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Australia : state of play & "Corporate responsibility" for the taking..., c'mon people!

Australia : state of play & "Corporate responsibility" for the taking..., c'mon people!

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    20700 a picture_of_the_nation 20700 a picture_of_the_nation Document Transcript

    • Contents Preface ...............................................................................................vii Introduction .....................................................................................viii About the census ...............................................................................ix Technical notes...................................................................................x CHAPTERS 1 Population 1–32 Overview..............................................................................................2 From generation to generation .........................................................9 Where do Australians live?................................................................16 On the move .....................................................................................24 2 Cultural diversity 33–58 Overview............................................................................................34 Second generation Australians.........................................................46 Religion across the generations.......................................................54 3 Living arrangements 59–88 Overview............................................................................................60 Children’s living arrangements ........................................................74 Families with young children: a Sydney case study........................81 4 Community 89–112 Overview............................................................................................90 Volunteering across Australia.........................................................103 Caring across the life cycle .............................................................107 5 Education 113–135 Overview..........................................................................................114 Adult education across the generations........................................123 School teachers...............................................................................129_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 iii
    • Contents 6 Work 137–172 Overview..........................................................................................138 Skill shortages .................................................................................151 Generations of employment ..........................................................159 Driving to work ...............................................................................167 7 Economic resources 173–202 Overview..........................................................................................175 Workers’ incomes across Australia ................................................188 Workers’ incomes in selected regions...........................................197 8 Housing 203–232 Overview..........................................................................................204 Trends in housing utilisation .........................................................215 Housing across Brisbane and Melbourne city rings .....................224 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Glossary ...........................................................................................233 Appendix: Photo acknowledgements............................................251_______________________________________________________________________________________iv ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • PrefaceThe renowned New South Wales Statistician T.A. Coghlan presented the first Statisticians Report forthe Census of New South Wales in 1891. It included details of all the previous censuses back to theearliest musters of convicts in Sydney Cove and set a precedent for high quality analysis of thepopulation census.George Handley Knibbs published the first Commonwealth Statisticians Report with the results of the1911 Commonwealth Census. Following the comprehensive nature of previous reports, it was nearly1000 pages long. The First World War impinged on its release and it took six years from the date of thecensus before its release in 1917. It was the first time that a clear picture of the people of our youngnation was available.The Commonwealth Statisticians Report was released for every subsequent census for 50 years—from1911 until 1961. While the tradition of releasing a Commonwealth Statisticians Report dwindled withthe introduction of computing and the availability of census data on a mass scale, the need foranalytical publications remained. During the 1980s a number of smaller publications were released inits place. For the censuses from 1986 to 2001, Australia in Profile along with other thematicpublications offered analysis of the census.The fifteenth Census of Population and Housing was held on 8 August 2006. It incorporated a numberof changes designed to keep the census as efficient and contemporary as possible. For the first time,people could complete their census form online. In addition, new questions on need for assistance(a measure of disability), and voluntary and unpaid work were included. The first data from the2006 Census were released in June 2007 and incorporated a completely redesigned web based systemthat uses a wide range of searching and mapping facilities.Ultimately, the purpose of each census is to put vital information into the hands of users acrossAustralia. It helps Australians understand how the nation is changing. The census covers a wide varietyof topics, with detailed data available down to the regional and small area levels and about smallpopulation groups in our society. As a result, the census provides statistical information which canassist decision making in all sections of society: governments, businesses, academics, researchers,students, community organisations and individuals.For previous censuses the Statistician’s Reports played a strong role in fulfilling this purpose. Now Iwould like to reintroduce a Statisticians Report for the 21st century. Today, a huge breadth ofinformation is available from the census, and it would be impossible for one report to summarise itall. The 2006 Australian Statisticians Report showcases the depth and range of information that the2006 Census and previous censuses provides about Australias diverse peoples. It covers topics asvaried as changes to families and living arrangements, commuting to work, skills shortages, and secondgeneration Australians. This edition has a particular focus on changes across the generations anddifferences across Australia.I would like to thank the Australian people for participating in the census and the tens of thousandsof people who worked on the 2006 Census. Thanks also to the ABS staff who prepared this report,A Picture of the Nation: The Statisticians Report on the 2006 Census.Brian PinkAustralian StatisticianJanuary 2009_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 vii
    • IntroductionA Picture of the Nation: The Statisticians Report on the 2006 Census analyses information collected inthe 2006 Census of Population and Housing. It also incorporates information from previouscensuses—in some instances going back as far as 1911. It presents stories about contemporary societyand trends that affect the lives of Australian people. Drawing on the rich variety of topics covered bythe census and looking across different geographic areas and population groups, this report showcasesthe many strengths of census data.The report consists of eight chapters, each focusing on different areas of social interest and concern:population, cultural diversity, community, living arrangements, education, work, economic resourcesand housing. Each chapter contains an overview and two or three feature articles. The overviewsreport on relevant census findings at a broad level. The feature articles focus on specific social issues orpopulation subgroups. While the overviews and feature articles are self-contained and readable in theirown right, they complement the other articles in their chapters. For example, along with unpaidchildcare and unpaid care for people with disabilities, the ‘Community overview’ examinesvolunteering in Australia at the broad level. Complementing this, one of the chapter’s feature articles,‘Volunteering across Australia’, further explores the geographic dimension of volunteering by focusingon smaller geographic areas across Australia.To help readers get the most from the stories presented here, tables, graphs, maps and boxes are usedin conjunction with the easy-to-read analysis. For those wanting to understand more, a Glossaryprovides definitions of the complex concepts used throughout the report, and definition boxes explainterms and concepts that are specific to the overviews or articles where they are used. While the articlesprimarily draw on census data, information or data obtained from other sources, such as otherpublications or Australian Bureau of Statistics data collections, are referenced in endnotes for eachoverview and article.The fact that high quality national censuses have been held in Australia for almost a century, allows thecharacteristics of Australia’s diverse population to be analysed in many different ways. Two approachesfor examining sub-groups of the population have been used in this report: Life cycle and Generationalgroup analysis. By grouping together people at similar stages of life, Life-cycle groups help to reveal thecommon stories and trends experienced by members of these groups. For instance, young adults havethe greatest diversity in living arrangements, reflecting the many transitions they are facing (see the‘Living arrangements overview’, p. 60–72). Similarly, by splitting the population into five age-basedGeneration groups, such as the Lucky and Baby Boomer Generations, and Generation X and Y,interesting differences emerge. For instance, more than three quarters of the Lucky Generation wereaffiliated with a Christian denomination, compared with just over one half of Generation X and Y (see‘Religion across the generations’, p. 54–58).Reflecting the important role that the census has in providing information about small geographicareas, many parts of this report illustrate the different ways that Australia can be divided geographicallyfrom the census. These range from states and territories, cities and regions, down to smallcommunities and urban centres, as well as broad categories of remoteness that cross state and territoryborders.More information about the basis of the different population counts used in this report, as well as thetechniques and standard methods used in analysing and presenting data, can be found in the‘Technical notes’, p. x–xii._______________________________________________________________________________________viii ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • About the censusThe five yearly Census of Population and Housing is the largest statistical collection undertaken by theAustralian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and one of the largest regular peace time operations conducted inAustralia.The 2006 Census was conducted on Tuesday, 8 August. The census included all people in Australia onCensus Night, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families. Visitors to Australia arecounted regardless of how long they have been in the country or how long they plan to stay. Australianresidents out of the country on Census Night are not counted in the Census. More detail on theconduct of the 2006 Census is available in How Australia Takes a Census (cat. no. 2903.0).The legislative basis of the Census of Population and Housing is the Census and Statistics Act 1905.This Act also requires the ABS and its officers to protect the confidentiality of the informationcollected.Two broad objectives underpin the Census. The first is to measure accurately the number and keycharacteristics of Australian residents and the dwellings in which they live. The second is to providetimely, high quality and relevant data on these topics for small geographic areas and small populationgroups.Census data provide a reliable basis for the estimation of the population of each of the states,territories and local government areas, primarily for electoral purposes and the distribution ofgovernment funds. The census also provides statistical information that can assist decision making inall sections of society: governments, businesses, academics, researchers, students, communityorganisations and individuals.Census data complement other sources of information collected by the ABS and other organisations.For instance, many of the household surveys conducted by the ABS use more detailed questions thanthe census can support and therefore are much richer sources of information on their particulartopics. However, these surveys typically cannot provide these data for small population groups or smallareas.To achieve accurate, high quality data from the census, extensive effort is put into census form design,collection procedures, and processing. There are four principle sources of error in Census data:respondent error, processing error, partial and non-response, and undercount. Quality managementaims to reduce these errors as much as possible. The Census page on the ABS website(www.abs.gov.au/census) provides links to more information on census data quality, includinginformation about the quality of specific data items from the census._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 ix
    • Technical notesDifferent types of population countsThe estimated resident population (ERP) is Australias official population measure. It is based oncensus counts of usual residents (discussed below), which are adjusted for undercount in the censusand the number of Australian residents estimated to have been temporarily overseas at the time of thecensus. Further adjustments are made for births, deaths and net migration in the period from the dateof the estimate (30 June) to Census Night (that is, 8 August 2006).As they are the most accurate count of the population, ERP figures have been used wherever possiblein the Population chapter of this report. However, only a limited number of characteristics of thepopulation are available through ERP: age, sex, marital status (registered), country of birth andgeographic location. To allow analysis of the broad range of characteristics available from the census,three different population counts from the census have been used in this report—place ofenumeration, place of usual residence and persons temporarily absent on Census Night.In Australia the census counts people where they are located on Census Night—their ‘place ofenumeration’. The place of enumeration census count is only used in this report where comparisonsare made with censuses prior to 1976, as this was the only census count available from earliercensuses.The usual resident population count is derived from information people provide on their census formabout where they lived, or intend to live, for 6 months or more in 2006—their ‘place of usualresidence’. Information about people who are not at home on Census Night is linked back to the areain which they usually live (that is, their Collection District). However, it is impractical to link theinformation about these people back to their actual families, households or dwellings. In someinstances, the absence of this information could have an impact on the analysis of the characteristics offamilies, households and dwellings.The census count of persons temporarily absent from households is used in a limited number of placesin this report. Answers to questions on the census form, provided by residents present on CensusNight, indicate whether there were people temporarily absent from their household. The number andcharacteristics of these temporarily absent people have been used in some instances to provide moreinformation on the total usual residents of households, as well as providing detail of family structuresand living arrangements, making the analysis undertaken more accurate.As census usual resident population counts are the most common population count used in thisreport, their use in tables, graphs and text is not noted. Where any of the other population countsdiscussed above are used, this is noted in footnotes and in the text.Time series comparisonsIn a number of overviews and articles in this report, comparisons have been made between the 2006Census and earlier censuses. Two significant events affecting the census have occurred that should beconsidered when making comparisons of census data over time.Firstly, under the constitution at Federation, ‘Aboriginal natives’ were not to be counted in the censusand so were excluded from the final results. This restriction was removed following a referendum in1967. The ABS has endeavoured to conduct as full a count of Indigenous peoples as possible from the1971 Census onwards, and has included these peoples in census results since then._______________________________________________________________________________________x ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Technical notesSecondly, the 1976 Census results are based on a sample of half of the forms received from privatedwellings, which have been weighted to represent a full count of the population. This was donebecause of budgetary constraints introduced by the government at the time of processing the forms.Exceptions were in the Northern Territory, where all of the forms from private dwellings wereprocessed, as well as all forms from non-private dwellings across Australia.In most cases, the classifications used to make comparisons over time are the same in each census yearand the comparisons have been made with a high degree of certainty. In other cases, the classificationsand/or processing methods have changed over time and the comparisons are less certain.Comparisons have only been made where the data have been assessed as fit for the purpose for whichthey are used: in some instances, changes over time have not been discussed because of the degree ofuncertainty and change involved.Of particular note, the 2006 Census introduced new classifications for occupation and industry ofemployment: the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) andAustralian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006 (ANZSIC). For the 2006 Census,occupation and industry of employment data were dual coded to give users the option to use eitherthe current classification or the previous classification (ASCO Second Edition or ANZSIC 1993,respectively). In this report, comparisons over time for these topics use the earlier classifications forthe 2006 Census data.Totals—rounding and data perturbationFigures have been rounded in this report. Therefore, discrepancies may occur between the sums ofthe component items and totals.A range of methods has been used to protect the confidentiality of respondents when data are releasedfrom the census. This produces minor variations in the data that may result in totals not being equal inall tables and quoted numbers.Treatment of particular data itemsTo be as consistent as possible with ERP figures (see previous page) and to minimise the effect ofvariations in the numbers of overseas visitors on time series data, all overseas visitors have beenexcluded from data used in the report, unless otherwise specified.Where classifications used included a ‘not stated’ category, data in this category have been excludedprior to the calculation of percentages—in effect, this has ‘distributed’ those results across theremaining categories. The only exception to this is for the Religious Affiliation classification, where ‘notstated’ is an accepted response. Total numbers for all classifications, including those shown alongsidepercentages, include the number of ‘not stated’ responses. Where the number of responses in a ‘notstated’ category may have had an impact on the information presented, this is noted in footnotes andin the text. In some instances, data have not been analysed because of large numbers of ‘not stated’responses.Where classifications used included an ‘inadequately described’ or similar category, data in thesecategories were generally treated as a standard category—that is, they have not been distributed as forthe ‘not stated’ categories described above. In the instances where it was necessary to do this, this isindicated in footnotes and in the text._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 xi
    • Technical notesSymbols and usagesThe following symbols and usages mean: % per cent .. not applicable n.a. not available no. number $ dollar ‘000 thousand km2 square kilometreAbbreviationsThis report uses the following abbreviations.Australia, states and territories of Australia Aust. Australia NSW New South Wales Vic. Victoria Qld Queensland SA South Australia WA Western Australia Tas. Tasmania NT Northern Territory ACT Australian Capital TerritoryOther abbreviations ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ABSCQ Australian Bureau of Statistics Classification of Qualifications AIFS Australian Institute of Family Studies AIHW Australian Institute of Health and Welfare ASCO Australian Standard Classification of Occupations ANZSCO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations ANZSIC Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification ASCED Australian Standard Classification of Education AST Australian Social Trends DEWR Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations DIAC Department of Immigration and Citizenship ERP Estimated Resident Population GPO General Post Office GSS General Social Survey HECS Higher Education Contribution Scheme LFS Labour Force Survey LGA Local Government Areas MCEETYA Ministerial Council on Education Employment Training and Youth Affairs MPHS Multi-Purpose Household Survey SARS Special Administrative Regions SD Statistical District SDAC Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers SIH Survey of Income and Housing SLA Statistical Local Area SOLD Survey of Labour Demand SSD Statistical Subdivision TAFE Technical and Further Education UK United Kingdom_______________________________________________________________________________________xii ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Overview 2From generation to generation 9Where do Australians live? 16On the move 24
    • Population overviewIn August 2006, the Census of Population and Population(a)(b)(c) 1906 to 2006Housing counted 19.9 million people inAustralia on Census Night. This figure provided milliona base count from which the estimated 24resident population (ERP) was derived (see 20box below). After adjusting for undercount and 16a number of other factors, Australias ERP at30 June 2006 was 20.7 million people. 12 8Population growth 4 0Between 2001 and 2006, Australias resident 1906 1926 1946 1966 1986 2006population increased by nearly 1.3 millionpeople. Natural increase (excess of births over (a) Includes estimates of the Indigenous population fromdeaths) and net overseas migration each 1961 onwards.contributed about half of this growth (see (b) Prior to 1971, estimates of the population wereGlossary for more information about these based on the number of people actually present interms). Australia. From 1971 onwards the concept of estimated resident population (ERP) was introduced.Over the past 100 years Australias population (c) Includes Other Territories from 1994.has increased steadily from 4.1 million in 1906 Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat.to 20.7 million in 2006. The only exception to no. 3105.0.65.001.this steady growth occurred in 1916 and 1917during World War I, when the populationdeclined slightly. This was because defenceforce personnel leaving Australia were Estimating Australiasregarded as emigrants and excluded from populationpopulation counts.1 The estimated resident population (ERP) isSome of the highest annual population growth Australias official population figure. It isrates were recorded in the period 1947–65, based on census counts of usual residents,known as the Baby Boom. Annual growth rates adjusted for undercount and the numberover this period fluctuated between 1.6% and of Australian residents estimated to have3.3% with natural increase the main been temporarily overseas at the time ofcomponent. High levels of immigration the census. Further adjustments are madefollowing World War II also contributed to for births, deaths and net migration in thestrong population growth in this period. period from 1 July to Census Night (i.e.Annual population growth rates then declined 8 August 2006) to estimate the populationto a low of 1.0% in 1975 and have remained at at 30 June 2006. This chapter presents Junebetween 1% and 2% since then. Between 2001 2006 ERP where available, and unadjustedand 2006, the annual growth rate fluctuated census counts from August 2006 wherearound 1.3%. more detailed information on population characteristics is needed. Later chapters only use unadjusted census counts. For more information on ERP see Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2007, ABS cat. no. 3101.0._______________________________________________________________________________________2 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…overview How the population grows The growth of Australias population has two components: natural increase and net overseas migration. Natural increase refers to the excess of births over deaths. Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. Population growth in the states and territories has a third component: net interstate migration. It refers to the difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory during a specified time period. Note that Urban Centres (see Glossary) with smaller populations may record high growth rates because the rates are calculated from a small base.States and territories (1.9%), the Northern Territory (2.2%) and the Australian Capital Territory (1.5%), althoughIn 2006, New South Wales continued to be the the causes of growth differed. While naturalmost populous state (6.8 million residents) increase was an important component offollowed by Victoria (5.1 million). Together growth in each of these states and territories,they were home to over half (58%) of Queensland was the only state to drawAustralias total population. Average annual substantial numbers from interstate migration.population growth in both states in the In Western Australia, high levels of net25 years to 2006 was 1.1%, below the national overseas migration boosted populationrate of 1.3%. growth, allowing it to overtake South Australia in size in the early 1980s.In the 5 years before the 2006 Census, theaverage annual growth was lower for New Both South Australia and TasmaniaSouth Wales (0.7%) but higher for Victoria experienced low rates of growth in the 25 years(1.3%) than in preceding years. Net overseas to 2006. Losses due to interstate migration,migration and natural increase were the main primarily of young people, have resulted incomponents of growth rather than interstate older populations with lower proportions ofmigration. people of child-bearing age and subsequent low levels of natural increase.Between 1981 and 2006, average annualpopulation growth was above the national ratein Queensland (2.3%), Western AustraliaPopulation growth and distribution(a) Change Change 1981– 2001– 2006 2006 2006(b) 2006(b) 000 % % % New South Wales 6 816.1 32.9 1.1 0.7 Victoria 5 126.5 24.8 1.1 1.3 Queensland 4 090.9 19.8 2.3 2.4 South Australia 1 567.9 7.6 0.7 0.7 Western Australia 2 059.4 9.9 1.9 1.6 Tasmania 490.0 2.4 0.5 0.8 Northern Territory 210.6 1.0 2.2 1.3 Australian Capital Territory 334.1 1.6 1.5 0.9 Australia 20 697.9 100.0 1.3 1.3 (a) Estimated Resident Population as at 30 June. (b) Average annual growth, see Glossary. Source: Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2007, cat. no. 3101.0._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 3
    • Population…overview20 largest Urban Centres(a) Change Change 1996– 1996– 2006 2006(b) 2006 2006(b) 000 % 000 % Sydney 3 794.8 1.1 Sunshine Coast(c) 197.6 4.3 Melbourne 3 517.6 1.6 Geelong 143.1 0.9 Brisbane 1 733.5 2.8 Townsville 137.5 2.2 Perth 1 322.7 1.5 Hobart 132.1 0.2 Adelaide 1 078.9 0.7 Cairns 105.4 2.6 Gold Coast-Tweed Heads 487.5 5.4 Toowoomba 101.6 1.6 Canberra-Queanbeyan 368.8 1.0 Ballarat 81.2 1.9 Newcastle 303.2 0.8 Bendigo 79.0 2.4 Central Coast (NSW) 289.2 2.0 Launceston 74.1 0.7 Wollongong 247.4 0.8 Darwin 71.9 0.7 Australia 20 697.9 1.2 (a) Estimated Resident Population as at 30 June. (b) Annual average growth, see Glossary. (c) Sunshine Coast only existed in its own right as a UCL area from the 2001 Census. For the 1996 Census, the Urban Centres in 2001 from the equivalent area have been used to represent the population at that time. Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2005–06, cat. no. 3218.0.Urban Centres include Melbourne (1.6%), Perth (1.5%), the Central Coast of NSW (2.0%), Ballarat (1.9%)Most of Australias population live in urban and Bendigo (2.4%). Of the 20 largest Urbanareas. In 2006, just over two thirds (69%) of the Centres, Hobart experienced the lowestpopulation lived in the 20 largest Urban average annual growth rate (0.2%).Centres and half the population lived in the4 largest Urban Centres (Sydney, Melbourne,Brisbane and Perth). In the 10 years to 2006, Mobilitypopulation growth in Sydney (average annual In the five years prior to the 2006 Census,growth of 1.1%), did not keep pace with the 6.6 million people, or 43% of the populationnational average (1.2%). However, due to its aged 5 years and over, changed their place oflarge size, this city accommodated an residence in Australia. Of all the people whoadditional 400,000 people, or around one sixth moved within Australia during this period, theof Australias population growth in this period. majority (86%) moved within the same state or territory while the remainder moved interstate.High rates of growth in Queenslands largest People aged 25–29 years were the most mobileUrban Centres contributed to a high rate of age group, with 62% having moved withingrowth in the state as a whole. Between 1996 Australia in the previous 5 years, while thoseand 2006, population growth in Brisbane, Gold aged 75–79 years were least likely to haveCoast-Tweed Heads, Townsville and Cairns was moved (19%). There was little differencewell above the national rate, with Gold Coast- recorded between the mobility rates of menTweed Heads experiencing the highest average and women.annual growth rate of 5.4%. Over this periodthe Sunshine Coast evolved from a number of The mobility rate of immigrants is very highsmaller settlements to become the countrys after arrival and for the first decade of theireleventh largest Urban Centre with a residence in Australia, reflecting thatpopulation of 198,000 in 2006. Other large immigrants tend to move until they find aUrban Centres with high rates of growth suitable place to work and settle into their new_______________________________________________________________________________________4 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…overviewMobility rates by birthplace, 2001–06(a) environment. Between 2001 and 2006, 60% of newly arrived migrants (who arrived in % Same SLA Australia in the 5 years to 2000) had moved75 Other SLA, same SD residence compared to 42% of the Australian- Other SD, same state born population, and their mobility rates were Interstate50 Total higher in almost every age group. However, over the longer term, the mobility rates of immigrants are lower on average than the25 Australian-born population. 0 Australian born Recent arrivals(b) Total Population distribution overseas born(c) Australias population is mostly concentrated in two widely separated coastal regions. The(a) Excludes children under 5 years of age in 2006 and larger of these by far (both in area andpeople who were overseas in 2001. population) lies in the east and south-east of(b) Who arrived in Australia between 1996 and 2000. Australia, stretching in a crescent from(c) Who arrived in Australia prior to 2001. Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania to South Australia. The smaller region is in the south-west of the continent and is concentrated around the Perth metropolitan area.Population density, Statistical Local Areas(a) Darwin Brisbane Perth Sydney People per sq km Adelaide Canberra 100.0 or more 10.0 – 100.0 Melbourne 1.0 – 10.0 0.1 – 1.0 Less than 0.1 Hobart 0 1000 Kilometres(a) Estimated Resident Population as at 30 June 2006.Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2005–06, cat. no. 3218.0_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 5
    • Population…overviewIn 2006, the vast majority of Australias The age structure of Australias population haspopulation (85%) lived within 50 kilometres of changed considerably over the last century.the coastline, reflecting the arid, inhospitable During this time the proportion of childrenconditions of much of the Australian interior, aged under 15 years declined from 35% in 1901as well as employment and lifestyle to 20% in 2006, while the proportion of olderopportunities found in coastal areas and people aged 65 years and over increased fromhistorical settlement patterns. The population 4% to 13%. These changes reflect: increasedwas also highly urbanised. In Australia, an life expectancy of infants in the earlier part ofUrban Centre is defined as a population cluster the century, resulting in the survival of moreof 1,000 or more people. At 30 June 2006, people into old age; declining fertility from the18.3 million people, or 88% of the total 1970s; and improvements in life expectancy atAustralian population were living in 730 Urban older ages in recent decades.Centres. The sex ratio is the number of males per oneAge and sex structure hundred females. A sex ratio less than 100 indicates that there are fewer males thanIn June 2006 the median age of the Australian females. In 2006, Australia had an overall sexpopulation was 37 years. One in five ratio of 99 males for every 100 females in theAustralians (20%) were children aged under population. The sex ratio for children aged15 years, and 13% were aged 65 years and over. 0–4 was 105, as male births consistentlyFor most of the states and territories, the outnumber female births, and declined withproportion of the population in each of these age reflecting lower female death rates at allage groups varied only slightly. The Northern ages and the resultant higher life expectancyTerritory had the highest proportion of of women. Among those aged 75 years andchildren aged under 15 years (25%) while over there were 523,200 males and 757,200South Australia and Tasmania had the highest females, equating to a sex ratio of 69 males perproportions of older people aged 65 years and 100 females.over (both 15%).Age distribution(a) People People People Total aged aged aged 65 Median population 0–14 15–64 and over age 000 % % % years New South Wales 6 816.1 19.6 66.9 13.5 36.8 Victoria 5 126.5 19.0 67.6 13.4 36.7 Queensland 4 090.9 20.4 67.5 12.1 36.0 South Australia 1 567.9 18.3 66.6 15.1 38.8 Western Australia 2 059.4 19.9 68.3 11.8 36.2 Tasmania 490.0 19.7 65.7 14.6 38.8 Northern Territory 210.6 24.5 70.9 4.6 30.9 Australian Capital Territory 334.1 18.8 71.7 9.5 34.4 Australia 20 697.9 19.6 67.4 13.0 36.6 (a) Estimated resident population as at 30 June, 2006. Source: Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories, Jun 2006, cat. no. 3201.0._______________________________________________________________________________________6 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…overviewPopulation profile, selected years(a)(b) Age 85+ 80–84 1901 1956 2006 75–79 70–74 65–69 60–64 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 20–24 1 9 5–1 1 4 0–1 5–9 0–4 800 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 000 Males Females(a) Data for 1901 are census counts; data for 1956 are population estimates; data for 2006 are estimated residentpopulation.(b) In 2006, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands are included as part of Australia.Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics, cat. no. 3105.0.65.001.Indigenous population the state or territory with the highest proportion of Indigenous peoples in its totalAt 30 June 2006, the Aboriginal and Torres population (32%).Strait Islander population was estimated at517,200, or 2.5% of the total Australian Indigenous Australians were more likely to livepopulation. Two states, New South Wales in remote areas of the country than non-(29%) and Queensland (28%), contained over Indigenous Australians. Based on censushalf the Indigenous population. While a counts, around one in four Indigenoussmaller proportion of all Indigenous peoples Australians (24%) lived in Remote or Verylived in the Northern Territory (13%), it was Remote areas in 2006 compared with only one in fifty non-Indigenous Australians (2%). Conversely, 32% of the Indigenous population lived in the Major Cities (see Glossary)Population by Remoteness Areas(a) compared to 69% of the non-Indigenous population. % Indigenous Birthplace80 Non-Indigenous60 In 2006, a quarter (25%) of Australias40 population was born overseas. This represents a slight increase in the proportion born20 overseas since 1996 (23%). People born in North-West Europe (including the United 0 Kingdom) were the largest group of overseas- Major Inner Outer Remote Very born residents in 2006, accounting for 7% of all Cities Regional Regional Remote residents nationally, and almost a third of all overseas-born residents. Those born in(a) 2006 Census counts. Southern and Eastern Europe were the second_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 7
    • Population…overviewlargest group of overseas-born, comprising 4%of all residents nationally, followed by South-East Asia, accounting for 3% of the totalpopulation.Based on census counts, the overseas-bornpopulation was more likely to live in UrbanCentres than those born in Australia. In 2006,85% of the overseas-born were living in MajorCities, compared with 63% of Australian-bornresidents. Those migrants who arrived in thepast two decades were more likely than otheroverseas-born people to live in largepopulation centres, reflecting the settlementpatterns of migrants to Australia. In 2006, 9 outof 10 migrants who had arrived in thepreceding 20 years lived in Major Cities (90%)falling to around 8 in 10 of those who arrivedin 1986 or before (81%). For more informationon the overseas-born population, see the‘Cultural diversity overview’, p. 34–44.Regions of birth of Australia’spopulation(a) % 000 Australian-born 75.4 15 608.1 Total overseas-born 24.6 5 093.4 Oceania and Antarctica(b) 2.7 567.7 North-West Europe 7.3 1 513.2 Southern and Eastern Europe 4.1 852.9 North Africa and the Middle East 1.4 295.4 South-East Asia 3.1 641.9 North-East Asia 2.3 470.1 Southern and Central Asia 1.6 322.0 Americas 1.0 210.0 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.1 220.2 Total 100.0 20 701.5 (a) 2006 Census counts. (b) Excluding Australia.Endnotes1 Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003, Populationgrowth and distribution, 2001, cat. no. 2035.0,p. 20–22, ABS, Canberra._______________________________________________________________________________________8 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • From generation to generationTaking a generational view of the population great deal of individual variety occurs.provides a useful framework for analysing Therefore, where useful, generations havecensus data. Dividing the population into been further divided into smaller age groups togenerations and looking at the different social highlight this diversity.and economic experiences they have had canhelp us to understand the changes that haveoccurred and continue to occur in Australian Oldest Generation thesociety. most likely to live aloneIn this report 5 cohorts are identified: the Born before 1927, the surviving members ofOldest Generation; the Lucky Generation; the this generation were aged 80 years and over inBaby Boomers; Generation X and Y; and the 2006 and comprised 4% of the totalinternet or iGeneration (see table below). This population. As young adults, the olderarticle defines each generation, and briefly members of this birth cohort may havedescribes their social and economic history experienced interrupted employment andand current characteristics. These groups are family formation during the Great Depression.used in several articles throughout this report Many of the men would have served in thewhich provide more in-depth analysis of armed forces during World War II. Members ofvarious aspects of the life experience of these the Oldest Generation had limited formalgenerations. While each generation shares educational opportunities: in 2006, 39%certain characteristics, it should be reported they left school at Year 8 or below oracknowledged that within each generation a never attended school compared to 2% of Generation X and Y. Defining the generations In defining the generations, a number of factors have been taken into account including birth rates, significant world events and shared life experiences. Each generation covers a similar sized age group (generally 20 years) to allow more meaningful comparisons across generations. For example, Generation X and Y, while separately identified by some social commentators, have many characteristics in common and have been combined to form a 20 year birth cohort. It should be noted that there is no widespread agreement about the names and definitions of these generations. Furthermore, the names adopted in this report have been used by other commentators to refer to slightly different groups. Summary of the generations Size of group Proportion of the Birth cohort Age in 2006 in 2006 population in 2006 years 000 % Oldest Generation 1891–1926 80 and over 727.3 3.7 Lucky Generation 1926–1946 60–79 2 875.1 14.5 Baby Boomers 1946–1966 40–59 5 468.8 27.5 Generation X and Y 1966–1986 20–39 5 489.9 27.6 iGeneration 1986–2006 0–19 5 294.1 26.7_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 9
