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Two search requests on the internet website Google produce &quot;as much carbon dioxide as boiling a kettle&quot;, according to a Harvard University academic. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7823387.stm US physicist Alex Wissner-Gross claims that a typical Google search on a desktop computer produces about 7g CO2. However, these figures were disputed by Google, who say a typical search produced only 0.2g of carbon dioxide. &quot;In 2007, we co-founded the Climate Savers Computing Initiative. This non-profit consortium is committed to cutting the energy consumed by computers in half by 2010 and so reducing global CO2 emissions by 54 million tons per year. That's a lot of kettles.&quot; http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/powering-google-search.html
L’ « informatique verte » est identifiée comme l’un des sujets stratégiques pour les années à venir. Ce sujet offre des opportunités certaines mais est aussi lourdement repris comme argument marketing. Est-ce une mode ? Quels domaines présentent des opportunités pour nos organisations ? Quelle analyse faire pour y voir plus clair ? L'objectif de ma présentation est de vous donner un aperçu des recherches récentes sur l'influence que l'informatique produit sur l'environnement.
Tout le monde en parle: Kofi Annan mardi ouvre le Forum Humanitaire Mondial par ces mots: &quot;Les changements climatiques sont le défi de notre génération. Ils ont déjà un impact dévastateur sur des dizaines de millions de personnes à travers le monde. C'est maintenant qu'il faut agir.&quot; OCDE: 1 – Recession: Even a deep and prolonged recession will not help in facing the GHG emission problem – it is likely to slow world emissions growth temporarily, yet we need large and lasting emission cuts, reducing them to around one-fourth of current levels over the longer-term to achieve climate stabilization 2 – Risks: Should some of the climate risks materialize, the economic costs of climate change would be much higher than those from the current financial crisis. 3 – Investments: Least-cost action would be expected to start small, thereby entailing low initial costs. 4 – Opportunities: Government efforts to address the financial crisis can also present opportunities to encourage a lower-carbon recovery, eventually leading to more climate-friendly growth paths. http://www.oecd.org/document/59/0,3343,en_2649_33713_41818555_1_1_1_1,00&&en-USS_01DBC.html Depuis environ 2 ans, on ne compte plus les articles de journaux, reportages et rapports sur le sujet.Les décideurs au niveau politique, économique et informatique commencent à intégrer ce paramètre de plus en plus fortement dans leur stratégies. Nous devons nous y préparer.
Le réchauffement climatique est un phénomène d'augmentation de la température moyenne des océans et de l'atmosphère, à l'échelle mondiale et sur plusieurs années. Dans son acception commune, ce terme est appliqué au changement climatique observé depuis environ vingt-cinq ans , c'est-à-dire depuis la fin du XXe siècle. La plupart des scientifiques attribuent à ce réchauffement global une origine en grande partie humaine. Le Groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'évolution du climat (GIEC) est chargé d'établir un consensus scientifique sur cette question. Son dernier et quatrième rapport, auquel ont participé plus de 2 500 scientifiques de 130 pays différents, affirme que la probabilité que le réchauffement climatique soit d'origine humaine est de plus de 90%. Cette thèse est néanmoins encore contestée par une minorité de scientifiques. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_opinion_on_climate_change Voir aussi « The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change », http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/306/5702/1686
This figure shows the annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, in million metric tons of carbon, for a variety of non-overlapping regions covering the Earth. Data source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center . Regions are sorted from largest emitter (as of 2000) to the smallest and links to the original data and lists of countries appear below:
« Une vérité qui dérange » (An Inconvenient Truth, titre en anglais) est un film documentaire américain traitant du changement climatique, spécialement du réchauffement planétaire, réalisé par Davis Guggenheim. Al Gore, ancien vice-président des États-Unis d'Amérique et nouveau prix Nobel de la paix 2007, y tient le premier rôle. Sorti en mai 2006 sur les écrans de New York et Los Angeles puis au festival de Sundance, le film a reçu trois fois une standing-ovation. Diffusé au festival de Cannes et divers autres festivals à travers le monde (Durban et Brisbane notamment). Le film a rapporté plus de 49 millions de dollars en entrées de cinéma, faisant de lui l' un des plus gros succès dans le genre du documentaire .
