ou i !!                                                                                pense a voir unWebinaire           ...
Business Model                         Définition *                         Un modèle économique                         (...
Business Model                                                                    Innovant                         Définit...
54% des dirigeants pensent que                       l’adaptation de leur business                        model est plus c...
Les sociétés qui innovent au niveau de leur Business Model                                     sont plus performantes que ...
50,98% des innovations                     relèvent des modèles d’affairesSource : OCDE, Science, technologie et industrie...
L’origine du Business Model Canvas        Tiré de la Thèse d’Alexander Osterwalder        en 2004 (Business model ontology...
Business Model Canvas*9 blocs pour décrire l’économie d’une entreprisequi couvrent les 4 grandes dimensions d’une entrepri...
Le Business Model Canvas                              Partenaires clés          Activités clés   Propositions de valeur   ...
Segments de clientèle                        Segments de clientèle
Proposition de valeur      Propositions de valeur   Segments de clientèle
CanauxPropositions de valeur            Segments de clientèle                         Canaux
Relations avec le client        Propositions de valeur   Relations avec                                                  S...
Flux de revenus    Propositions de valeur         Relations avec   Segments de clientèle                                  ...
Ressources clés                  Propositions de valeur         Relations avec   Segments de clientèle                    ...
Activités clés  Activités clés   Propositions de valeur         Relations avec   Segments de clientèle                    ...
Partenaires clésPartenaires clés     Activités clés   Propositions de valeur         Relations avec   Segments de clientèl...
Structure de coûtPartenaires clés        Activités clés   Propositions de valeur         Relations avec   Segments de clie...
Le Business Model Canvas                              Partenaires clés          Activités clés   Propositions de valeur   ...
Le Business Model Canvas                                                                                                  ...
Une approche visuelle & interactiveCrédit Photo : (c) Elton-Pickford - reproduction interdite
Les différents types de   Business Models
La longue traîne      Chris AndersonAuteur des livres la Longue Traîne et Free
La longue traîne                                                   Principe de la longue traîne                     Qte : ...
La longue traîne                                                                                                          ...
Les plates-formes multifacesUne plate-forme d’intermédiation entre deux ouplusieurs segments de clients apporte de nouveau...
Les plate-formes multiface                                                                                                ...
Le gratuit                    Chris Anderson                       Auteur du livre la FREE                                ...
Le gratuit : la publicité                                                                                                 ...
Le gratuit : Freemium                                      Bénéficiaires                                      accès aux fo...
Le gratuit : Freemium                                                                                                     ...
Le Freemium inversé                      Cotisants                      Bénéficiaires
Freemium inversé                                                                                                          ...
Le gratuit : Appât & verrouillage du client                                                                               ...
Les business models ouverts      Dr. Henry Chesbrough      co-fondateur de l’ Open Innovation Community      Créateur de l...
Les business models ouverts"L’Open Innovation est le paradigme selon lequel une entreprise a adaptésa stratégie complète d...
Les business models ouverts                    Ouverture aux                     Optimisation de sa propriété             ...
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest
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Elton pickford présentation du 19 septembre 2012 - open coffee - brest

  1. 1. ou i !! pense a voir unWebinaire je plan ! AS MOD EL CANVBusiness Model Innovation BU SINESS Parte naires € Clés s Revenu € Coûts € Janvier 2013 Le Business model canvas nous permet d’experimenter différents plans jusqu’à notre idée ..
  2. 2. Business Model Définition * Un modèle économique (ou business model) décrit les principes selon lesquels une organisation crée, délivre et capture de la valeur.*A. Osterwalder, Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  3. 3. Business Model Innovant Définition * « une nouvelle manière de créer, délivrer et capturer la valeur »*A. Osterwalder, Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  4. 4. 54% des dirigeants pensent que l’adaptation de leur business model est plus critique que lancer de nouveaux produits et servicesSource : Economist Intelligence Unit Survey 2010 - 4000 questioned Senior Executives
  5. 5. Les sociétés qui innovent au niveau de leur Business Model sont plus performantes que les innovateurs traditionnels Innovation du Business Model 9,00 8,5 6,75 6,8 6,1 6 En % 4,50 2,25 2,7 1,7 1,7 1 0 0,1 3 ans 5 ans 10 ans Process & products innovators Business model innovatorsSource : BCG 2010 Senior Executive Innovation Survey; BCG ValueScience Center analysis. Valeur supplémentaire capturée
  6. 6. 50,98% des innovations relèvent des modèles d’affairesSource : OCDE, Science, technologie et industrie : Perspectives de lʼOCDE, 2008.
  7. 7. L’origine du Business Model Canvas Tiré de la Thèse d’Alexander Osterwalder en 2004 (Business model ontology) Démarche innovante : Ouvrage collectif et collaboratif : 470 co-auteurs Editeur : theHUB Tarif pour participer : de 24$ à 243 $
  8. 8. Business Model Canvas*9 blocs pour décrire l’économie d’une entreprisequi couvrent les 4 grandes dimensions d’une entreprise : clients, offre,infrastructure et viabilité financière* origine : thèse d’Alexander Osterwalder et de son livre Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  9. 9. Le Business Model Canvas Partenaires clés Activités clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Ressources clés Canaux Structure des coûts Flux de revenus « Un langage pour décrire, visualiser, évaluer et transformer les Business Models »*A. Osterwalder, Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  10. 10. Segments de clientèle Segments de clientèle
  11. 11. Proposition de valeur Propositions de valeur Segments de clientèle
  12. 12. CanauxPropositions de valeur Segments de clientèle Canaux
  13. 13. Relations avec le client Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Canaux
  14. 14. Flux de revenus Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Canaux Flux de revenus
  15. 15. Ressources clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clientsRessources clés Canaux Flux de revenus
  16. 16. Activités clés Activités clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clientsRessources clés Canaux Flux de revenus
  17. 17. Partenaires clésPartenaires clés Activités clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Ressources clés Canaux Flux de revenus
  18. 18. Structure de coûtPartenaires clés Activités clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Ressources clés CanauxStructure des coûts Flux de revenus
  19. 19. Le Business Model Canvas Partenaires clés Activités clés Propositions de valeur Relations avec Segments de clientèle les clients Ressources clés Canaux Structure des coûts Flux de revenus « Un langage pour décrire, visualiser, évaluer et transformer les Business Models *»*A. Osterwalder, Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  20. 20. Le Business Model Canvas Day Month Year No. Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? How costly are they? What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? Le Business Model Canvas est enregistré sous licence Creative Commons. Merci de vous y référer avant son utilisation. Le créateur du Business Model Canvas est What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? For what do they currently pay? Alexander Osterwalder Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? How would they prefer to pay? How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA. « Un langage pour décrire, visualiser, évaluer et transformer les Business Models » **A. Osterwalder, Business Model Nouvelle Génération
  21. 21. Une approche visuelle & interactiveCrédit Photo : (c) Elton-Pickford - reproduction interdite
  22. 22. Les différents types de Business Models
  23. 23. La longue traîne Chris AndersonAuteur des livres la Longue Traîne et Free
  24. 24. La longue traîne Principe de la longue traîne Qte : Ventes & popularité Ventes de nombreux produits différents en petite quantité Nombre de produitsExemples :LEGO, eBay, Amazon, Netflix
  25. 25. La longue traîne Day Month Year No.Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value?Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? Achat & VenteWhich Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? VendeursWhich Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? How costly are they? Développement d’objets neufs particuliers de la ou Profils en ligne plateforme d’occasions Vendeurs pro What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? place de How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? marché pour Publics de Plateforme un contenu de eBay.com niche nicheWhat are the most important costs inherent in our business model? commissions For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Par annonceWhich Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? sur le prixWhich Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? How would they prefer to pay? e n & Développement d How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? Gestio Aux enchères final en cas la plateforme de vente Prix fixe This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  26. 26. Les plates-formes multifacesUne plate-forme d’intermédiation entre deux ouplusieurs segments de clients apporte de nouveaux fluxde revenus au modèle initialExemples :Viadeo, Google, Consoles de jeux Nintendo, Sony, Microsoft, Apple (iPod, iTunes, iPhone)
  27. 27. Les plate-formes multiface Day Month Year No.Exemples : Who are our Key Partners? Gestion What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Which Key Activities do partners perform? plate-forme, Customer Relationships? Revenue streams? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which customer needs are we satisfying? Which ones have we established? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? recherche How costly are they? gestion gratuite Annonceurs services, extension périmètre monétisation du contenu Internautes What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? Plate-forme How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? de recherche annonces Propriétaires ciblées de contenu What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? enchères mots- How would they prefer to pay? How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? Coûts plate-forme gratuit clés This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  28. 28. Le gratuit Chris Anderson Auteur du livre la FREE « La demande pour un produit gratuit est beaucoup plus forte que pour un produit payant »Exemples :Publicité et journaux, Metro, Flickr, open source, Red Hat, Skype, Gillette
