : ISO 37120
  13. 13. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 10. Fire and Emergency Response 10.1 Number of firefighters per 100 000 population /100 000 10.2 Number of fire related deaths per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 10.3 Number of natural disaster related deaths per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 10.4 Number of volunteer and part-time firefighters per 100 000 population /100 000 10.5 Response time for emergency response services from initial call min 10.6 Response time for fire department from initial call min 11. Governance 11.1 Voter participation in last municipal election (as a percentage of eligible voters) % 11.2 Women as a percentage of total elected to city-level office % 11.3 Percentage of women employed in the city government workforce % 11.4 Number of convictions for corruption and / or bribery by city officials per 100 000 population /100 000 11.5 Citizens' representation: number of local officials elected to office per 100 000 population /100 000 11.6 Number of registered voters as a percentage of the voting age population % Source : ISO 37120
  14. 14. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 12. Health 12.1 Average life expectancy years 12.2 Number of in-patient hospital beds per 100 000 population /100 000 12.3 Number of physicians per 100 000 population /100 000 12.4 Under age five mortality per 1 000 live births /1000 live births 12.5 Number of nursing and midwifery personnel per 100 000 population /100 000 12.6 Number of mental health practitioners per 100 000 population /100 000 12.7 Suicide rate per 100 000 population /100 000 13. Recreation 13.1 Square metres of public indoor recreation space per capita % 13.2 Square metres of public outdoor recreation space per capita % Source : ISO 37120
  15. 15. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 14. Safety 14.1 Number of police officers per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 14.2 Number of homicides per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 14.3 Crimes against property per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 14.4 Response time for police department from initial call min 14.5 Violent crime rate per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 15. Shelter 15.1 Percentage of city population living in slums % 15.2 Number of homeless per 100 000 population % 15.3 Percentage of households that exist without registered legal titles % Source : ISO 37120
  16. 16. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 16. Solid Waste 16.1 Percentage of city population with regular solid waste collection (residential) % 16.2 Total collected municipal solid waste per capita t/capita 16.3 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is recycled % 16.4 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in a sanitary landfill % 16.5 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in an incinerator % 16.6 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is burned openly % 16.7 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of in an open dump % 16.8 Percentage of the city's solid waste that is disposed of by other means % 16.9 Hazardous waste generation per capita t/capita 16.10 Percentage of city's hazardous waste that is recycled % 17. Telecommunication and Innovation 17.1 Number of internet connections per 100 000 population /100 000 17.2 Number of cell phone connections per 100 000 population /100 000 17.3 Number of landline phone connections per 100 000 population /100 000 Source : ISO 37120
  17. 17. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 18. Transportation indicators 18.1 Kilometres of high capacity public transport system per 100 000 population km/100 000 18.2 Kilometres of light passenger public transport system per 100 000 population km/100 000 18.3 Annual number of public transport trips per capita capita/yr 18.4 Number of personal automobiles per capita /capita 18.5 Percentage of commuters using a travel mode to work other than a personal vehicle % 18.6 Number of two-wheel motorized vehicles per capita /capita 18.7 Kilometres of bicycle paths and lanes per 100 000 population km/100 000 18.8 Transportation fatalities per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 18.9 Commercial air connectivity /yr 19. Urban planning 19.1 Green area (hectares) per 100 000 population ha/100 000 19.2 Annual number of trees planted per 100 000 population /100 000/yr 19.3 Areal size of informal settlements as a percentage of city area % 19.4 Jobs/housing ratio Source : ISO 37120
  18. 18. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Portail WCCD (World Council On City Data Portail open data basé sur la norme ISO 37120 qui permet de comparer les villes membres sur plus de 100 critères de performance et de qualité 20. Wastewater 20.1 Percentage of city population served by wastewater collection % 20.2 Percentage of the city's wastewater that has received no treatment % 20.3 Percentage of the city's wastewater receiving primary treatment % 20.4 Percentage of the city's wastewater receiving secondary treatment % 20.5 Percentage of the city's wastewater receiving tertiary treatment % 21. Water and Sanitation 21.1 Percentage of city population with potable water supply service % 21.2 Percentage of city population with sustainable access to an improved water source % 21.3 Percentage of population with access to improved sanitation % 21.4 Total domestic water consumption per capita (litres/day) L/d/capita 21.5 Total water consumption per capita (litres/day) L/d/capita 21.6 Average annual hours of water service interruptions per household hrs/yr/household 21.7 Percentage of water loss (unaccounted for water) % Source : ISO 37120
  19. 19. Partie II Présentation générale du standard BSI
  20. 20. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le standard développé en Angleterre par la BSI (Department for Business, Innovation and Skills) Source : BSI BSI propose une définition de la smart city : • BSI defines a smart city as one where there is “effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver a sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens”. Un framework de mise en oeuvre :
 i) Vision, Goals, and Strategy iii) Performance measurement ii) Capabilities assessment / gap analysis iv) Developing and implementing a roadmap v) Enabling capabilities vi) Service transformation Purpose Goals and targets Business case Impact
  21. 21. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Vue générale du framework de la BSI Source : BSI
  22. 22. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : i) Vision, Goals and Strategy • Every city is unique. It has its own history that explains how it has arrived to where it is today. It has its own brand, i.e. the set of images and ideas that are evoked when people think about it. • Clearly there are many important characteristics of a city that need to be taken into consideration when developing its vision, goals and strategy. For example: Is it a metropolis, or a medium or small city? Is its population growing, stable or shrinking? Is its economy strong or weak? How skilled and educated is its workforce? Is its population predominantly youthful or elderly? • The city’s vision, goals and strategy should be based on all of these characteristics and seek to tackle the challenges and, more importantly, grasp the opportunities the city faces. However, in order to be successful, the city’s vision should also build on the strengths of its history, its brand and its values. • The work of developing the vision, goals and strategy should involve all the key stakeholders in a city, including the citizens and businesses. A good way to start is to focus on some key joint challenges that need to be tackled on a citywide basis. For instance, it is clearly in everyone’s interest to find ways to make the city more resilient – whether this is against natural disasters or terrorist attacks, or even to cope with some of the normal stresses of city life. • Working together to tackle such challenges in a smart and transformational way can demonstrate the importance and value of partnership working. It can also help to identify the dependences that different city systems have on each other and build practical working relationships between key stakeholders. • A key factor in ensuring success is to set up a smart city team, directly accountable to the city leadership, to drive forward the process. ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis • Before developing the roadmap to deliver on the smart city strategy, the city leadership should assess where the city is now, in terms of its capability to benefit from the transformational opportunities that technology can offer, and to determine the gap between this and what is needed. This includes assessing: • the strength of the partnership structures in place and the ability of the city to coordinate the planning, implementation and management processes effectively; • how well key stakeholders, and particularly citizens, are engaged in helping make the city work well; • how effectively the city is able to deliver the services that the citizen needs, including the ability to measure and monitor effectiveness; • the quality of the connectivity assets of the city and the effectiveness of those assets in supporting collaboration and the collection and use of data; and • how well the physical assets of the city can be used to support city management and citizen empowerment. • PAS 181 could be used by city leadership to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their city in order to determine which areas of city life they need to focus on. • A smart city capability assessment/gap analysis diagnostic tool has been developed, consistent with PAS 181, which allows city leaders to make an overall assessment of the delivery capabilities of the city. This has been tested in partnership with a number of UK cities, with positive feedback on its ability to quickly identify the key areas to focus on. Figure 5 provides an overview of the tool, which is covered in more detail at Annex A. Source : BSI
  23. 23. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis Source : BSI
  24. 24. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis (détails) Source : BSI
  25. 25. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis (détails) Source : BSI
  26. 26. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis (détails) Source : BSI
  27. 27. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : ii) Capabilities assessment / Gap analysis (détails) Source : BSI
  28. 28. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : iii) Performance measurement • City performance is already assessed on multiple fronts; indeed the city leadership might feel that is has to report on too many performance measures. However, a city does need to be able to measure its performance in the areas it has identified as priorities and agree targets as to what it needs to achieve, to enable it to focus its efforts on implementing a smart city strategy. This can then provide the basis for a balanced scorecard method of tracking progress in a systematic way and of evaluating how effective the implementation of the roadmap is on delivering the goals that the city has set itself. 
 At the moment there are few usable, quality city performance measures. Part of the reason for this is that the understanding of words, such as smart, sustainable, and resilient is in a state of flux and so the targeting and monitoring of performance against such goals is also evolving. 
 However, initiatives are in place to improve matters. BSI has already developed some relevant measurement standards such as PAS 2070, Specification for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions of a city – Direct plus supply chain and consumption-based methodologies, which supports the measurement 
 of the greenhouse gas emissions of a city. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently published ISO 37120, Sustainable development of communities – Indicators for city services and quality of life, which defines and establishes methodologies for performance measurement across 100 indicators for sustainable cities. Cities are now implementing ISO 37120 through the World Council on City Data (WCCD) and additional indicators on resilient cities and smart cities are being developed. ISO is also undertaking ongoing work on measures for smart community infrastructures. The European Commission is also addressing the performance measurement of smart cities. 
 While this work progresses, cities need to pay increasing attention to target-setting and performance measurement in order to demonstrate that their activities provide real value. With the emergence of new business models, with financial investment and return coming from a broader range of more integrated sources, and with the complexity of public value and how it is perceived over time, the requirement on city leadership to evidence their performance is only likely to increase. 
 Source : BSI
  29. 29. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Le détail du framework : iv) Developing and implementing a roadmap • Many cities already have a roadmap of some form, however few of these address specifically how the city can move towards becoming smarter. 
 The city leadership should develop a smart city roadmap collaboratively with city stakeholders, and include initiatives focused both on improving the enabling capabilities (see 4.6) and on addressing areas identified in the city’s vision, goals and strategy (see 4.2), where service transformation (see 4.7) is required, such as urban mobility, economic growth, air quality, security and affordable energy supply. It should include a portfolio of initiatives, ranging from simple, common-sense actions, through to, potentially, actions based on new or emerging technologies, e.g. autonomous vehicles, as well as actions providing immediate impact, along with others that are important for the long-term progress of the city. 
 PAS 181 provides some high-level guidance in this area. Figure 6 summarizes the phases in developing a smart city roadmap as detailed in PAS 181. Source : BSI
  30. 30. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Principes fondateurs d’une smart city Source : BSI
  31. 31. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Les challenges partagés entre les villes anglaises Source : BSI
  32. 32. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Nouveau modèle opérationnel Source : BSI
  33. 33. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Matrice d’intéropérabilité Source : BSI
  34. 34. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI L’innovation par l’implication des différentes parties prenantes Source : BSI
  35. 35. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Modèle d’implication des parties prenantes Source : BSI
  36. 36. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Exemple des bénéfices visés par des villes anglaises Source : BSI
  37. 37. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI Les facteurs clés de succès Source : BSI
  38. 38. PROPRIETE PRIVEE ET CONFIDENTIEL Copyright © 2014 EXXING ,Standards Smart City September 2015 Standard BSI 5 domaines pour soutenir l’approche Smart City Building a smart city-ready development or infrastructure project Build the partnerships to deliver holistic solutions Build the foundation for widespread exploitation of data Use digital modelling to provide a people-centred physical environment Put in place an enabling digital and communications infrastructure Develop and test new business models and processes Source : BSI
  39. 39. Thank you.

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