Le film met en scène l' « ex futur président » des États-Unis --- comme il se présente lui-même --- Al Gore.
Le film est un succès populaire et politique. Il marque la société globalement en 2006 et remet en selle Al Gore comme figure politique dans le sens originel du terme. Gore et la Paramount, le distributeur du film, ont utilisé la recette afin de financer des campagnes éducatives sur le changement climatique
Le film gagne un Oscar comme meilleur film documentaire en 2007 (et même un second comme Meilleure chanson originale).
En 2007 Al Gore est co-lauréat, avec le GIEC, du Prix Nobel de la paix pour «leurs efforts afin de mettre en place et diffuser une meilleure compréhension du changement climatique causé par l'homme, et de jeter les bases des mesures nécessaires pour contrecarrer un tel changement»
Est-ce vraiment un sujet nouveau? Certainement pas. Est-ce vraiment un sujet important? Absolument. « The Unchained Goddess » part of educational science documentaries were popular favorites for showing in school science classrooms.
I CT accounts for approximately 2% of global CO 2 emissions — which, to give a point of reference, is roughly equivalent to that of the aviation industry. This figure includes estimates for PCs, servers, cooling, UPS, fixed and mobile telephony, LANs, WANs, printers, disk storage, and printers. If left unchecked, the absolute CO 2 emissions and the percentage of global CO 2 will grow as we see continued growth in software applications and the volume and use of ICT-related equipment. Despite the unquestionable, overall environmental value of IT, this is unsustainable. It has to be tackled by all stakeholders in the industry through product innovation, standards, legislation and a change in use behavior. Even if the environmental issues are ignored, the power costs alone justify the attention. The good news is that because of the massive inefficiencies in the technology and use behaviors , actually achieving substantial improvements is not too hard. The 2% of global CO 2 emissions that information and communications technology (ICT) accounts for includes the in-use phase of PCs, servers, cooling, data center uninterrupted power supply (UPS), fixed and mobile telephony, LANs, WANs, printers, and disk storage. It also includes an estimation of the embodied (used in design, manufacture and distribution) energy in the large-volume devices, namely PCs and cell/mobile phones. It includes all commercial and government IT and telecommunications infrastructure worldwide. It does not include consumer electronics other than cellular, mobile telephones and PCs. The real figure for the range of equipment we have defined is probably somewhere between 1.8% and 2.1%, but it is impossible to be precise because of the limited data available related to actual power consumption and use behaviors. We believe 2% to be a good estimation at this stage; however, as we develop our research in the area, we will update these numbers.
While the sector plans to significantly step up the energy efficiency of its products and services, ICT’s largest influence will be by enabling energy efficiencies in other sectors, an opportunity that could deliver carbon savings five times larger than the total emissions from the entire ICT sector in 2020.
Having reached heat densities far beyond historical high-water marks, customers were straining to provide power and cooling to handle racks consuming tens of thousands of watts. The pressure translated to a mix of market demand and customer pressure on the technology providers, which have responded with a big shift in priorities, with designing, placing power and cooling high on the list. Inefficiency is being attacked in power supplies, fans and other elements. Furthermore, management techniques to reduce power use when not needed by the workload, first developed for mobile devices in which battery life was a constraint, are appearing in fixed equipment, including the data center.
