Open Source in Distributed Manufacturing
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Presentation at the 2012 Artilect Conference, Toulouse, 19 Oct 2012

Presentation at the 2012 Artilect Conference, Toulouse, 19 Oct 2012

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  • First, there is inherent openness—hardware can be pretty self-explanatory about its composition. To keep that openness intact the challenge lies in defeating the novelty requirement of related patent application or design registrations by open design techniques.Second, breaking up complex systems into simpler modules is not as common in hardware design as in software—despite being promoted as good design practice. Combining modules is potentially more complex as in software as physical forces, mechanical fit and design considerations will have to be taken into account. Third, there are materials involved that may come at a cost and manufacturing processes that may not easily be accessed or require specialist tooling. Different strategies can be employed to overcome such barriers, such as using industrial side-products as raw materials, pooling manufacturing resources or using more universal fabricators.Fourth, the term hardware spans a much broader field than software and includes such far apart things as integrated circuits, home furniture and ship-to-shore container cranes. The different branches of hardware vary according to materials and technologies involved, manufacturing tools and processes, documentation customs and standards, etc., and the above mentioned characteristics may apply to a different extent.
  • 00:47:00Soundbite by Jeremy Rifkin, President of the Foundation for Economic Trends and Adviser to the European Commission, (in ENGLISH) on the global economic crisis and a new economic vision for the world00:28:49

Open Source in Distributed Manufacturing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Open  Source    in  Distributed  Manufacturing   Peter  Troxler   conference2012.ar=lect.fr   19  Oct  2012  
  • 2. Peter  Troxler  •  Research  Professor  –  3rd  Industrial  Revolu=on   Hogeschool  RoFerdam  •  Industrial  Engineer   –  PhD  1999   –  Factory  Automa=on   –  Knowledge  Management  /  Research  •  Community   –  Fringe  theater  company  and  arts  fes=vals  (1990s;  2000s)   –  Knowledge  management  researchers  (2000s)  •  Fab  Lab   –  2008/09  Fab  Lab  Amsterdam   –  2010  Fab6   –  Fab  Lab  Luzern  (Switzerland),  RoFerdam  (NL)   –  Interna=onal  Fab  Lab  Associa=on   –  FabLab  Zürich  
  • 3. Industrial  Revolu=on  •  Neil  Gershenfeld,  2005:   Fab.  The  Coming  Revolu=on  on  Your  Desktop  •  Jeremy  Riain,  2011:   The  Third  Industrial  Revolu=on.  How  Lateral   Power  is  Transforming  Energy,  the  Economy,   and  the  World.    •  Chris  Anderson,  2012:   Makers:  The  New  Industrial  Revolu=on  
  • 4. Neil  Gershenfeld  [P]ossession of the means for industrial production has long been thedividing line between workers and owners. But if those means are easilyacquired, and designs freely shared, then hardware is likely to follow theevolution of software. Like its software counterpart, opensourcehardware is starting with simple fabrication functions, while nipping atthe heels of complacent companies that don’t believe that personalfabrication “toys” can do the work of their “real” machines. Thatboundary will recede until today’s marketplace evolves into a continuumfrom creators to consumers, servicing markets ranging from one to onebillion. (FAB. The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop, 2005, p.21)
  • 5. A  con=nuum  from  creators  to   consumers,  servicing  markets  ranging  from  one  to  one  billion   (Gershenfeld  2005)    
  • 6. Neil  Gershenfeld   hFp://www.ted.com/talks/neil_gershenfeld_on_fab_labs.html  
  • 7. Neil  Gershenfeld  [T]he killer app for personal fabrication in the developed world istechnology for a market of one, personal expression in technology (…).And the killer app for the rest of the planet is [to overcome] theinstrumentation and the fabrication divide, people locally developingsolutions to local problems. (TED talk, 2006)
  • 8. There  are  at  least  two  issues  to   be  considered  
  • 9. «Hardware  is  Hard»  It would be naïve to believe that open source software practices could besimply copied and applied to the manufacturing domain without anyalteration or adaptation, ignoring the constraints and opportunities thatthe materiality of hardware entails. (Troxler, 2011, p. 89)
  • 10. Eric  Steven  Raymond  The  Cathedral  and  the  Bazaar  (2000)  Linux is subversive.Linus Torvalds’s style of development—release early and often, delegateeverything you can, be open to the point of promiscuity—came as a surprise.cathedral … carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of magesworking in splendid isolationa great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches (…) out ofwhich a coherent and stable system could seemingly emerge only by asuccession of miracles
  • 11. Open  Source  Hardware   Hardware  is  a   Broad  Term  Inherent  Openness   Moularity   Material  Costs  
  • 12. Jeremy  Riain  1st  revolu=on   2nd  revolu=on   3rd  revolu=on        Automa=c   Electrical  com-­‐ Internet   prin=ng  press   munica=on   Renewables  Steam-­‐powered   Smart  buildings   Oil-­‐powered   technology   Smart  grid     combus=on   engine   E-­‐mobility        19th  century   20th  century  
  • 13. Jeremy  Riain  •  Oil  Price  June  2008  –  147  US$  per  barrel   all  other  prices  went  up   purchasing  power  collapsed  •  25  years  of  6-­‐7  cycles  growth/collaps,  every   =me  the  oil  price  hits  125…150  US$/barrel  
  • 14. Jeremy  Riain   hFp://ec.europa.eu/avservices/video/player.cfm?sitelang=en&ref=85716  
  • 15. Jeremy  Riain  [T]he conventional top-down organization of society that characterizedmuch of the economic, social, and political life of the fossil-fuel basedindustrial revolutions is giving way to distributed and collaborativerelationships in the emerging green industrial era. We are in the midst ofa profound shift in the very way society is structured, away fromhierarchical power and toward lateral power. (Rifkin 2011, p. 36f.)
  • 16. Makers in Fab Labs on the one hand are busy with their ownmanufacturing projects and make use of their lateral relations as neededbut do not normally bother about the organization of those relationshipsbeyond those just-in- time needs. Occasionally they wish for better, moreeffective access to resources in the network. So far, however, they haveonly come up with very few sustainable and scalable ways to create newways of organizing distributed personal manufacturing—organizationand governance is not their core interest.
  • 17. Institutions on the other hand are more concerned about organization,structures and governance, yet their solutions tend to be of conventional,hierarchical, top-down nature: centralized cathedral structures.Moreover, those solutions risk counteracting lateral approaches,suffocating emergent peer-to-peer initiatives—and they fail to getaccepted by the makers.
  • 18. Neil  Gershenfeld  The message coming from the fab lab is that the other five billion peopleon the planet aren’t just technical sinks, they are sources. The realopportunity is to harness the inventive power of the world to locallydesign and produce solutions to local problems. I thought that’s aprojection twenty years hence into the future, but it’s where we aretoday. It breaks every organizational boundary we can think of. Thehardest thing at this point is the social engineering and theorganizational engineering, but it’s here today
  • 19. Commons  is  needed  •  Ostrom,  Vincent,  and  Ostrom,  Elinor  (1977).  Public  Goods  and  Public  Choices  •  Ostrom,  Elinor.  1990.  Governing  the  Commons,  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University   Press.    •  David  C.  Stark  (2001).  Ambiguous  Assets  for  Uncertain  Environments:  Heterarchy   in  Postsocialist  Firms.    •  Hess  &  Ostrom  (eds).  2007  Understanding  Knowledge  as  a  Commons.  From  Theory   to  Prac=ce.    •  Sieaes,  Chris=an.  2008.  “From  Exchange  to  Contribu=ons.  Generalizing  Peer   Produc=on  Into  the  Physical  World.”  Berlin:  Sieae.    •  Dobusch  &  Quack  (2010).  Managing  Boundaries  between  Organiza=ons  and   Communi=es:  Comparing  Crea=ve  Commons  and  Wikimedia.    •  Egyedi  and  Mehos  (2012)  Inverse  Infrastructures.  Disrup=ng  Networks  from   Below.  Cheltenham:  Edgar  Elgar    •  Thomson  &  Taipo  (2012).  Design  for  Growth  and  Prosperity.  Report  and   Recommenda=ons  of  the  European  Design  Leadership  Board.  Brussels:  DG   Enterprise  and  Industry  of  the  European  Commission.    
  • 20. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 21. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 22. Co-­‐located,  Synchronous  
  • 23. Distributed,  Synchronous  •  FabAcademy  •  various  co-­‐opera=on  projects   –  e.g.  Distributed  Business  Design  Collabora=on,   FabLab  Lucerne  
  • 24. Distributed,  Asynchronous    •  Fab  Lab  Networks   –  USFLN   –  FabLab.NL  (BE,  NL,  LUX)   –  Swiss  Fab  Founda=on   –  [fablab-­‐fr]  •  Professional  Organisa=ons   –  ShopBot  (hFp://www.talkshopbot.com)   –  Ul=maker  (hFp://forum.ul=maker.com)   –  Interna=onal  Fab  Lab  Associa=on   –  LinkedIn  (hFp://www.linkedin.com/groups/FabLab-­‐ Interest-­‐Group-­‐89815?trk=myg_ugrp_ovr)  •  Local  Organisa=ons  
  • 25. Resources  •  hFp://wiki.fablab.is  •  hFp://vimeo.com/fabacademy2012  •  hFp://neweez.com/broadcast/ 20612_Le_numero_zero  
  • 26. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 27. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 28. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 29. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 30. understanding how best to restore the Great a baker (the artisan) applies decisions andLakes (Sproule-Jones 1999); monitoring fishery methods in the mixing, kneading, rising, andmanagement (Rudd 2004); analysing environ- baking (artisanship) in order to produce a loaf ofmental governance (Myint 2005); modelling bread (the artifact). The complexity of theoperational decision making in public organisa- IAD   coordination, actions, and decisions increases Bio-Physical ACTION Characteristics ARENA Action Situations Patterns of Attributes of the Interactions Community Actors Evaluative Rules-in-Use Criteria OutcomesFigure 1. Institutional analysis and development (IAD) framework
  • 31. Roadmap  •  How  to  build  effec=ve  forms  of  collec=ve  ac=on  and   self-­‐organisa=on  for  Fab  Labs?  •  How  to  break  free  from  tradi=onal  systems  and   crea=vely  design  new  systems  that  tap  into  the   capabili=es  of  Fab  Labs?  •  How  to  protect  the  interests  and  crea=ve  freedom  of   makers  while  also  ensuring  wide  access  to  new   knowledge,  processes  and  products?  •  How  to  appropriately  and  effec=vely  create  and   capture  value?  •  How  to  achieve  equity  and  fairness?  
  • 32. Why  This  is  Important  
  • 33. •  The  hardest  thing  at  this  point  is  the  social   engineering  and  the  organiza=onal  engineering,   but  it’s  here  today.  •  3rd  Industrial  Revolu=on  …  away  from  hierarchical   power  and  toward  lateral  power.  •  A  con=nuum  from  creators  to  consumers,   servicing  markets  ranging  from  one  to  one  billion.  
  • 34. FabLab  is     also  Prototyping  Lateral  Manufacturing   (Commons-­‐Based  Peer  Produc=on)   in   Distributed  Direct  Digital   Manufacturing