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What is an actual implicature
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  • 1. What is an actual implicature?Definition An actual implicature is any potential implicature that is not canceled by its context.Example (English) The expression I think that some went has two potential implicatures: The matrix sentence I think ... has the potential implicature "I don’t know [that some went]." The complement clause ... some went has the potential implicature "not all went." Of the two potential implicatures, only I don’t know that some went is an actual implicature, because the other occurs in a complement clause that the matrix clause does not entail. If some went were uttered independently, as a main clause, its potential implicature ‘not all went’ would also be its actual implicature. What is a nonconventional implicature?Definition An nonconventional implicature is a implicature that is drawn in accordance with pragmatic principles, such as the cooperative principle or the informativeness principle, rather than the meaning of a lexical item or expression.Kinds Here are some kinds of nonconventional implicatures: What is conversational implicature? What is a nonconversational implicature? What is conversational implicature?Definition Conversational implicature is a nonconventional implicature based on an addressee’s assumption that the speaker is following the conversational maxims or at least the cooperative principle.Kinds
  • 2. Here are some kinds of conversational implicatures: What is a flouting implicature? What is a generalized implicature? What is a manner implicature? What is a particularized implicature? What is a quality implicature? What is a quantity implicature? What is a relevance implicature? What is a standard implicature? What is a flouting implicature?Definition A flouting implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressees assumption that the speaker is deliberately breaking (flouting) a conversational maxim while still being cooperative.Discussion The term flouting implicature is a coinage. The concept of an implicature derived from the flouting of a maxim is an important one in the literature of conversational implicature, but there is not a specific name for it. It would commonly be more appropriate to speak of an implicature derived from the speaker’s flouting of a conversational maxim.Example (English) In the following exchange, B flouts the maxim of manner, thereby implying that an open discussion of the ice cream is not desired: A: Let’s get the kids something. B: Okay, but I veto I-C-E C-R-E-A-M-S. What is a generalized implicature?Definition A generalized implicature is a conversational implicature that is inferable without reference to a special context.Example (English) Expressions with the form an X usually imply that X is not closely related to the
  • 3. speaker or subject, as in the following expression: John walked into a house yesterday and saw a tortoise. This expression implies that the house is not John’s house. What is a manner implicature?Definition A manner implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressees assumption that the speaker is either observing or flouting the conversational maxim of manner. If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature. If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.Examples (English) The manner implicature Miss Singer sang badly is derivable from the sentence Miss Singer produced a series of sounds corresponding closely to the score of an aria from ‘"Rigoletto." Because of the submaxim be orderly, an addressee can draw the implicature that the events presented in Alfred went to the store and bought some whisky happened in order. What is a particularized implicature?Definition A particularized implicature is a conversational implicature that is derivable only in a specific context.Examples (English) A: What on earth has happened to the roast beef? B: The dog is looking very happy. In the above exchange, A will likely derive the implicature "the dog ate the roast beef" from B’s statement. This is due to A’s belief that B is observing the conversational maxim of relation or relevance in the specific context of A’s question. What is a quality implicature?