ICT has a positive and negative impact on the environment. The first-order effects are the direct impact of ICT on the environment, such as contamination throughout the life cycle, greenhouse gas emission (GHG) and so on. Second-order effects (ICT's ability to change business processes to improve or otherwise increase the environmental impacts of those processes; for example, travel substitution, e-business) and third-order effects (long-term changes to behaviors or economic structures). Explored by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies for the European Commission in its 2004 report, &quot;The Future Impact of ICTs on Environmental Sustainability.&quot; First-order effects are understood reasonably well; second-order effects, somewhat understood, but patchy; third order, very little. Enterprises and vendors can influence first- and second-order effects. Policy makers can and will influence all 3. The overall effect at a macroeconomic level is that ICT does impact the material, energy and transportation intensity of the economy. Regulations are multiplying and have the potential to seriously constrain companies in building data centers, as the impact on power grids, carbon emissions from increased use and other environmental impacts are under scrutiny. Other regulations aim to reduce the impact of electronics when disposed by minimizing harmful materials and promoting more recycling. Rate structures and rebate programs are created to further these environmental goals; these help lower the costs of running IT if taken into account. Some companies are emphasizing their social responsibility behavior, which might result in vendor preferences and policies that affect IT decisions. Scheduling decisions for workloads on servers will begin to consider power efficiency as a key placement attribute.
From an enterprise IT management perspective, there are three degrees of environmental impact for any enterprise: First-degree impact is the environmental impact of IT and the communications used by the enterprise. This includes electronic waste and asset disposition; consumption of nonrenewable resources such as energy in the data center for desktop computers, printing and networking gear; the energy embodied in the full life cycle of each asset; and user behavior. Second-degree impact is the environmental impact of an enterprise's business operations and supply chain, regardless of whether the end result is a product, service, or a combination of a product and service. This includes the environmental effects of material and energy consumption; emissions or waste from manufacturing and all operational processes; paper consumption for administrative purposes; lighting, heating and cooling for buildings; workforce commuting and mobility; vehicle fleets; supply chain impact; waste disposal; and so forth. The energy component of all this becomes part of the &quot;embodied energy&quot; in a product or service — that is, the energy used in its manufacture and distribution. Third-degree impact is the environmental impact in the &quot;in use&quot; phase or delivery phase of the enterprise's products and services — that is, the direct impacts of procurement and use of the products and services. A few examples will help clarify our discussion. For a car manufacturer, the energy that goes into assembling cars, manufacturing components by its supply chain and having them shipped, performing R&D, and testing is part of the second degree of impact. The gas used for cars and their carbon dioxide emissions are part of the third degree. Finally, IT that runs the factory, as well as all other processes, constitutes the first degree of impact. For a retail bank, the second degree is primarily about paper consumption, employees' commutes and air conditioning in offices. The third degree concerns the carbon footprint of clients: Do they need to move and come to counters? Can they do all they need to do from home or office?
Technologies Imprimantes, postes de travail, Wi-Fi, Virtualisation Pratiques de travail: Dématérialisation (Papier, Email, Web, Signature digitale) Télétravail (Interdit, Exceptionnel, Possible, Encouragé, Par défaut) Processus: Critères (Coût/Qualité, Demandé mais pas un critère, Si egal alors critère, Demandé aux fournisseurs, Exigé des fournisseurs, Aussi important que le coût/qualité) Fournisseurs locaux Liste des composants IT (Qu'est ce qui tourne où et pourquoi) Responsabilité sociale: Impact sur le C02 (Minimiser coûts, Sources renouvelables, Compensation C02, Impact neutre/positif) Déchets, récupération (Mesurés, compensés, réduits, favorisé, obligatoire) Communication
1. et 2. concernent la production 3. et 4. le développement 5. et 6. l'organisation
Immediate Issues &quot;Green IT: Immediate Issues for Users to Focus On&quot; provides tangible and immediate recommendations, covering the next two years, that users need to focus on. It explores the eight important areas of: • Modern data center facilities' design concepts / • Advanced cooling technologies / • Use of modeling and monitoring software / • Virtualization technologies for server consolidation / • Processor design and server efficiency/ / • Energy management for the office environment / • Integrated energy management for the software environment / • Combined heat and power Users looking to build or refurbish their data centers, or looking to improve energy efficiency in their office environments, need to take urgent actions. However, there is confusion about how mature some of the technologies are, and how the possible options should be prioritized. This research will help to outline what is appropriate in the short term and what is technically feasible Midterm Issues During the next two to five years, many green technologies will mature and become important to IT groups looking to develop &quot;greener&quot; IT organizations. However, much of the planning and assessing of the appropriateness and cost of using these new products needs to be examined earlier, and in the context of an overall IT strategy. This is especially the case where potential government legislation (affecting building design, for example) may come into force. &quot;Green IT: Midterm Issues for Users to Focus On&quot; explores the eight areas of: • Green IT procurement / • Green asset life cycle programs/ • Environmental labeling of servers and other devices / • Videoconferencing / • Changing people's behaviors • Green accounting in IT/ • Green legislation in data centers / • Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and IT programs This research also provides guidance to IT organizations that are looking to work with other parts of the business, such as CSR groups or governance teams. It offers suggestions that the IT group can use to change employee behavior with respect to green issues. Long-Term Issues There are many green IT technologies, services and projects that will span the next five to 20 years. Much of the industry hype (or &quot;greenwash&quot;) sits in this area and is causing confusion for users. They are unclear about whether carbon-trading programs will become the norm, or whether it will be possible to recycle energy from data centers in a simple and cost-effective way. &quot;Green IT: Long-Term Issues for Users to Focus On&quot; covers the following seven areas: • Carbon offsetting and carbon trading / • Data center heat recycling / • Alternative energy sources / • Software efficiency / • Green building design / • Green legislation / • Green chargeback This research provides guidance to users looking at the issues of green chargeback, and buying or designing energy-efficient software. It also provides numerous recommendations that are strategic in nature, yet practical.
http://www.climatesaverscomputing.org/ Turn on Power Management: The average desktop PC wastes nearly half of the energy it consumes as heat. This wasted electricity translates to higher electricity bills and increased greenhouse gas emissions. Using power management features on your computer can save nearly half a ton of CO2 and more than $60 a year in energy costs. Making some simple changes to your computer’s power management settings is an easy and inexpensive way to make a difference in your environmental impact. With a few mouse clicks, your computer can be set to automatically go to “sleep” when it’s not in use. Buy Energy-Efficient Computers: A new ENERGY STAR compliant PC or laptop uses 15 to 25 percent less energy on average than a standard new computer. ENERGY STAR 4.0 is expected to save consumers and businesses more than $1.8 billion in energy costs over the next 5 years and prevent greenhouse gas emissions equal to the annual emissions of 2.7 million vehicles. Choose an ENERGY STAR compliant computer the next time you’re in the market for a new PC. Look for the ENERGY STAR label or visit the online product catalog to browse for an efficient PC. Unplug from phantom power : As long as they are plugged in, your computer and other electronic devices continue to use electricity – even when they are turned off or in standby mode. A computer uses up to 10 watts when it is turned off but still plugged in. Fun Fact: You can reduce your electricity bills by as much as 10% by unplugging appliances and electronics when they are not in use. What you can do: Plug all your electronics into one power strip so you can easily switch them all off when you leave the room or go to sleep.
Mitigation: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the extent of global warming. Increased effort to develop new technologies and carefully manage others in an attempt to mitigate global warming. Adaptation: reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems against actual or expected climate change effects. It is unlikely that levels of greenhouse gases can be kept low enough to avoid a projected temperature rise of 2 °C
High-carbon feedback A situation where an IT service encourages new services, behavior and institutional structures that result in increased CO2 emissions. Some IT investments can, even if they help reduce CO2 emissions in the short term, support higher emissions over time, resulting in a high-carbon feedback and a high-carbon “lock-in”. Low-carbon feedback A situation where an IT service encourages new services, behavior and institutional structures that result in reduced CO2 emissions. Some IT investments can support a system that provides a low-carbon feedback that helps support an accelerated reduction of CO2 emissions. These solutions are crucial if we are to achieve a transformative change and reach the significant emission reductions necessary to avoid dangerous climate change. Example Videoconferencing: (1) Service feedback: more users make the system more attractive and the more users the less travel is used. (2) Structural feedback: more use triggers more investments in broadband and access therefore fostering the use of flexible and distance work. (3) Systemic feedback: bring a change in the organization from buying travel to buying meetings, this can be applied throughout the organization.
1. Smart City Planning: Deploy modern simulation and analysis software to improve urban design and planning to optimize energy efficiency. 2. Smart Buildings: Use sensors and controls in buildings to improve efficiency and tailor energy use to energy needs. 3. Smart Appliances: Utilize IT components (Microprocessors and ASICs) within appliances to improve efficiency and tailor appliances use with actual needs. 4. Dematerialization Services: Use IT as a form of “service delivery”, substituting physical products and interactions – i.e. ‘use bits instead of bricks’. 5. I-optimization: Use IT-based controls and knowledge management systems within individual production processes to improve operations, save energy and increase efficiency. 6. Smart Industry: Deploy design tools and software to forecast, simulate and analyze energy use in production processes to ensure low carbon design of plants and processes. 7. Smart Grid: Deploy smart meters and communication technologies within electricity networks to enable two way communication between energy users and energy producers and to deliver advanced services such as “time of use metering” or “remote demand management”. 8. Integrated Renewable Solutions: Utilize simulation, analytical and management tools to enable a wide deployment of renewable energy, for example removing existing bottlenecks present in transmission infrastructure or enabling a wider use of distributed generation. 9. Smart Work: Leverage the Internet and other advanced communication tools to work remotely and avoid business trips or physical commuting. 10. Intelligent Transport: Deploy advanced sensors and controls, analytical models, management tools, and ubiquitous telecommunications to provide relevant information to enable less polluting forms of transport (such as public transport).
Smart motors: A review of manufacturing in China has identified that without optimization, 10% of China’s emissions (2% of global emissions) in 2020 will come from China’s motor systems alone and to improve industrial efficiency even by 10% would deliver up to 200 million tonnes (Mt) CO2e savings. Applied globally, optimized motors and industrial automation would reduce 0.97 GtCO2e in 2020, worth €68 billion ($107.2 billion). Smart logistics: Through a host of efficiencies in transport and storage, smart logistics in Europe could deliver fuel, electricity and heating savings of 225 MtCO2e. The global emissions savings from smart logistics in 2020 would reach 1.52 GtCO2e, with energy savings worth € 280 billion ($441.7 billion). Smart buildings: A closer look at buildings in North America indicates that through better building design, management and automation 15% of North America’s buildings emissions could be saved. Globally, smart buildings technologies would enable 1.68 GtCO2e of emissions savings, worth €216 billion ($340.8 billion). Smart grid: Reducing T&D losses in India’s power sector by 30% is possible through better monitoring and management of electricity grids, first with smart meters and then through integrating more advanced ICTs into the so-called energy Internet Smart grid technologies were the largest opportunity found in the study and could globally reduce 2.03 GtCO2e , worth €79 billion ($124.6 billion).
NON, ce n'est pas une mode ! Les coûts de l'énergie et les effets des émissions ne sont que temporairement stabilisés, la tendance est largement à la hausse. L'image des organisations et des gouvernements est en jeu: les citoyens et les clients demandent un comportement social et écologique responsable. La réglementation et les protocoles politiques nationaux et internationaux se mettent en place: création de marchés de carbone, taxes, quotas, incitations, ratification d'accords, etc.
IT is a contributor to environmental problems and part of many solutions. Governments will need to deal with both aspects at the same time. Geographical imbalances will gradually be reduced as the environment becomes a global political priority. Local governments will be more directly affected, because the most visible environmental concerns are under their direct policy responsibilities. Green IT will lead to new IT investments, as well as to changes in the way IT spending is assessed and managed.
Standards et critères pour les produits EnergyStar (Gouvernement US) et EPEAT (Organisation non gouvernementale). Government CIOs must consider different areas of potential impact on discretionary and nondiscretionary IT spending (such as those discussed here), and assess their readiness, in terms of the ability to communicate internally and externally what is being done and why. Government CTOs and operations managers must start looking at how green IT requirements can affect infrastructure and architectures. Business-unit managers, as well as portfolio managers, must prepare to articulate and prioritize the &quot;environmental value of IT,&quot; and factor this issue into decision making.