ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting how long?
A. 1 minute
B. 5 minutes
C. 10 minutes
D. 30 minutes
The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
A. aerobic glucose breakdown.
B. anaerobic glucose breakdown.
C. aerobic glycogen breakdown.
D. anaerobic glycogen breakdown.
The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is
A. aerobic glucose breakdown uses amino acids, anaerobic does not.
B. the end product of aerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid; the end products of anaerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water.
C. the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid.
D. anaerobic glucose breakdown uses oxygen, aerobic does not.
For aerobic glucose breakdown to take place, two- and three-carbon fragments must enter which cell organelle to be metabolized into carbon dioxide and water?
C. Golgi body
D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
A. 10 seconds.
B. up to 30 seconds.
C. 30 seconds to 2 minutes.
D. up to 5 minutes.
Aerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
A. up to 30 seconds.
B. 30 seconds to 1 minute.
C. 1 to 2 minutes.
D. 2 minutes to 4 hours.
Protein supplies approximately __________ percent of a human’s general energy needs.
B. 2 to 5
C. 15 to 17
D. 27 to 33
Which of the following is true about protein as an energy source?
A. Protein is more important than carbohydrate as an energy source for muscular activity.
B. The need for protein as an energy source is greater for endurance athletes than those who body build or lift weights.
C. Protein and amino acid supplements are needed as energy sources for weight lifters.
D. Protein is a good energy source supplying 7 kcals per gram.
Zelda is a marathon runner. She completes the marathon in 2 hours and 30 minutes. Which of the following is true regarding her fuel use during the marathon?
A. If she runs out of muscle glycogen at the 2-hour mark, she will not feel fatigue.
B. Anaerobic glucose breakdown, using muscle glycogen, will provide most of the ATP for the marathon.
C. Liver glycogen is the preferred fuel during intense muscular activity lasting less than 2 hours.
D. As exercise duration increases beyond 20 to 30 minutes, blood glucose will become increasingly important to spare muscle glycogen, so Zelda will have the ability to sprint across the finish line.
Bob drinks 6 cups of caffeinated coffee before his long distance bike race. He does this so fatty acids will be released into the bloodstream in greater than normal quantities to be used for energy and spare glycogen. Which of the following is true about fatty acid usage for energy?
A. Energy is released from fatty acids anaerobically.
B. Energy is released from fatty acids in a process called lipogenesis.
C. This is not a proven or promoted strategy to enhance performance.
D. Fatty acids are useful for intense exercise.
Neil is a football player. We can tell whether he is getting enough kcalories by all the following except
A. determining his body fat level.
B. seeing if his body fat is about 5 percent to 18 percent.
C. monitoring weight changes on a weekly basis.
D. weighing him before and after football practice.
If an athlete’s body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
A. Follow an 800 kcalorie eating plan.
B. Wear a rubber suit to sweat off extra weight.
C. Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
D. Restrict dietary carbohydrates.
Bart is a wrestler. His weight is regularly higher than the weight class he would like to wrestle in. What should he do?
A. Take diuretics to lose weight.
B. Sit in a sauna.
C. Gradually reduce food intake before wrestling season.
D. Restrict fluids before weigh-in.
Athletes who consume adequate carbohydrate promote all of the following except
A. reducing the risk of chronic fatigue.
B. loading the liver with adequate glycogen stores.
C. increases in body fat levels.
D. loading the muscles with adequate glycogen stores.
To help maintain adequate glycogen stores, an endurance athlete should eat
A. broccoli and cheese soup.
B. bagels and oranges.
C. peanut butter and apples.
D. tuna sandwich and milk.
A meal representative of what an endurance athlete should eat is
A. steak, eggs, milk, and hash browns.
B. a turkey sandwich, cottage cheese, milk, and a chocolate bar.
C. a peanut butter sandwich, banana, and milk.
D. baked chicken, plain baked potato, salad, and fruit juice.
A. involves loading up on carbohydrate-laden foods the day before an endurance event.
B. involves little exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet the first 3 days, followed by heavy exercise and a low-carbohydrate diet right before competition.
C. involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake.
D. does not increase glycogen stores to any significant degree.
For which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted?