Introduction to Public Administration
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  • 1. Introduction to Public Administration Prof. Josefina B. Bitonio, DPA
  • 2. Part I: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Significance of Public Administration
  • 3. Views of Public Administration
  • 4. Views of Public Administration As a Field of Practice According to Waldo (1955), PA has dual usages: as a field of practice and a field of study. The meaning invoked is the activity or process of administering public affairs and carrying out governmental functions.
    • Example of PA practices
    • Enacting a law
    • Making decision on the best policy concerning an issue
    • Formulating the MTPDP
    • Maintaining peace and order
    • Processing of claims
    • Building roads and bridges
    • Issuance of license
    • Setting standard and Processes
  • 5. Views of Public Administration As a Field of Study or Discipline PA is concerned with discovering and advancing theoretical and practical knowledge in the field using scientific methods and other social sciences use
    • Example of PA as a field of study
    • Empirical studies
    • Case method analysis
    • Surveys
    • Quantitative analysis
    PA differs from political science in its emphasis on bureaucratic structure and behavior and its methodologies (Rossenbloom, 1989)
  • 6. What is the PA subject matter or focus to be studied?
    • Example of PA as a field of study
    • how a policy is made and implemented
    • The interrelationship between government institutions
    • Human Resource development
    • Impact of environmental regulation on communities and
    • economic activities
    • the behavior and attitude of public officials as the perform
    • their official duties
    • Leadership styles of public managers
    • Mechanisms adopted by poverty-focused programs
    • The relations of government and the citizens
  • 7. What is also considered an applied discipline?
    • It has practical use for government, particularly in improving government performance
    • it prepares persons for careers in public service and trains them to be good public administrators
  • 8. Views of Public Administration As: Both an Art and a Science As an Art: PA involves creativity, leadership, a good sense of the intangibles in administration. This view is closely to the practice of PA
  • 9. Views of Public Administration As: Both an Art and a Science
    • As a Science:
    • There is a body of knowledge or theories that can explain or predict phenomenon or variables in the field of PA
    • The PA theories and concepts are built based on empirical research using systematic methods
    • These theories can be used not only to explain but also improve the art and practice of PA (Bautista, 1990)
  • 10. Wlado Definition of Public Administration Waldo, 1955
    • PA is the organization and management of men
    • and materials to achieve the purposes of
    • government
    • PA is the art and science of management as
    • applied to the affairs of the state
  • 11. Definition of Public Administration Caiden, 1971
    • is a cooperative group effort in a public setting
    • covers all three branches – executive, legislative and judicial and interrelationships
    • has important role in the formulation of public policy and is , thus, part of the political process
    • as a field of study and practice , it has been influenced by human relations approach
    • is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community
  • 12. Definition of Public Administration Fry, 1989
    • PA is policy-making. It is not autonomous, exclusive or isolated policy making.
    • PA is one of a number of basic political processes by which this people achieves and controls governance
  • 13. Rossenbloom, 1989 Definition of Public Administration
    • PA is the action part of government. The means by which the purposes and goals of government are realized. PA as a field is mainly concerned with the means for implementing political values
    • PA differs from political science in its emphasis on bureaucratic structure and behavior and its methodologies
    • PA differs from administrative science in the evaluative techniques used by non profit organizations because profit-seeking organizations are considerably less constrained in considering public interest in their decision-making structures and the behavior of their administrators
  • 14. Definition of Public Administration De Guzman, 1993
    • From a very broad perspective, PA may be viewed to refer not only in activities carrying out or implementing policies and programs of the government but also to the processes and contents of these policies and programs
    • From a broader perspective, PA may refer to the cooperative human action whether within the public bureaucracy, the private sector or in nongovernmental organizations aimed at delivering servi9ces to the people
  • 15. Rossenbloom, 1989 Definition of Public Administration
    • The process of PA consists of the actions involved in effecting the intent or desire of a government . It is thus the continuously active, “business” part of government, concerned with carrying out the law, as made by the legislative bodies (or other authoritative agents)and interpreted by courts, through the processes of organization and management
  • 16. Public and Private Administration Criteria Public Administration Private Administration 1.Relations to environment
    • subject to public scrutiny; public demand and expectations; political pressures
    • Less exposed to public inspection; internal processes are kept from public; response to public guided by market dynamics
    2. Accountability
    • Accountable to the public; transparency in transactions is expected
    • management accountable to owners of firms/corporations
    3. Measure of performance
    • general public satisfaction is the gauge in the improvement in the quality of life
    • profit is bottomline
    4. Nature of goods and services
    • open to all
    • availment based on ones ability to pay
  • 17. Reference:
    • Bautista, Victoria. (Cited in Supplementary Readings.)
    • Caiden, Gerald. (Cited in the Supplementary Readings.)
    • Fry, Brian. “Five Great Issues in the Profession of public Administration” in Jack
    • Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, Gerald J. Miller (eds). Handbook of Public
    • Administration, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1989.
    • Ocampo, Romeo. “Toward a Review of Research and knowledge in Philippines
    • Public Administration” in Victoria A. Bautista, Ma. Concepcion P. Alfiler, Danilo R.
    • Reyes, Proserpina D. Tapales (eds.) Introduction to Public Administration in the
    • Philippines; A Reader, Quezon City: College of Public Administration, University of
    • the Philippines, 1993.
    • Rosen bloom, David H. and Deborah D. Goldman. “The Practice and Discipline of
    • Public Administration: Competing Concerns” in David Rosen bloom (ed) Public
    • Administration: Understanding Management, Politics and law in the Public Sector,
    • New York: Random House, 1989.
    • Module Introduction to PA, Open University, UP, NCPAG, Diliman, Quezon City,
    • Philippines