Encyclopedia of  Islam    and theMuslim World
Editorial Board                                Editor in Chief                               Richard C. Martin            ...
Encyclopedia of  Islam     and theMuslim World    Editor in Chief   Richard C. Martin      Volume 1         A-L
Encyclopedia of  Islam     and theMuslim World    Editor in Chief   Richard C. Martin      Volume 2      M-Z, Index
Encyclopedia of Islam                                                           Richard C. Martin, Editor in Chief© 2004 b...
ContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
Editorial and Production Staff              Kate Millson and Corrina Moss                       Project Editors       Joan...
Editorial and Production Staff                                   Mary Beth Trimper                                   Manag...
IntroductionA growing number of scholars and pundits have declared that the twenty-first century will be theera of Islam. S...
Introduction               diversity exists among the contributing scholars who live and teach in North America, Europe,  ...
Introduction           the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (1995) appeared in four volumes. The focus of  ...
Introduction               colleague of many years, John Voll, Editorial Consultant, kindly advised Hélène Potter and me o...
List of EntriesAbbas I, Shah                  Abu ‘l-Hasan Bani-Sadr        Ahmad Ibn IdrisRudi Matthee                   ...
List of EntriesArabia, Pre-Islam           Baha allah                        Calligraphy Gordon D. Newby             John ...
List of EntriesDevotional Life                     Erbakan, Necmeddin           Genealogy Gerard Wiegers                  ...
List of EntriesHilli, Allama al-                   Ibn Hanbal                  Islamic Jihad Robert Gleave                ...
List of EntriesKemal, Namek                 Liberation Movement of Iran   Marwa, Muhammad Linda T. Darling             Cla...
List of EntriesModernity                                Muhammad, Elijah                Nationalism: Iranian Javed Majeed ...
List of EntriesPilgrimage: Hajj                       Rashidun                            Sadr Kathryn Kueny              ...
List of EntriesShi a: Imami (Twelver)              Suyuti, al-             Turabi, Hasan al- David Pinault                ...
List of EntriesWazir                        Young Ottomans        Zand, Karim Khan Richard C. Martin            Murat C. M...
List of ContributorsRula Jurdi Abisaab                      Kristian Alexander                        Khalil Athamina Univ...
List of ContributorsSheila S. Blair                      Richard C. Campany, Jr.               Stephen Cory Boston College...
List of ContributorsRochelle Davis                     Rizwi Faizer                              Osman M. Galal Stanford U...
List of Contributors Niyabat-e amma                         Modernization, Political:            Aaron Hughes Sayyid      ...
List of ContributorsHossein Kamaly                        Timur Kuran                           Akbar Mahdi Columbia Unive...
List of ContributorsWilliam McCants                        Ziba Mir-Hosseini                     Seyyed Hossein Nasr Princ...
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
Encyclopedia of  Islam and the Muslim world  -Richard Matin
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Transcript of "Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world -Richard Matin"

  1. 1. Encyclopedia of Islam and theMuslim World
  2. 2. Editorial Board Editor in Chief Richard C. Martin Professor of Islamic Studies and History of Religions Emory University, Atlanta Associate Editors Saïd Amir Arjomand Professor of Sociology State University of New York, Stony Brook Marcia Hermansen Professor of Theology Loyola University, Chicago Abdulkader Tayob University of Cape Town, South AfricaInternational Institute for the Study of Islam in the Modern World, Netherlands Assistant Editor Rochelle Davis Teaching Fellow, Introduction to the Humanities Program Stanford University Editorial Consultant John O. Voll Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding Georgetown University ii
  3. 3. Encyclopedia of Islam and theMuslim World Editor in Chief Richard C. Martin Volume 1 A-L