  • 4. Definition A quality implicature is a conversational implicature based on the addressees assumption as to whether or not the speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of quality. If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature. If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.Examples (English) The sentence John has two Ph.D.s implicates both of the following: o "I believe John has two Ph.D.s." o "I have adequate evidence that John has two Ph.D.s." It may also cause an implicature derived from the addressee’s belief that the speaker is flouting the maxim quality. In the following exchange, the obvious falsehood of B’s utterance implicates that B is saying that A is wildly incorrect: o A: Tehran’s in Turkey, isn’t it, teacher? o B: And London’s in Armenia, I suppose. What is a quantity implicature?Definition A quantity implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressees assumption as to whether the speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of quantity. If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature. If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more non-standard type of implicature.Examples (English) The utterance Nigel has 14 children commonly implicates ‘Nigel has only 14 children’, even though it would be compatible with Nigel’s having 20 children. What is a clausal implicature?Definition
  • 5. A clausal implicature is a quantity implicature which is inferred by an addressee concerning the truth of a proposition expressed in a particular subordinate or coordinate clause. The addressee infers that the proposition may or may not be true. The complex or compound sentence of which the clause is a part does not indicate whether the proposition expressed by the clause is true or false.Discussion There will be another sentence available which would entail that the proposition expressed by the clause is true. This sentence must be identical to the sentence under scrutiny except that, in one of its clauses, an expression has been substituted which is stronger than that used by the speaker.Example (English) The sentence I believe that John is away implies that it is possible that John is in fact not away. If John were certain to be away, then the expression would have been something like I know John is away. What is a scalar implicature?Definition A scalar implicature is a quantity implicature based on the use of an informationally weak term in an implicational scale. The use implicates that all similar utterances using an informationally stronger term are not true because, according to the conversational maxim of quantity, a speaker would ordinarily be required to make a stronger, more informative utterance if a true one were available.Example (English) In the utterance some of the boys went to the party, the word some implicates "not all of the boys went to the party." The words none, some, and all form an implicational scale, in which the use of one form implicates that the use of a stronger form is not possible. What is a relevance implicature?Definition A relevance implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressees assumption as to whether a speaker is observing or flouting the conversational maxim of
  • 6. relation or relevance. If the speaker is assumed to be observing the maxim, then the addressee makes a standard implicature. If the speaker is assumed to be flouting the maxim, then the addressee makes a more nonstandard type of implicature.Examples (English) In the following exchange, the implicature that A draws as to the time of day from B’s presumably relevant response is a relevance implicature: A: Can you tell me the time? B: Well, the milkman has come. What is a standard implicature?Definition A standard implicature is a conversational implicature based on an addressees assumption that the speaker is being cooperative by directly observing the conversational maxims.Example (English) In the following exchange, A assumes that B is being cooperative, truthful, adequately informative, relevant, and clear. Thus, A can infer that B thinks A can get fuel at the garage: A: I’ve just run out of petrol. B: Oh; there’s a garage just around the corner. What is a nonconversational implicature?Definition A nonconversational implicature is a nonconventional implicature that arises from the operation of a principle or maxim of language usage other than the cooperative principle and conversational maxims, such as an implicature derived from an assumption of the informativeness principle.Kind Here is a kind of nonconversational implicature: What is the informativeness principle? What is the informativeness principle?
  • 7. Definition The informativeness principle is an implicature in which the addressee is licensed to apply his or her knowledge of the world to infer an implicature that is informationally stronger than the actual utterance. This principle, in addition to the cooperative principle and conversational maxims, enables the addressee to resolve apparent conflicts with the quantity maxim.Example (English) The utterance He turned on the switch and the motor started generally implicates the stronger utterance He turned on the switch and this caused the motor to start. The quantity maxim would ordinarily disallow such a strong implicature on the assumption that the cooperative speaker is making his contribution adequately informative. However, the informativeness principle allows the addressee to infer the implicature based on the knowledge of how motors start. What is an interpropositional relation?Definition An interpropositional relation is an explicit or inferred coherence relation between propositions or groups of propositions that are typically expressed by clauses or larger portions of text. Interpropositional relations can account for the coherence between portions of text.Discussion The term interpropositional relation has been chosen here as a rubric for relations that various authors have proposed, using a variety of terminology, in accounting for text structure or coherence. Not every author would agree that this term is the best one for these relations, nor would all agree that every relation cited here belongs in a list of interpropositional relations. The controversy occurs either because of a disputation over the validity of a relation itself, or some restriction on the usage of the term interpropositional relation.Example (English) The following construction is an example of an inferred solutionhood relation, a particular kind of interpropositional relation: I’m hungry; let’s go to the Fuji Gardens.
  • 8. Source: Mann and Thompson 1985 1Kinds Here are some kinds of interpropositional relations as found in Mann and Thompson 1985.: