Aorta: upper branch supplies both arms, descending aorta branches in to the right and left iliac arteries which in turn become the femoral arteries. Aorta to arteries to arterioles to capillaries. Vena cava: Returns blood from the veins, organs back through the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. Capillaries to venules to veins to vena cava.
Coronary arteries deliver oxygen to the heart. -Right coronary artery supplies right side and inferior wall of heart. -Left coronary divides into two branches and supplies the left ventricle
Atherosclerosis: disorder in which calcium and cholesterol build up and form plaque inside the walls of blood vessels. This can cause complete obstruction or blockage of blood flow through the coronary artery which can lead to ischemia and infarct. As a person ages, fatty material accumulates resulting in the narrowing of the lumen. Fact: In the United States, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women.
Angina occurs when a person with atherosclerosis exerts or is stressed. The heart muscle does not receive adequate blood flow and thus it becomes ischemic. Anaerobic metabolism begins and produces lactic acid and CO2 which accumulates in the myocardium causing pain. This process usually does not happen when the patient is at rest. 3-E’s: Exercise, eating, and emotion. Anginal pain that is not typical of normal angina or relieved by rest and meds indicates possible unstable angina.
Cardiogenic shock is due to the impaired ability of the heart to pump. It can be caused by disorders of the heart muscle, the valves, or the heart’s electrical conduction system with AMI being the most common cause. Dead myocardium does not contract, therefore, a weakened heart cannot pump enough blood throughout the body. There is an adequate blood volume but failure to blood in circulation. Hypoxia results due to inadequate perfusion.
AMI damages left ventricle. A weakened left ventricle is unable to pump blood effectively throughout the body. The blood and fluid backs up into the pulmonary veins and lungs. This fluid in the lungs reduces gaseous exchange in the alveoli (pulmonary edema). Hypoxia results due to inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
Pedal edema and ascities
A life-threatening condition in which blood gets behind the inner layer of the aorta, filling in the space between the layers of the arterial wall. The aorta widens and significantly disrupts blood flow.
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