  4. 4. Encyclopedia of Islam and theMuslim World Editor in Chief Richard C. Martin Volume 2 M-Z, Index
  5. 5. Encyclopedia of Islam Richard C. Martin, Editor in Chief© 2004 by Macmillan Reference USA. For permission to use material from this While every effort has been made toMacmillan Reference USA is an imprint of The product, submit your request via Web at ensure the reliability of the informationGale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson http://www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you presented in this publication, The Gale Group,Learning, Inc. may download our Permissions Request form Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of and submit your request by fax or mail to: the data contained herein. The Gale Group,Macmillan Reference USA™ and Thomson Inc. accepts no payment for listing; andLearning™ are trademarks used herein under Permissions Department inclusion in the publication of anylicense. The Gale Group, Inc. organization, agency, institution, publication, 27500 Drake Road service, or individual does not implyFor more information, contact Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535Macmillan Reference USA endorsement of the editors or publisher. Permissions Hotline: Errors brought to the attention of the300 Park Avenue South, 9th Floor 248-699-8006 or 800-877-4253 ext. 8006New York, NY 10010 publisher and verified to the satisfaction of Fax: 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 the publisher will be corrected in futureOr you can visit our Internet site athttp://www.gale.com Cover photographs reproduced by permission editions. of Andrea Pistolesi / The Image Bank andALL RIGHTS RESERVED Robert Azzi / Aramco World.No part of this work covered by the copyrighthereon may be reproduced or used inany form or by any means—graphic,electronic, or mechanical, includingphotocopying, recording, taping, Webdistribution, or information storage retrievalsystems—without the written permission ofthe publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world / edited by Richard C. Martin. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-02-865603-2 (set) — ISBN 0-02-865604-0 (v. 1) — ISBN 0-02-865605-9 (v. 2) 1. Islam—Encyclopedias. I. Martin, Richard C. BP40.E525 2003 909’.097671—dc21 2003009964 This title is also available as an e-book. ISBN 0-02-865912-0 Contact your Gale sales representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  6. 6. ContentsIntroduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixList of entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiiList of contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiiiSynoptic outline of entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiList of maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ISLAM AND THE MUSLIM WORLDGlossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749Appendix: Genealogies and Timelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 755Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 v
  7. 7. Editorial and Production Staff Kate Millson and Corrina Moss Project Editors Joann Cerrito, Melissa Hill, and Mark Mikula Editorial Support Jonathan Aretakis Copy Chief Nancy Gratton Copy Editor Ann McGlothlin Weller Proofreader Barbara Cohen Indexer Barbara Yarrow Manager, Imaging and Multimedia Content Dean Dauphinais Senior Editor, Imaging and Multimedia Content Lezlie Light Imaging Coordinator Deanna Raso Photo Researcher Shalice Shah-Caldwell Research Associate Cynthia Baldwin and Jennifer Wahi Art Directors Autobookcomp Typesetter vi
  8. 8. Editorial and Production Staff Mary Beth Trimper Manager, Composition Evi Seoud Assistant Manager, Composition Rhonda Williams Print Buyer MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA Frank Menchaca Vice President Hélène Potter Director, New Product DevelopmentIslam and the Muslim World vii