    • Population…From generation to generationLiving arrangements and relationship in household Oldest Lucky Baby Generation Generation Generation Boomers X and Y iGeneration 80 and over 60–79 40–59 20–39 0–19 % % % % % In private dwellings Husband, wife or partner 30.3 61.0 68.0 48.9 0.5 Lone parent 5.3 3.4 7.4 5.0 0.1 Lone person 32.9 19.2 9.9 7.1 0.3 Group household member 1.1 1.8 2.0 7.3 0.7 Child 0.0 0.4 2.1 16.0 89.6 Other(a) 8.2 7.5 4.4 8.0 3.5 Total in private dwellings(b) 80.4 96.6 97.6 97.1 98.5 In non-private dwellings(c) 19.6 3.4 2.4 2.9 1.5 Total(d) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) Includes other related individuals, non-family members and visitors from within Australia. (b) Includes persons in non-classifiable households. (c) Includes persons living in hospitals, nursing homes, cared accommodation for the retired and aged, other welfare institutions and other non-private dwellings such as hotels and motels. (d) Excludes people counted in migratory, off-shore and shipping Collection Districts.In 2006, 33% of the Oldest Generation were because they generally perceive that they hadliving alone, the highest proportion of all an easier time than their parents. They didntgenerations. A further 30% were living with live through World War I or have to make endstheir husband, wife or partner while 17% were meet during the Depression, and as youngliving in nursing homes or cared adults they experienced full employment andaccommodation for the retired or aged. Of prosperity during the post-World War IIthose living alone, more than 4 in 5 were economic boom. This generation has also beenwidowed. This generation reported the highest referred to as the Austerity Generation;rate of religious affiliation (82%) of all the affected by the privations resulting from thegenerations, with Anglican (30%) and Catholic Great Depression in their formative years, they(23%) the most commonly reported faiths. are often regarded as a hardworking and stoic generation who seek stability and security. TheLucky Generation retire Lucky Generation has been a relatively small group compared to successive generations,gradually partly due to low birth rates during the Depression and World War II and recentBorn between 1926 and 1946, just prior to and deaths.during the Great Depression and World War II,they are referred to as the Lucky GenerationTime line4 Cold War World War I World War II Korean War (1914–18) (1939–45) (1950–53) Strong economy Depression Strong economy Federation (1901) Snowy Sydney White Australia women get the Spanish flu polio epidemic Mountains Harbour Bridge Policy repealed vote (1902) epidemic (1919) (1938) scheme opened (1932) (1958) (1949) 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 Oldest Generation Lucky Generation Baby Boomers_______________________________________________________________________________________10 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…From generation to generationLabour Force Status by generation Oldest Lucky Baby Generation Generation Generation Boomers X and Y iGeneration(a) 80 and over 60–79 40–59 20–39 15–19 % % % % % Males Employed full-time 1.7 18.2 68.0 66.5 17.7 Employed part-time 1.5 9.1 10.0 12.4 22.7 Unemployed 0.1 1.2 3.2 5.0 7.0 Not in the labour force 95.9 69.2 14.0 10.8 48.7 Total males(b) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Females Employed full-time 0.4 5.9 35.3 37.9 9.9 Employed part-time 0.5 8.7 30.5 27.1 33.7 Unemployed 0.1 0.4 2.8 4.2 6.8 Not in the labour force 98.6 83.5 27.3 26.0 45.5 Total females(b) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) Excludes those aged under 15 years. (b) Includes those employed but away from work during the reference period.This cohort also experienced higher rates of part-time. See ‘Generations of employment’,infectious diseases (such as polio, diphtheria p. 159–166, for a detailed analysis of the labourand rubella), cancer and heart disease during force experiences of each generation over time.their lifetime than subsequent generations.1 In2006 the Lucky Generation were aged 60–79 In 2006, the Lucky Generation had the highestyears and accounted for 14% of the total proportion of members born overseas (36%Australian population. By 2006 the majority had compared to 31%–32% for both the Oldestretired from employment. Nearly twice as many Generation and the Baby Boomers and 24% formen (30%) as women (16%) were employed, Generation X and Y). Contributing to the highreflecting the traditional breadwinner and proportion of overseas-born in this generationhomemaker roles adopted by the majority of was the post World War II influx of Europeanthe Lucky Generation. Two thirds of those men migrants in the 1950s and 1960s: 12% of thisemployed were working full-time, while the generation were born in the UK or Ireland andmajority of the employed women were working a further 11% in Southern and Eastern Europe (including 4% who were Italian-born).Time line4 Cold War Vietnam War Gulf War Iraq War (1962–73) (1990–91) Economic Strong economy Strong economy downturn Aborigines included no fault divorce post-war migration in the Census (1971) (1975) television (1956) credit cards computers internet mobile phones 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 Baby Boomers Generation X and Y iGeneration_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 11
    • Population…From generation to generation Registered marital status at 40–59 yearsBaby Boomers sharebreadwinning role % 100 Oldest Generation (1966) Lucky Generation (1986)In 2006 the Baby Boomers were aged 40–59 Baby Boomers (2006) 80years. Born between 1946 and 1966 during thepost-war economic boom, the Baby Boomers 60were the second largest generation in 2006, 40numbering 5.5 million or 28% of the totalpopulation. The size of this cohort can be 20attributed to the high rates of marriage and 0fertility, resulting from the catch up of Never Married Divorced Separated Widowedmarriage and child-bearing delayed by World marriedWar II, and the buoyant economy during theirparents child-bearing years. The influx ofmigrants to Australia following World War IIalso contributed to the size of this generation the norm. Just over two thirds of female Babyboth directly (through the migration of Boomers were employed in 2006, while 20%children with their families) and indirectly stated they had a Bachelor degree or higher(through the migration of young adults who qualification.would later have Baby Boomer children). Of allthe generations, the Baby Boomers had the This generation experienced increasing rates oflargest overseas-born population (1.6 million marital separation resulting from thepeople) in 2006. However, the overseas-born introduction of no fault divorce in 1975.2 Incomprise a smaller proportion (32%) of this 2006, 19% of Baby Boomers were separated orgeneration than in the Lucky Generation (36%) divorced, nearly double the rate recorded forbecause they joined a large cohort of the previous generation: when the LuckyAustralian-born Boomers. Generation were the same age (40–59 years) in 1986, 11% were separated or divorced.The older Baby Boomers entered the labourforce when economic conditions were buoyantand experienced high rates of employment. Generation X and Y theThe younger members of this generation have most highly qualifiednot had the same employment opportunitiesthroughout their working lives as older Baby Born between 1966 and 1986, this generationBoomers, with many affected by the economic were aged 20–39 years in 2006. The olderdownturn in the late 1980s and early 1990s. members of this birth cohort have been dubbed Generation X for the perceivedThe Baby Boomer Generation has lived namelessness felt by the generationthrough enormous social change, experiencing overshadowed by the Baby Boomers whorising rates of female participation in both preceded them. Generation Y simply refers totertiary education and the labour force, and the generation following X. With a combinedthe creation of the two income household as size similar to the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Y comprised 28% (5.5 million) of the total population in 2006.Higher education qualifications by Generation X and Y were the first generationgeneration(a) to experience increased rates of parental separation and divorce. They are also regarded % as having fewer opportunities than their Baby Men30 Women Boomer predecessors, being the first to experience user-pays higher education and job20 insecurity.3 When Generation X and Y were entering the workforce, unemployment levels were high. For example in 1991, 15% of10 Generation X and Y men who were of working age (15–24 years) were unemployed. In 0 contrast, Baby Boomers started entering the Gen X & Y Baby Lucky Oldest workforce in the late 1960s when Boomers Generation Generation unemployment levels were very low. By 1971, only 2% of working age Baby Boomer men(a) Includes Bachelor degree, Graduate diploma, (then aged 15–24 years) were unemployed.Graduate certificate, Master degree and Doctoraldegree._______________________________________________________________________________________12 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…From generation to generationUnemployment experiences of the (49%) were living with a spouse or partner. Agenerations(a) further 7% were living in group households while 7% were living alone.Men Gen X & Y % iGeneration live up to 15 Baby Boomers Lucky Generation their name 10 Born between 1986 and 2006, the iGeneration (Internet Generation) spent their formative years in a period which saw the birth and rise 5 of the internet. Aged 0–19 years in 2006, they take computers and the internet and a host of 0 electronic consumables, such as DVDs, mobile1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 phones and MP3 players for granted. Uptake of technology by the iGeneration is reflected in their rates of internet access. In 2006, 80% of the youngest generation had access to theWomen internet at home with just over two thirds of this group having access to a broadband % connection. Access was also high among Baby Gen X & Y Baby Boomers 15 Boomers (76%) and Generation X and Y (75%), Lucky Generation many of whom have their iGeneration children 10 living with them at home. Despite the gradual increase in one parent 5 families, the majority of iGens in private households were living with their couple 0 parents in 2006 (77%). Twenty years earlier in1966 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 1986, 85% of 0–19 year olds (Generation X and Y) were living with couple parents. For iGens living in couple families, around 9 out of 10(a) Proportion of all men or women in each generationaged 15 years and over at the time of each census who were the natural or adopted child of bothwere unemployed. parents. The iGeneration, along with Generation X andThe unemployment pattern was similar for Y, are the most secular generations, withwomen. Lower levels of unemployment almost one in four reporting no religion inexperienced by Lucky Generation women 2006. Of the other generations, thosepartly reflect lower levels of labour force reporting no religion ranged from 6% of theparticipation by women of that generation with Oldest Generation to 17% of Baby Boomers.fewer women seeking employment than in See ‘Religion across the generations’, p. 54–58,later generations. for more information.Despite the introduction of the HigherEducation Contribution Scheme (HECS),Generation X and Y are the most highly Internet access by generation(a)educated generation on record, with one infour having a Bachelor degree or above in % Broadband2006. In each successive generation, the 80 Otherproportion of women who obtained higher Total 60education qualifications has increased relativeto that of their male counterparts. In 2006, 28% 40of Generation X and Y women had a Bachelordegree or above compared with 21% of 20Generation X and Y men. 0Spanning people in their early 20s to late 30s, Oldest Lucky Baby Gen iGeneration Generation Generation Boomers X&YGeneration X and Y were represented morebroadly across the different livingarrangements than other generations in 2006. (a) Usual residents living in private dwellings only.While 16% were living with parents, almost half_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 13
    • Population…From generation to generationiGeneration aged 15–19: employment and education participation Studying(a) Not Full-time Part-time Total studying Total(b) % % % % % Employed Full-time 0.5 3.1 3.7 9.9 13.9 Part-time 21.2 1.2 22.5 5.4 28.1 Total employed(c) 24.1 4.6 28.9 16.6 46.0 Not employed 44.9 1.2 46.4 7.1 54.0 Total(d) 69.3 5.9 74.8 25.2 100.0 (a) At secondary school, TAFE college, university or other educational institution. Total includes students who did not state full-time or part-time study status. (b) Includes people who did not state attendance at an educational institution. (c) Includes people who were employed and away from work. (d) Includes people who did not state labour force status.In 2006 the oldest members of the iGenerationwere in their mid to late teens (aged 15–19 Endnotesyears). The majority (75%) were students, with 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2006,nearly three quarters of these attending Measures of Australias Progress, cat. no. 1370.0, p.secondary school and the remainder attending 33, ABS, Canberra.a TAFE college, university or other tertiaryinstitution. Nearly half (46%) of all 15–19 year 2 ABS 1994, ‘Changes in living arrangements’, inold members of the iGeneration were Australian Social Trends 1994, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.employed in 2006 compared to 42% of 15–19year old members of Generation X and Y in 3 Baum, N. and Jackson, N. 2004, Planning the local1986 and 62% of 15–19 year old Baby Boomers government response to ageing and place, Localin 1966. In 2006, many 15–19 year old iGens Government Association of NSW and Shireswere combining work and study (29%), and of Association of NSW, Sydney.these, the overwhelming majority werestudying full-time while working in a part-time 4 Australian Government 2007, Guide to thejob. Teaching of Australian History in Years 9 and 10._______________________________________________________________________________________14 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Where do Australians live?A persons wellbeing is closely linked to wherethey live. Location largely determines the rangeof opportunities, and goods and services In 2006, three quarters ofavailable to satisfy an individuals needs and the population were inlifestyle. Because peoples needs vary they willsettle in different places, seeking out a location coastal towns and cities.which they can afford and that provides thebest mix of opportunities, and goods andservices for them and their family. From the bush to theFor people with children, one area might be coastattractive because it provides access to thesupport and care provided by other family and Over time, changes have occurred in thefriends. Some locations might be important to opportunities, such as employment, and goodsa person’s identity, allowing for the expression and services, such as health facilities, that manyor development of particular cultural facets of areas traditionally provided. Further, peoplesa persons life; for example, traditional lands idea of what is desirable has changed,for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander including an expectation of having a broaderpeoples. Other places might offer particular range of options available. This has broughteducational opportunities, or provide about a shift in Australias settlement patternenhanced employment and promotional from one that was strongly rural at Federationprospects in a chosen field. Other areas might (in 1901) to one currently dominated by urbanbe attractive for their environment—located coastal settlement.close to the ocean, or away from crowding andpollution. In others, access to specialist At the 1911 Census, the main focus of themedical services may be important for people Australian economy was primary productionwith a serious illness. and 42% of the population were living in Rural Areas. This strong rural settlement patternAreas that have a range of the most popular came about because of the settlement ofopportunities, and goods and services often inland areas primarily for agricultural use andhave expensive housing because many other the large amount of employment created bypeople seek to live there. For many people, the labour intensive farming practices of thecompromises must be made between day. Other factors encouraging ruralaffordability and the distance travelled to settlement were the population dispersalaccess these opportunities, and goods and caused by the gold rushes, the development ofservices. The result of the decisions and other mining industries, and the establishmentcompromises made by all Australians is a of road and rail infrastructure in these areas.settlement pattern, but one which has beendynamic over time—changing with shifts in By 2006, only 12% of Australians were locatedindividual and family needs and preferences, in Rural Areas, while just over three quartersthe ability of particular locations to meet those (77%) were in towns and cities of over 1,000needs and preferences, and the relative people within 50 km of the coast. This patternincome and wealth of individuals and families. reflects the attraction of coastal environments_______________________________________________________________________________________16 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…Where do Australians live?Population(a) of Urban Centres and Rural Localities, Australia(b), 2006 Darwin Brisbane Perth Sydney Adelaide Canberra Population Melbourne 1,000,000 500,000 100,000 Hobart 0 1000 Kilometres(a) Population is census count on a place of enumeration basis.(b) Excludes Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands.to contemporary Australians, but perhapsmore importantly it highlights the fact that the Increasing urbanisationlarge coastal towns and cities are now the Over the past century, while remainingcentres of employment and provide many sparsely settled, Australia has emerged as aother desirable opportunities, and goods and highly urbanised nation. Over this period,services. there has been a consistent, general trend for a greater proportion of the population to live inWhile the desire to live in these towns and Australias cities and towns. Over the 30 yearscities are driven by contemporary preferences, prior to the 2006 Census, the relativethe concentration of these towns and cities importance of the Metropolitan Urban areasalong the coast to a large degree reflects (that is, the state capitals, and Canberra fromAustralias colonial history. Sites of the colonial 1954) has generally declined, while the coastalcapitals and penal settlements required access population centres, especially those near theseto coastal anchorages, adequate supplies of cities, have increased their share of thefresh water and land with good agricultural population.potential, fixing the location of many currentAustralian towns and cities on or near thecoast._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 17
    • Population…Where do Australians live? Classification of urban and rural areas An area is classified as urban or rural according to the level of population density and the type of land use. Across censuses the size of urban areas generally increases as the number of people in these areas grows. This occurs as land that was previously classified as rural is developed to house the population or to be used for purposes that are urban in nature (for example, roads, shopping centres and airports). This reduces, by a relatively small amount, the area of land that is classed as rural. For the first part of this article, Australia is divided into urban and rural areas according to the Urban Divisions classification used in Statisticians Reports between 1921 and 1966, along with corresponding areas back to the 1901 Census. From the 1976 Census onwards, a close approximation to this classification has been made using the Urban Centre and Locality, and Section of State classifications, allowing comparison with statistics from the earlier censuses. It should be noted that the areas of most cities and towns have expanded as population has increased, and some cities and towns included separately in earlier censuses have been joined into the urban area of larger cities in later censuses (for example, Ipswich into Brisbane). Where data from the 1976–2006 censuses are presented separately, the Urban Centre and Locality and Section of State classifications are used as described in the text. For further information on these classifications please see Statistical Geography: Volume 1—Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2006, ABS cat. no. 1216.0. Urban Divisions classification Metropolitan Urban include the capital cities, and surrounding suburbs, of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart, with Canberra included from 1954. The Urban Centres corresponding to these capitals, from the Urban Centre and Locality classification, make up this category from 1971 onwards. Other Urban include the remaining incorporated towns and cities (including Darwin) and, from 1954, other towns that contained 1,000 or more people (750 for Tasmania until 1966) at the time of each census. The change to the towns and cities included in Other Urban between the 1947 and 1954 Censuses prevent comparison of the Other Urban and Rural Areas categories across these two censuses. From 1971 onwards, Urban Centres of 1,000 persons or more are used for this category. Rural Areas are the balance of the Australian population, including towns (or localities) not included in Other Urban above, and the migratory population. Where these categories of Urban Division are used in the text of this article they are capitalised. Where the words are not capitalised their use has a more general meaning. Population counts in urban and rural areas In this article populations in urban and rural areas are examined back as far as the 1901 Census. Data from these early censuses are only available on a place of enumeration basis, and so data on this basis are used for all censuses years examined. As Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Christmas Island were only included from the 1996 Census, the Other Territories category has been excluded from the analysis and the figures used in this article, including total Australia populations. This ensures figures are as comparable as possible._______________________________________________________________________________________18 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…Where do Australians live?Population distribution(a) by Urban Divisions(b), 1901–2006 % of total population Metropolitan Urban Other Urban 60 Rural 45 30 15 01896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006(a) Population is the census count on a place of enumeration basis.(b) Some comparability issues are present across censuses in the geographic classifications used to present these dataand therefore it should only be used for identification of general trends. The Urban Division classification and the break inseries shown are explained on the previous page in the box titled Classification of urban and rural areas.Metropolitan Urban Between 1996 and 2006, there was a return to growth in population share for the MetropolitanMetropolitan Urban areas have accommodated Urban areas (reaching 57% or 11.4 millionmuch of Australias population growth over the people).past century, growing to contain slightly over 11million people in 2006. As a result, 57% ofAustralians were in Metropolitan Urban areas in Other Urban areas2006, compared with 37% in 1901. The first Other Urban areas, that is those towns andtime the census recorded that Metropolitan cities outside of the Metropolitan Urban areas,Urban areas accommodated over half of the initially lost some of their share of thepopulation was in 1947. The population share population in response to early Metropolitanof Metropolitan Urban areas continued to grow Urban growth, declining from 20% in 1911 tosteadily until 1971, when it reached a peak of 17% in 1933. Despite this, the number of60%; accommodating 7.6 million people at that people in these areas increased over this periodtime. This period of growth in population share (from 0.9 to 1.1 million). Earlier Statisticiansoccurred in line with strong expansion in Reports1 suggested that this slow growth andemployment in manufacturing and, to a lesser declining population share was, at least in part,extent, service based industries in the capitals.1 due to the loss of employment in these areasFor more information on changes to during the 1930–33 Depression.employment by industry see ‘Generations ofemployment’, p. 159–166. From 1933 onwards, the Other Urban areas tended to increase their share of population.Between 1971 and 1996, Metropolitan Urban This was particularly apparent between 1966areas continued to grow in size, with an and 1996, when Other Urban areas madeadditional 2.2 million people in these cities. relatively strong gains in population share,Despite this, the proportion of the total increasing from 25% to 30% of the population;population located in Metropolitan Urban areas reaching 5.4 million people. Between 1996 anddeclined slightly to 56%. In part, the decline in 2006, with slower growth in population in thesethe share of the population is associated with areas (to 6.1 million in 2006), population sharestrong growth in urban areas close to has remained steady.Metropolitan Urban areas; for instance, GoldCoast–Qld, Rockingham–WA, Melton–Vic. and This recent stronger growth of Other UrbanCentral Coast–NSW (see table, Population areas at the expense of the Metropolitan Urbangrowth and decline, p. 22). The growth in these areas can be examined using more detailednearby cities indicates that there was little real information available from censuses after 1966.decline in the importance of MetropolitanUrban areas over this period._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 19
    • Population…Where do Australians live?Population distribution, 1976–2006 % 197660 1986 199650 200640302010 0 Metropolitan Urban Larger Other Urban(b) Smaller Other Urban(c) Rural Areas Urban Divisions(a)(a) See box titled Classification of urban and rural areas on p. 18. Excludes Other Territories.(b) Urban Centres with populations from 100,000 to 999,999 people in 2006, excluding those in Metropolitan Urban.(c) Urban Centres with populations from 1,000 to 99,999 people.Larger Other Urban cities (with populations Moreover, unlike other areas, the total numberfrom 100,000 to 999,999) showed very small but of people in Rural Areas has declined at variousconsistent gains in population share between times. In the 10 years to 2006, the share of1976 and 2006. These cities increased their population in Rural Areas declined byshare by 2.4 percentage points in the 30 year 2.1 percentage points, caused by a decline ofperiod to reach 9%; and accommodated 119,300 people in Rural Areas throughout1.8 million people in 2006. Smaller Other Urban Australia. This left 2.4 million people in Ruralcities and towns (1,000 to 99,999 people) Areas in 2006. The recent population decline inshowed stronger growth in population share Rural Areas occurred after a period of stabilitybetween 1976 and 1996; growing for these areas, with population share steady at2.4 percentage points in the shorter 20 year between 14–15% between 1971 and 1996.period. Despite a small decline of Recent declines are likely to have been0.7 percentage points in population share in the accentuated by the presence of drought10 years to 2006 (down to 21%), these smaller conditions at various times over the precedingcities and towns continued to grow in decade across many parts of Australia. Thesepopulation reaching 4.3 million. conditions have curtailed farming activities, which in turn have impacted associatedRural Areas businesses and communities.The growth in towns and cities since Federation One of the most significant issues surroundinghas resulted in a declining share of the the loss of population from Rural Areas is thatpopulation living in rural parts of Australia. young people make up a large proportion ofWhile comparability issues cloud the picture those leaving. In 2006, young people agedover the long term, a steady downward trend is 15–24 made up 26% of those leaving countryevident. The 1933 Statisticians Report inland areas, well above the average of 19% ofattributed this decline to slow growth in the young people who moved regions acrossagriculture sector, along with the increased Australia.2mechanisation of farming activities, causingreduced demand for labour in Rural Areas.1 This loss of young people makes it increasingly difficult for population levels in rural areas, andIn contrast to urban areas, the population in the communities in these areas, to be sustained.Rural Areas has only increased by a relatively Much of this movement of young people is tosmall amount since Federation—by about half a large cities and two factors linked to thismillion people between 1911 and 2006. movement are the employment and educational opportunities available in these cities.3 The movement of people within Australia is further discussed in ‘On the move’, p. 24–32._______________________________________________________________________________________20 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…Where do Australians live? …the impact of employmentCities—growing, decliningand stable Employment opportunities are considered to be one of the strongest factors attracting peopleThe concentration of the population into urban to move locations and big cities are generallyareas at the expense of rural areas has not been regarded as good places to find employment.consistent across Australia. Some towns andcities have grown strongly—some by a very Between 1976 and 2006, population growth inlarge degree, while a few have experienced the capitals aligned with employment growth inpopulation decline, and others have a relatively the relevant state and territory economies verystable population—not declining in size but closely. The four capitals that gained populationfailing to keep pace with population growth share over this period were in those states andnationally. Those towns and cities that have a territories that had rates of employment growthdesirable mix of opportunities, and goods and above the national average, while Tasmania hadservices that suit many people’s needs and the lowest rate of employment growth. Whilelifestyles have increased their share of the the faster population growth in these cities willpopulation, in some cases attracting population have generated higher levels of employment,away from other centres. even when this effect is taken into account, employment growth remains stronger in theseIn the 30 years to 2006, growth in the census cities. This indicates that expandingpopulation count in the state and territory employment markets have encouraged peoplecapital city Urban Centres (42%) did not keep to relocate to these cities.pace with national population growth (47%).Even so, due to their size, they have The attraction of employment opportunities inaccommodated an additional 3.4 million state and territory economies, especially in thepeople, or a little over half of Australias capital cities, has had an impact on city growthpopulation growth in this period. When more broadly. Many of the Urban Centres thatexamined separately, the Urban Centres for grew the most between 1976 and 2006 were inseveral capitals did exceed the national Queensland and Western Australia (see table,average—Brisbane (88%), Darwin (79%), Perth next page). Further, 7 of the top 10 were within(71%) and Canberra (69%). Melbourne (36%), commuting distance of a capital city, includingSydney (32%) and Adelaide (21%) did not grow centres such as Mandurah–WA, the Sunshineas strongly, while the population of Hobart and Gold Coasts–Qld, and the Central Coast–dropped by 3%. NSW. This may represent a willingness on the part of those settling in these commuter areas to trade off longer travel time to the adjacent capital city, where they may work or access theCapital city urban areas, population wide variety of opportunities and services,growth rate, 1976–2006 against the local lifestyle factors and perhaps cheaper housing costs. For example, retirees might see such areas as offering an attractive Brisbane mix of coastal amenity and housing Darwin affordability; while also ensuring that they have Perth access to comprehensive medical and other Canberra(a) services in the nearby capital city; and, forAUSTRALIA(b) some, that they are still able to be close to Melbourne family (especially their grandchildren). Sydney Adelaide Some of the other growth cities act as regional Hobart centres (for example, Bunbury–WA and Port Macquarie–NSW), which may be attracting –20 0 20 40 60 80 100 population from surrounding rural areas and % change smaller towns. One consistent characteristic of the top 10 growth cites is that they are all within(a) Includes Queanbeyan–NSW. 50kms of the coast, indicating that proximity to(b) Excludes Other Territories. a coastal environment is a desirable element for many of those who move. For areas like_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 21
