2. ISSUES IN SOCIOLINGUISTICSResearchers collect examples of language usage intheir naturally occurring environments and study themin relation to the findings of other sociolinguisticsresearch work.
3. SOCIOLINGUISTICSIs the study of language in society. Sociolinguistics isthe study of the linguistic indicators of culture andpower
4. WAYS PEOPLE SPEAKCategorizing the ways people speak
5. IDIOLECT AND SOCIOLECTIndividuals speak in characteristic ways that may bepeculiar to them in certain circumstances we call thisidiolect. People often use language in ways that theyshare with many other people: most generally we can callthese patterns sociolects.
6. STANDARD NON - STANDARD ANDCODIFICATIONStandardization is a process that is apparent in almost allmodern nations , in which one variety of a particularlanguage is taken up and promoted as the standard form.Codification is a prominent feature of standard forms.
7. PRESTIGE, STIGMATIZATION ANDLANGUAGE LOYALTYThis is an important feature of sociolinguistics enquiry, peoples attitude towards their own language oftenaffects the form of that language.
8. DIALECT, ACCENT AND LANGUAGEPLANNINGA standardize variety is usually a regional dialect. Adialect refers to the characteristic patters of words andword- order which are used by a group of speakers. Anaccent can also be standardize and stigmatize.
9. SPEECH COMMUNITIESThe way people speak often serves to define them as agroup
10. DESCRIPTIVE TOOLS OF LANGUAGEVARIATIONTraditionally linguistics has categorized the differentdimensions of language as a rank scale from thesmallest units of individuals sounds or letters up tothe largest scale of whole discourses.
11. PHONOLOGICAL VARIATIONVariation in accent has provided the major focus ofsociolinguistics studies so far. This is because observingand recording occurrences of individual sounds is mucheasier then waiting all day for a particular word.
12. LEXICAL VARIATIONDepends largely on different lexical items being usedfrom region to region. Phrasal variations include theIrish and Scottish is that you.. When an English personwould say are you finished .
13. LINGUISTIC VARIATIONThe entire language can be treated as variable bilingual ormultilingual individuals can often move from onelanguage to another within a single utterance andsometimes even with a sentence. This is called code –switching
14. GEOGRAPHICAL AND SOCIALMOBILITYDialects within a language are often localizedgeographically. We can speak of dialect chains wherethe shift from one dialect to the next is not suddenbetween one town or country.
15. IDENTITYNot only do linguistic patterns signal social andindividual identity, but people conscious awareness oftheir personal, ethnic, geographical political and familyidentities is often a factor in their language use.
16. SOCIAL NETWORK RELATIONSIt has been recognized that the relative of relationsbetween individuals within a social group is alsoimportant in understanding how linguistic features aremaintained, reinforced and spread.
17. WORKING WITH SOCIOLINGUISTICDATACollecting and analyzing sociolinguistic dataInterpreting sociolinguistic data Models and framework The teesside study