  9. 9. IntroductionA growing number of scholars and pundits have declared that the twenty-first century will be theera of Islam. Such predictions, whether intended in a positive or negative light, err in failing toappreciate the spread and influence of Islam during the past millennium and a half, especially onthe continents of Asia and Africa. Nonetheless, events during the first decade of the newmillennium have underscored the importance of knowing about Islamic history and understand-ing the great diversity and richness of Muslim social, cultural, and religious practices. Suicidebomber attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington,D.C., on September 11, 2001, killed over three thousand persons. These tragic events and themedia coverage of the aftermath as well as of the two wars subsequently fought in the Muslimcountries of Afghanistan and Iraq have dramatically shown how little is known in the West aboutIslam and the Muslim world. Islam is, and has been for nearly fifteen centuries, a global religiousand political phenomenon. Muslim networks of communication, from the annual pilgrimage toMecca to the vast new power of the World Wide Web, have enabled Muslims to establishpostmodern identities in a rapidly changing world, while at the same time preserving andreinvigorating a variety of time-honored traditions and practices. The Encyclopedia of Islam and theMuslim World is a sourcebook of information about Islam, its past and present, addressed tostudents and general readers as the twenty-first century begins its first decade. The Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World presents in two volumes some 504 articles,alphabetically arranged, in incremental lengths generally of 200, 500, 1,000, 3,000, and 5,000words. The work of some 500 scholars appears in these pages, carefully reviewed and edited in acommon style for easy access by readers who may presently have limited or no knowledge ofIslam. It has also been prepared as a teaching and learning resource for teachers and students,from the high school grades through university. The alphabetical ordering of articles that follow,in the List of Articles, will enable readers to locate topics of interest quickly. A synoptic outline ofthe contents of the Encyclopedia, found within the frontmatter on pages xxxi–xxxiv, providesreaders with an overview by topic and subtopic of the range and kinds of information presented inthe main body of the Encyclopedia. Approximately 170 photographs, drawings, maps, and chartsappear throughout the two volumes. A glossary in the back matter of volume two, which listscommonly used Arabic and other Islamic terms, such as shari a, or “Islamic law,” will enablegeneral readers to determine quickly the meaning of essential but perhaps less familiar terms inIslamic studies. The Encyclopedia is truly an international work that reflects the diversity of ideas and practicesthat have characterize the Islamic world throughout its history. This diversity is reflected amongthe editors who organized and compiled this work and the scores of scholars who wrote thearticles contained in it. The associate editors’ national origins are Canada, Iran, and South Africa;their religious affiliations or backgrounds include Sunni and Shi ite Islam; and their scholarlytraining has been in sociology, the history of religions, and Islamic studies. An even greater ix
  10. 10. Introduction diversity exists among the contributing scholars who live and teach in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, including the Middle East. They represent the fields of history, philosophy, religious studies, anthropology, sociology, political science, and the fine arts, among others. In its totality, then, this work represents a broad expanse of scholarly knowledge about Islam, accessible in two volumes. Islam increasingly is recognized as a vital force in the contemporary world, a source of collective social identity, and religious expression for over one billion people around the world, who comprise a fifth of the global population. Public interest in learning about Islam is a very recent phenomenon, however. Events of the past few decades have generated a demand for information about Islam on an unprecedented scale in the history of Islamic studies in the West. In negative terms, these events include violence: the colonial and postcolonial encounters between Europeans and Muslims in Asia and Africa, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Hindu- Muslim clashes in South Asia, Serbian ethnic cleansing of Muslim populations in the Balkans, and the heavily televised American-led wars in the Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq. In positive terms, the recent years have seen productive Muslim diaspora communities emerge in Europe and the Americas, Islamic patterns of democracy and civil society develop in some countries in Africa and Asia, and venues of dialogue arise among Muslims, Jews, and Christians about their common moral and social concerns as well as their differences. That non-Muslims are learning more about Islam and their Muslim neighbors through tools like this encyclopedia must also be counted as a positive turn, and a much-needed one. Scholars, journalists, and writers of all sorts have responded robustly to this newly recognized importance of Islam and the Muslim world, thus creating a wealth of information about Islam now available in bookstores, libraries, and newsstands around the world. More significant for readers of this work, the Internet hosts an expanding plethora of Web sites on Islamic teachings, practices, sectarian groups, and organizations. Many Web sites are sponsored by Muslim scholars, organizations, and institutions and provide authentic, and sometimes competing, information about Islamic beliefs and practices. Unfortunately, others offer hostile interpreta- tions of Islam. The Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World is designed to help students and general readers cope with this growing demand and almost overwhelming supply of information. The decision to call this work the Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World was made after considering other, less felicitous alternatives. The editors wanted to produce a work that was about Islamic cultures, religion, history, politics, and the like as well as the people who have identified with Islam over the past fourteen centuries. For the scope of the social and cultural aspects of the subject matter of the Encyclopedia, the editors chose the phrase “Muslim World.” The label “Muslim World” is not meant to suggest that diversity and variety are lacking in what Muslims think, believe, and do as Muslims. Nor is the Muslim World as represented in this work to be thought of as separate from the rest of the world. Indeed, it will be clear to readers of articles on virtually all topics included below that Islamic history and Muslim people have been deeply and richly engaged in and interacting with world history and are perhaps even more so in the modern world, as the late Marshall G. S. Hodgson so persuasively argued in his monumental three-volume work, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization (1974). The growing demand for accessible knowledge about Islam in recent decades has produced a number of histories, encyclopedias, and dictionaries that serve different purposes. In addition to Hodgson’s comprehensive historical essay on Islamic civilization, The Cambridge History of Islam (1970) brought together substantial treatments of historical periods and geographical regions of Islamic societies. Another important and even older work that is widely used by scholars is the ongoing project known as the Encyclopaedia of Islam. The first edition was published in four volumes in Leiden (1908–1938); the second and much larger edition recently reached its completion in twice as many volumes with a significantly expanded list of contributing scholars; and the third edition is now being planned. The Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World brings to general readers in accessible form the rich tradition of serious scholarship on Islam and Muslim peoples found in the Cambridge History and the Encyclopaedia of Islam, and it addresses information about Islam in the twenty-first century that is not discussed in the older sources. More recently,x Islam and the Muslim World
  11. 11. Introduction the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World (1995) appeared in four volumes. The focus of this latter work is, as the title suggests, on Islam in the modern world, generally dated from the beginning the eighteenth century through the last decade of the twentieth. The Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World by contrast seeks to contextualize contemporary Islam within the longer history of Islam, and it includes discussion of significant world events involving the Islamic world over the past decade. In preparing this new resource on Islam, the editors sought to frame some of the traditional as well as the more recent aspects of Islam in newer categories. Thus, for example, readers will find articles covering “Material Culture,” “Vernacular Islam,” “Identity, Muslim,” “Secularism,” “Disputation,” and “Expansion of Islam.” A major feature of the Encyclopedia is the large number of brief biographical sketches (nearly two hundred) of major figures in Islamic history, men and women, past and present. The editors also included articles on several important and sometimes contested ethical and social issues, including “Ethnicity,” “Gender,” “Homosexuality,” “Human Rights,” and “Masculinities,” along with the more traditional entries on gender (usually concentrating on the feminine roles) and marriage. The events of September 11, 2001, occurred after the Table of Contents was prepared and authors were commissioned to write the articles. Nonetheless, new articles on “Terrorism,” “Usama bin Ladin,” and “al-Qa ida,” among others, were added. History, of course, will continue to unfold for humankind worldwide, including Muslims. The Encyclopedia includes a number of interpretive articles, such as “Ethics and Social Issues,” which provide frameworks for understanding ongoing events in Islamic history. Editorial style is a matter of great importance in a work such as the Encyclopedia. Readers can easily get lost in technical terms and diacritical marks on words borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Integrating work from a great number of scholars from around the world, each with differing practices in academic expression and in transliterating Islamic languages into Latin letters, presented some challenges to the academic editors and the editorial staff at Macmillan. To make things easier on readers, especially for those not initiated into the argots of Islamic technical terms, the editors decided to minimize the diacritical marks on loanwords from Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Turkish, and other Islamic languages. We encouraged authors and copy editors to romanize those Islamic terms that have made it into the English language, such as jihad, hajj, and Ramadan, as evidenced by their inclusion in modern dictionaries such as Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. Where it seemed helpful, editors supplied brief parenthetical definitions and identifications, both in the text and in the Glossary. The people who made this project possible brought great ideas to it, are extremely talented and competent, and were wonderful to work with. Hélène Potter, Macmillan’s Director of New Product Development, designed the project and brought to it a considerable knowledge about Islam. More than an industry leader, Hélène became first and foremost a friend and colleague. She is an accomplished professional with an uncanny understanding of the knowledge industry she serves. Corrina Moss, an Assistant Editor with Macmillan, worked on the project throughout and kept in touch daily on editorial matters large and small. To Corrina went the unpleasant task, pleasantly administered, of keeping the associate editors and especially me on task. Elly Dickason, who was the publisher in 2000 when this project was approved, and Jonathan Aretakis, chief copy editor, also deserve expressions of praise and gratitude—Elly for supporting the project from the moment she reviewed it, and Jonathan for making sure the articles are factually and stylistically appropriate. My colleagues Saïd Arjomand, Marcia Hermansen, and Abdulkader Tayob served as Associ- ate Editors. The associate editors brought broad vision and detailed knowledge to their tasks of helping to organize the contents of the Encyclopedia, and I am indebted to them for making my own knowledge limitations less problematic in producing it. Rochelle Davis, a specialist in Arabic and Islamic studies, served as Assistant Editor, responsible for reading page proofs and preparing the Glossary. However, she contributed much more to the Encyclopedia, with an eye for grammatical and content errors that greatly improved the penultimate draft. My friend andIslam and the Muslim World xi