  29. 29. Le gratuit : la publicité Day Month Year No.Un modèle de plate-formemultiface : Who are our Key Partners? Who are our key suppliers? Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Commercial What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? What value do we deliver to the customer? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? What type of relationship does each of our Customer Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Which ones have we established? For whom are we creating value? Who are our most important customers? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? + How costly are they? Marketing Espaces Pub Personnalisation sur réseau de masse annonceurs Gestion de la Annonceurs social très plateforme visité What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments audience Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Publicité + Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Plateforme Force de vente internet Which ones are most cost-efficient? Recrutement How are we integrating them with customer routines? réseau social Publicité mondiale gratuit Ressources plateforme.com humaines What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? Développement de la Comptes Commissions sur How would they prefer to pay? How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? plateforme gratuits espaces publicitaires This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  30. 30. Le gratuit : Freemium Bénéficiaires accès aux fonctions standards Cotisants Accès aux fonctions avancées Objectif :augmenter le taux de conversion desbénéficiaires vers les cotisants
  31. 31. Le gratuit : Freemium Day Month Year No.Un modèle de plate-formemultiface : partage de son Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? utilisateur Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? profil How costly are they? Personnalisation occasionnels Gestion de la Mise en de masse plateforme relation Yahoo gros Accès aux utilisateurs fonctions What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? Revenue Streams? étendues want to be reached? How are we reaching them now? Plate-forme How are our Channels integrated? Force de vente Annonceurs Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? Linkedin Solution de Publicité recrutement linkedin.com Recruteurs Marque & RH des Publicités sociétés ciblées abonnement utilisateurs : de 11,90€ à 53,95€/mois What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Comptes de Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? Développement How would they prefer to pay? How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? base plateforme gratuits Revenus Revenus annonceurs Recruteurs & RH This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  32. 32. Le Freemium inversé Cotisants Bénéficiaires
  33. 33. Freemium inversé Day Month Year No. Gestion de Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers?Assurances Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? l’activité How costly are they? ponctuelle Acquisition compagnies nouveaux clients assurance Assurés d’assurances Accident/ et Dépannage reassurances What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? Plate-forme How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? internet Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? de 0 à la téléphone Bénéficiaires franchise à payer mail RH en cas d’accident What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? Which Key Resources are most expensive? For what do they currently pay? Which Key Activities are most expensive? How are they currently paying? Publicité How would they prefer to pay? Prime d’assurance How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? RH indemnisations This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  34. 34. Le gratuit : Appât & verrouillage du client Day Month YearUn modèle de plate-forme No.multiface : Who are our Key Partners? What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require? What value do we deliver to the customer? What type of relationship does each of our Customer For whom are we creating value? Who are our key suppliers? Our Distribution Channels? Which one of our customer’s problems are we helping to solve? Segments expect us to establish and maintain with them? Who are our most important customers? Which Key Resources are we acquiring from partners? Customer Relationships? What bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment? Which ones have we established? Which Key Activities do partners perform? Revenue streams? Which customer needs are we satisfying? How are they integrated with the rest of our business model? How costly are they? Marketing Fidélité R&D Imprimante de Contrainte Logistique qualité jet d’encre Clients What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require? Through which Channels do our Customer Segments Our Distribution Channels? Customer Relationships? want to be reached? Revenue Streams? How are we reaching them now? How are our Channels integrated? Which ones work best? Which ones are most cost-efficient? How are we integrating them with customer routines? Marques & Cartouches Distributeurs brevets Verrouillage du marché par propriété intellectuelle, brevet bloquant l’usage Fabrication Which Key Resources are most expensive? Which Key Activities are most expensive? Marketing What are the most important costs inherent in our business model? For what value are our customers really willing to pay? For what do they currently pay? How are they currently paying? How would they prefer to pay? Remplacements 1 er Achat How much does each Revenue Stream contribute to overall revenues? R&D des cartouches d’imprimante Logistique This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  35. 35. Les business models ouverts Dr. Henry Chesbrough co-fondateur de l’ Open Innovation Community Créateur de la théorie et du terme "open Innovation" Executive Director of the Center for Open Innovation at the Haas School of Business, California, Berkeley
  36. 36. Les business models ouverts"L’Open Innovation est le paradigme selon lequel une entreprise a adaptésa stratégie complète d’innovation afin de tirer le meilleur parti dumicrocosme qui l’entoure.Cela consiste notamment à maximiser le recours à des solutionsdéveloppées en EXTERNE (‘outside-in’) et à monétiser des technologiesdéveloppées en interne, mais qui ne trouvent pas d’applications pour lecoeur de métier de l’entreprise (‘inside-out’)."Exemples :IBM, Procter & Gamble, GlaxoSmithKline, Innocentive
  37. 37. Les business models ouverts Ouverture aux Optimisation de sa propriété compétences extérieures intellectuelle Entreprise Entreprise Sous-traitants, Clients, Consultants, Institutions Ventes de brevets, Licences, publiques, Centres de R&D Financements/partenariats, privés, Large Public, Leader Contributions publiques d’opinionExemples :IBM, Procter & Gamble, GlaxoSmithKline, Innocentive

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