  12. 12. Introduction colleague of many years, John Voll, Editorial Consultant, kindly advised Hélène Potter and me of matters we should consider in the formative stages of planning the Encyclopedia, and he contributed several important articles to it. On behalf of Saïd, Marcia, Abdulkader, Rochelle, and John, I would like to dedicate this project to our many Muslim and non-Muslim colleagues around the world, with whom we share the task of teaching and writing about Islam in a high-tech, troubled world that needs to know more about itself. To that end we hope this work will help disseminate useful knowledge about one of the world’s great civilizations to those who have a desire and need to know. Richard C. Martin Creston, North Carolina August 15, 2003xii Islam and the Muslim World
  13. 13. List of EntriesAbbas I, Shah Abu ‘l-Hasan Bani-Sadr Ahmad Ibn IdrisRudi Matthee Mazyar Lotfalian Knut S. VikørAbd al-Baha Abu ‘l-Hudhayl al- Allaf AhmadiyyaWilliam McCants M. Sait Özervarli Avril A. PowellAbd al-Hamid Ibn Badis Abu ‘l-Qasem Kashani Ahmad Khan, (Sir) SayyidClaudia Gazzini Mohammad H. Faghfoory David LelyveldAbd al-Hamid Kishk (Shaykh) Ada Ahmad, Mirza GhulamJoel Gordon Tahir Fuzile Sitoto Avril A. PowellAbd al-Jabbar Adab A ishaM. Sait Özervarli Barbara D. Metcalf Sa’diyya ShaikhAbd al-Karim Sorush Adhan AkbarBehrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi Muneer Goolam Fareed Gregory C. KozlowskiAbd al-Nasser, Jamal Afghani, Jamal al-Din AkhbariyyaJoel Gordon Sohail H. Hashmi Robert GleaveAbd al-Qadir, Amir Africa, Islam in AkhlaqPeter von Sivers David Robinson Azim NanjiAbd al-Rahman Kawakibi African Culture and Islam AliSohail H. Hashmi Abdin Chande Diana SteigerwaldAbd al-Razzaq al-Sanhuri Aga Khan AligarhKhaled Abou El-Fadl Azim Nanji David LelyveldAbd al-Wahhab, Muhammad Ibn Ahl al-Bayt AllahSohail H. Hashmi Juan Eduardo Campo Daniel C. PetersonAbduh, Muhammad Ahl-e Hadis / Ahl al-Hadith American Culture and IslamSohail H. Hashmi Barbara D. Metcalf Ihsan BagbyAbu Bakr Ahl al-Hadith Americas, Islam in the Rizwi Faizer R. Kevin Jaques Sylviane Anna DioufAbu Bakr Gumi Ahl al-Kitab Andalus, al- Roman Loimeier Stephen Cory Aaron HughesAbu Hanifa Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi Angels Brannon M. Wheeler Roman Loimeier Peter Lamborn Wilson xiii
  14. 14. List of EntriesArabia, Pre-Islam Baha allah Calligraphy Gordon D. Newby John Walbridge Sheila S. Blair Jonathan M. BloomArabic Language Baha i Faith Kees Versteegh John Walbridge Capitalism Timur KuranArabic Literature Balkans, Islam in the Gert Borg Frances Trix Cartography and Geography Karen C. PintoArab League Bamba, Ahmad Juan Eduardo Campo Central Asia, Islam in Lucy Creevey Devin DeWeeseArchitecture Banna, Hasan al- Central Asian Culture and Islam Santhi Kavuri-Bauer Sohail H. Hashmi Devin DeWeeseArt Baqillani, al- Childhood Sheila S. Blair M. Sait Özervarli Elizabeth Warnock Fernea Jonathan M. Bloom Basri, Hasan al- Christianity and IslamAsabiyya Rkia E. Cornell Patrice C. BrodeurAaron Hughes Ba th Party CircumcisionAsh arites, Ash aira Kathryn Kueny F. Gregory Gause III M. Sait Özervarli Bazargan, Mehdi ClothingAskiya Muhammad Charlotte Jirousek Mazyar Lotfalian Ousmane Kane Bedouin CoinageAsnam Abdullah Saeed Rochelle Davis Uri Rubin Colonialism Bid aAssassins Jamal Malik Nico J. G. Kaptein Farhad Daftary Communism Bin Ladin, UsamaAstrology Richard C. Campany, Jr. Richard C. Martin Ahmad S. Dallal Conflict and ViolenceAstronomy Biography and Hagiography A. Rashied Omar Ahmad S. Dallal Marcia Hermansen ConversionAtabat Biruni, al- Peter B. ClarkeNeguin Yavari Marcia Hermansen CrusadesAtaturk, Mustafa Kemal Body, Significance of Warren C. Schultz A. Uner Turgay Brannon M. Wheeler Dar al-HarbAwami League Bourghiba, Habib John Kelsay Sufia Uddin John Ruedy Dar al-Islam Bukhara, Khanate and Emirate of John KelsayAyatollah (Ar. Ayatullah) Robert Gleave Florian Schwarz Da wa David WesterlundAzhar, al- Bukhari, al- Christer Hedin Diana Steigerwald Asma Afsaruddin Torsten JansonBabiyya Buraq Dawla William McCants Carel Bertram Sohail H. HashmiBab, Sayyed Ali Muhammad Cairo Death William McCants Aslam Farouk-Alli Juan Eduardo CampoBaghdad Caliphate Deoband Mona Hassan Muhammad Qasim Zaman Barbara D. Metcalfxiv Islam and the Muslim World
  15. 15. List of EntriesDevotional Life Erbakan, Necmeddin Genealogy Gerard Wiegers Linda T. Darling Marcia HermansenDhikr Ethics and Social Issues Ghannoushi, Rashid al- Earle Waugh Ebrahim Moosa Gudrun KrämerDietary Laws Ethiopia Ghayba(t) Muneer Goolam Fareed Haggai Erlich Robert GleaveDisputation Ethnicity Ghazali, al- Richard C. Martin Amal Rassam Ebrahim MoosaDivorce Eunuchs Ghazali, Muhammad al- Ziba Mir-Hosseini Jane Hathaway Qamar-ul Huda European Culture and Islam Ghazali, Zaynab al-Dome of the Rock Jorgen S. Nielsen Ursula Günther Sheila S. Blair Jonathan M. Bloom Europe, Islam in Globalization Jorgen S. Nielsen Saïd Amir ArjomandDreams John C. Lamoreaux Expansion Grammar and Lexicography Fred M. Donner Kees VersteeghDu a Muneer Goolam Fareed Fadlallah, Muhammad Husayn Greek Civilization Mazyar Lotfalian Oliver LeamanEast Asia, Islam in Jacqueline M. Armijo Falsafa Hadith Parviz Morewedge Harald MotzkiEast Asian Culture and Islam Jacqueline M. Armijo Farrakhan, Louis Hajj Salim Suwari, al- Aminah Beverly McCloud Abdulkader TayobEconomy and Economic Institutions Nora Ann Colton Fasi, Muhammad Allal al- Haj Umar al-Tal, al- David L. Johnston Abdin ChandeEducation Jonathan Berkey Fatima Hallaj, al- Ursula Günther Herbert W. MasonEmpires: Abbasid Matthew Gordon Fatwa HAMAS Daniel C. Peterson Tamara SonnEmpires: Byzantine Feda iyan-e Islam Harem Nadia Maria El Cheikh Fakhreddin Azimi Etin AnwarEmpires: Mogul Feminism Haron, Abdullah Iqtidar Alam Khan Ghazala Anwar Shamil JeppieEmpires: Mongol and Il-Khanid Fez Hasan Charles Melville Claudia Gazzini Michael M. J. FischerEmpires: Ottoman Fitna Hashemi-Rafsanjani, Ali-Akbar Donald Quataert Sandra S. Campbell Majid MohammadiEmpires: Safavid and Qajar Fundamentalism Healing Rudi Matthee Sohail H. Hashmi Abdullahi Osman El-TomEmpires: Sassanian Futuwwa Heresiography Henning L. Bauer Reeva Spector Simon Aaron HughesEmpires: Timurid Gasprinskii, Isma il Bay Hijra Paul D. Buell A. Uner Turgay Rizwi FaizerEmpires: Umayyad Gender Hijri Calendar Alfons H. Teipen Zayn R. Kassam Ahmad S. DallalIslam and the Muslim World xv
  16. 16. List of EntriesHilli, Allama al- Ibn Hanbal Islamic Jihad Robert Gleave Susan A. Spectorsky Najib GhadbianHilli, Muhaqqiq al- Ibn Khaldun Islamic Salvation Front Robert Gleave R. Kevin Jaques David L. JohnstonHinduism and Islam Ibn Maja Islamic Society of North America Juan Eduardo Campo Asma Afsaruddin R. Kevin Jaques Anna Bigelow Ibn Rushd Isma il I, ShahHisba Oliver Leaman Sholeh A. Quinn Robert Gleave Ibn Sina Ja far al-SadiqHistorical Writing Shams C. Inati Liyakatali Takim Konrad Hirschler Jahannam Ibn TaymiyyaHizb Allah Juan Eduardo Campo James Pavlin Tamara Sonn Jahiliyya Identity, MuslimHojjat al-Islam Rizwi Faizer Daniel C. Peterson Robert Gleave Jama at-e Islami IjtihadHojjatiyya Society Jamal Malik Muneer Goolam Fareed Majid Mohammadi Jami Ikhwan al-Muslimin Muneer Goolam FareedHoly Cities David L. Johnston Aslam Farouk-Alli Jamil al-Amin, Imam Ikhwan al-Safa Edward E. Curtis IVHomosexuality Azim Nanji Everett K. Rowson Jam iyat-e Ulama-e Hind Imam Jamal MalikHosayniyya Muhammad Qasim Zaman Rasool Ja fariyan Jam iyat-e Ulama-e Islam Imamate Jamal MalikHospitality and Islam Robert Gleave Khalid Yahya Blankinship Jam iyat-e Ulama-e Pakistan Imamzadah Jamal MalikHukuma al-Islamiyya, al- (IslamicGovernment) Anne H. Betteridge Janna Gudrun Krämer Internet Juan Eduardo CampoHuman Rights Bruce B. Lawrence Jevdet Pasha Ursula Günther Miriam Cooke Linda T. DarlingHumor Intifada Jihad Irfan A. Omar Philip Mattar Sohail H. HashmiHusayn Iqbal, Muhammad Jinnah, Muhammad Ali Michael M. J. Fischer David Lelyveld Rasul Bakhsh RaisHusayni, Hajj Amin al- Iran, Islamic Republic of Judaism and Islam Philip Mattar Nancy L. Stockdale Gordon D. NewbyHusayn, Taha Ishraqi School Kalam Sohail H. Hashmi Seyyed Hossein Nasr Parviz MorewedgeIbadat Islam and Islamic Kano Gerard Wiegers John O. Voll Thyge C. BroIbn Arabi Islam and Other Religions Karaki, Shaykh Ali William C. Chittick Patrice C. Brodeur Rula Jurdi AbisaabIbn Battuta Islamicate Society Karbala Thyge C. Bro R. Kevin Jaques Diana Steigerwaldxvi Islam and the Muslim World
  17. 17. List of EntriesKemal, Namek Liberation Movement of Iran Marwa, Muhammad Linda T. Darling Claudia Stodte Paula StilesKhalid, Khalid Muhammad Libraries Marwan William Shepard John Walbridge Rizwi FaizerKhamane i, Sayyed Ali Madani, Abbasi Masculinities Majid Mohammadi Claudia Gazzini Marcia HermansenKhan Madhhab Mashhad Gene Garthwaite Brannon M. Wheeler Rasool Ja fariyanKhanqa (Khanaqa, Khanga) Madrasa Masjid Leonor Fernandes Patrick D. Gaffney John WalbridgeKhan, Reza of Bareilly Maslaha Mahdi Barbara D. Metcalf Richard C. Martin Marcia HermansenKharijites, Khawarij Material Culture Mahdi, Sadiq al- Annie C. Higgins Hassan Mwakimako John O. VollKhidr, al- Maturidi, al- Mahdist State, Mahdiyya M. Sait Özervarli Hugh Talat Halman Shamil JeppieKhilafat Movement Maududi, Abu l-A la Gail Minault Mahr Jamal Malik Ziba Mir-HosseiniKhirqa Mazalim Margaret Malamud Majlis Osman Tastan Saïd Amir ArjomandKhiva, Khanate of Mazru i Touraj Atabaki Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir Randall L. Pouwels Rula Jurdi AbisaabKho i, Abo l Qasem Medicine Majid Mohammadi Makassar, Shaykh Yusuf Gail G. Harrison R. Michael Feener Osman M. GalalKhojas Azim Nanji Malcolm X Mihna Edward E. Curtis IV Muhammad Qasim ZamanKhomeini, Ruhollah Nancy L. Stockdale Malik, Ibn Anas Mihrab Jonathan E. Brockopp Sheila S. BlairKhutba Jonathan M. Bloom Patrick D. Gaffney Ma mun, al- Military Raid Muhammad Qasim ZamanKindi, al- Rizwi Faizer Jon McGinnis Manar, Manara Minbar (Mimbar)Knowledge Sheila S. Blair Richard T. Antoun Jonathan M. Bloom Parviz Morewedge Minorities: DhimmisKomiteh Manicheanism Patrick Franke Majid Mohammadi Elton L. Daniel Minorities: Offshoots of IslamKunti, Mukhtar al- Mansa Musa Robert Gleave Khalil Athamina Ousmane Kane MiraclesLaw Marja al-Taqlid Marcia Hermansen Osman Tastan Robert Gleave Mi rajLebanon Marriage Frederick Colby Farid el Khazen Ziba Mir-Hosseini Michael SellsLiberalism Martyrdom Modernism Charles Kurzman Daniel W. Brown Charles KurzmanIslam and the Muslim World xvii
  18. 18. List of EntriesModernity Muhammad, Elijah Nationalism: Iranian Javed Majeed Edward E. Curtis IV Fakhreddin AzimiModernization, Political: Administra- Muhammadiyya (Muhammadiyah) Nationalism: Turkishtive, Military, and Judicial Reform Robert W. Hefner A. Uner Turgay Aslam Farouk-Alli Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi Nation of IslamModernization, Political: Authoritari- Stephanie Cronin Aminah Beverly McCloudanism and Democratization Claudia Stodte Muhammad, Warith Deen Nawruz Anne-Sophie Froehlich Edward E. Curtis IV Anne H. BetteridgeModernization, Political: Muharram Nazzam, al-Constitutionalism David Pinault M. Sait Özervarli Sohail H. Hashmi Muhasibi, al- Networks, MuslimModernization, Political: Bruce B. Lawrence Rkia E. CornellParticipation, Political Movements, Miriam Cookeand Parties Muhtasib Quintan Wiktorowicz Nikah Robert Gleave Ziba Mir-HosseiniModern Thought Mujahidin Charles Kurzman Niyabat-e amma Amin Tarzi Robert GleaveMojahedin-e Khalq Mulla Sadra Juan Eduardo Campo Nizam al-Mulk Seyyed Hossein Nasr Warren C. SchultzMojtahed-Shabestari, Mohammad Murji ites, Murji a Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi Nizari Shalahudin Kafrawi Azim NanjiMolla Music Kamran Aghaie Nur Movement Munir Beken Berna TuramMollabashi Mansur Sefatgol Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nuri, Fazlallah Asma Afsaruddin Mohammad H. FaghfooryMonarchy Saïd Amir Arjomand Muslim Student Association of Nursi, Said North AmericaMoravids A. Uner Turgay Aminah Beverly McCloud Peter B. Clarke Organization of the Islamic Mu tazilites, Mu tazila ConferenceMosaddeq, Mohammad Shalahudin Kafrawi Qamar-ul Huda Fakhreddin Azimi Nader Shah Afshar OrientalismMotahhari, Mortaza John R. Perry Qamar-ul Huda Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) Pakistan, Islamic Republic ofMu awiya Nelly van Doorn-Harder Rasul Bakhsh Rais Suleman Dangor Na ini, Mohammad Hosayn Pan-ArabismMufti Mohammad H. Faghfoory Sohail H. Hashmi Muneer Goolam FareedMuhammad Najaf Pan-Islam Rizwi Faizer Mazyar Lotfalian Sohail H. HashmiMuhammad Ahmad Ibn Abdullah Nar Pan-Turanism Mohamed Mahmoud Juan Eduardo Campo Touraj AtabakiMuhammad Ali, Dynasty of Nasa i, al- Pasdaran Joel Gordon Asma Afsaruddin Majid MohammadiMuhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Nationalism: Arab Persian Language and Literature Liyakatali Takim Nancy L. Stockdale Franklin D. Lewisxviii Islam and the Muslim World
  19. 19. List of EntriesPilgrimage: Hajj Rashidun Sadr Kathryn Kueny