    • Population…Where do Australians live?Population growth and decline: Urban Centres above 20,000 people in 2006 Percentage Percentage change (per change (per annum) annum) 1976– 1996– 1976– 1996– 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006Highest 10(a) no. % % Lowest 10 no. % %Mandurah–WA 65 100 27.5 8.2 Whyalla–SA 21 200 –1.2 –0.9Sunshine Coast–Qld(b) 195 800 18.0 4.3 Goulburn–NSW 21 000 –0.1 –0.1Hervey Bay–Qld 43 600 12.6 3.8 Hobart–Tas. 127 600 –0.1 0.2Gold Coast/Tweed 478 100 11.9 5.9 Armidale–NSW 20 100 0.1 –0.5Heads–Qld/NSWRockingham–WA 65 600 9.1 3.2 Maryborough–Qld 21 600 0.2 0.2Sunbury–Vic. 29 000 8.4 3.1 Geelong–Vic. 135 400 0.4 0.8Port Macquarie–NSW 40 100 6.7 2.0 Devonport–Tas. 21 700 0.4 –0.3Melton–Vic. 35 100 6.4 1.6 Launceston–Tas. 71 100 0.4 0.5Bunbury–WA 53 300 5.8 11.4 Newcastle–NSW 285 100 0.5 0.6Central Coast–NSW 277 800 5.8 2.2 Wollongong–NSW 231 900 0.6 0.6Australia 19 852 700 1.6 1.2 Australia 19 852 700 1.6 1.2(a) There was no equivalent Urban Centre for Palmerston–NT in 1976 and so it could not be included in this list. In 2006, ithad a census population of 23,600 and had grown by 9.4% per annum since 1996.(b) Sunshine Coast only existed in its own right as a single Urban Centre from the 2001 Census. For censuses prior to 2001,the Urban Centres from the equivalent area to that in 2001 have been used to represent the population at that time.Hervey Bay–Qld, their coastal environments limited population growth (0.2% per yearhave attracted large numbers of retirees, along between 1976 and 2006), while the adjacentwith others seeking the employment generated coastal city of Hervey Bay (approximatelyby the construction, and health and aged care 30kms away) was the third fastest growingindustries that have grown in these areas. urban area in Australia. It therefore seems likely that Hervey Bay is taking potential populationMany of the towns that had negative growth growth away from Maryborough, perhaps(declining population levels) or growth below because of its location on the coast. Hobartsthe national average between 1976 and 2006, population decline and the slow growth in ahad experienced the loss or winding down of a number of Tasmanian cities, is directly linked tomajor employer. In this 30 year period, the the slow growth in the overall state population.number of people in Whyalla–SA declined by This has largely resulted from loss of populationmore than one third. This decline has been to the rest of Australia, particular amongdirectly associated with the closure of Whyallas younger age groups5, with many pursuingshipyards and substantial loss of employment employment and education opportunitiesthrough the restructuring of its steel works, elsewhere.which triggered a decline in other employmentand services in the community.4 Similar declinesin manufacturing employment are likely to have Endnotescontributed to population decline or stagnation 1 Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics,in a number of the cities listed in the table Census of the Commonwealth of Australiaabove—Geelong–Vic., and Newcastle and 30 June,1933, Statistician’s Report, p. 48–49,Wollongong–NSW. Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra.Other cities in the lowest 10 for population 2 Their place of usual residence in 2006 was locatedgrowth either lost population to, or were in a different Statistical Subdivision than 5 years previous. For more information on the methodsoverlooked by those moving to other larger used to examine these population movements andcentres or elsewhere. One example of this is for a definition of country inland areas see ‘On theMaryborough–Qld, which has experienced move’, p. 24._______________________________________________________________________________________22 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…Where do Australians live?3 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003, ‘Youthmigration within Australia’ in Australian SocialTrends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.4 Salt, B. 2001, The Big Shift: Welcome to the ThirdAustralian Culture: The Bernard Salt Report, HardieGrant Books, Victoria.5 Jackson, N. and Kippen, R. 2001, ‘WhitherTasmania? A note on Tasmanias populationproblem.’ in People and Place, Vol. 9, No. 1, p. 27–37._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 23
    • On the movePeople relocate for many reasons. They may As well as creating great change in the lives ofmove for work and study, to be closer to family individuals and households, movementsor move in with a partner, to find more change the population size and composition insuitable housing or a preferred environment. both the area people leave and the area theyFamily breakdown, changes in financial move to. People at different stages of the lifecircumstances or lack of affordable housing cycle have different reasons for moving andcan also lead to a move. Between 2001 and different patterns of migration. For example2006, 43% of people aged 5 and over had younger people tend to move to urban areas1,changed their location. Of these, 4.5 million while many older people move away frommoved locally and 2.8 million were new these areas. This article looks at migrationresidents, comprising 2 million new residents patterns across 5 broad geographic areas inwho moved from a different geographic area in Australia, comparing people who moved to aAustralia (see box below), and 0.8 million new new area from 2001 to 2006 (new residents)residents who were overseas in 2001. with those who lived in the same area in 2001 and 2006 (longer-term residents). Migration flows This article examines migration flows between and within 5 broad geographic areas from 2001 to 2006. The census collects information about prior places of residence at two points in time— 5 years and 1 year prior to the 2006 Census (for more information, see internal migration in Glossary). Moves made between these dates are not captured in the census. Data in this article are based on place of usual residence census counts, rather than the estimated resident population (see Glossary). Capital cities are capital city Statistical Divisions (SDs) from each of the Australian states and territories. Coastal centres and inland centres are Statistical Districts.2 These areas are mainly urban and contain population centres of 25,000 persons or more (for example, Warrnambool and Toowoomba). Country coastal areas and country inland areas are the remaining Statistical Local Areas (SLAs), on the coast or inland respectively. Coastal centres and country coastal areas border the coastline or have their centre point (centroid) within 50 kms of the coast. Very large SLAs (25,000 square kms or more) are excluded from coastal areas, as large parts of these SLAs are outside the 50 km coastal zone. New residents are people who moved between 2001 and 2006, into a different capital city SD, or for non-metropolitan areas, into a different Statistical Subdivision (SSD). New residents may have moved into a different broad geographic area (as described above), or they may have moved within a geographic area. This category excludes people who did not fully state their place of usual residence 5 years ago, and children under 5 years of age. Longer-term residents are people who lived in the same area, either a capital city SD or a non- metropolitan SSD, in both 2001 and 2006. This category excludes people who did not fully state their place of usual residence 5 years ago, and children under 5 years of age._______________________________________________________________________________________24 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…On the moveGeographic areas: migration flows Darwin Darwin Darwin Darwin Darwin Darwin Cairns Cairns Cairns Cairns Cairns Cairns NORTHERN NORTHERN NORTHERN NORTHERN NORTHERN NORTHERN Townsville Townsville Townsville Townsville Townsville Townsville T E R R III T O R Y TERR TORY TERR TORY TERR TORY TERR TORY T E R R III T O R Y Mackay Mackay Mackay Mackay QUEENSLAND QUEENSLAND UEENSLAND QU E E N S L A N D QUEENSLAND UEENSLAND Rockhampton Rockhampton Rockhampton Rockhampton WESTERN WESTERN ESTERN WE S T E R N WESTERN ESTERN Bundaberg Bundaberg Bundaberg Bundaberg A U S T R A L III A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A A U S T R A L III A SOUTH SOUTH SOUTH SOUTH SOUTH SOUTH Toowoomba Toowoomba Toowoomba Toowoomba Toowoomba Toowoomba Brisbane Brisbane Brisbane Brisbane Brisbane Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold Geraldton Geraldton Geraldton Geraldton Coast Coast Coast Coast Coast Coast A U S T R A L III A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A AUSTRAL A A U S T R A L III A Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie Kalgoorlie NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW Tamworth Tamworth Tamworth Tamworth SOUTH SOUTH OUTH SO U T H SOUTH OUTH Port Port Port Port WALES WALES WALES WALES WALES WALES Macquarie Macquarie Macquarie Macquarie Macquarie Macquarie Perth Perth Perth Perth Perth Orange Orange Orange Newcastle Newcastle Newcastle Bunbury Bunbury Mildura Mildura Mildura Mildura Mildura Mildura Newcastle Newcastle Newcastle Bunbury Bunbury Bunbury Sydney Sydney Sydney Albury- Albury- Albury- Sydney Sydney Sydney Geographic area Albury- Albury- Albury- Wodonga Wodonga Wodonga Wodonga Wodonga Wodonga Wollongong Wollongong Wollongong Bendigo Bendigo Bendigo Bendigo Bendigo Bendigo Capital city Adelaide Adelaide Adelaide Adelaide Adelaide Adelaide Canberra Canberra Canberra Canberra Canberra Ballarat Ballarat Ballarat Ballarat Ballarat Coastal centre V III C T O R III A V CTOR A V CTOR A V II C T O R II A V CTOR A ACT ACT ACT ACT ACT ACT Inland centre Melbourne Melbourne Melbourne Melbourne Melbourne Melbourne Country coastal area Warrnambool Warrnambool Warrnambool Warrnambool Warrnambool Country inland area 0 1000 Launceston Launceston Launceston Launceston Launceston Launceston T A S M A N III A TASMAN A TASMAN A TASMAN A TASMAN A T A S M A N III A Kilometres Hobart Hobart Hobart HobartAcross Australia, new and longer- New residents were less likely overall to be interm residents differ the labour force (see Glossary) than longer- term residents. However in the 15–34 year ageNew residents generally have different group, new residents who moved from withincharacteristics to longer-term residents. In Australia had slightly higher labour force2006, new residents were younger on average participation (78%) than longer-term residentsthan longer-term residents with a median age (75%), suggesting that employmentof 31 years compared with 41 years, as young opportunities are a factor for younger peoplepeople are more likely to move than older who move. Conversely, for those in the olderpeople (see the ‘Population overview’, p. 2–8). working ages (45–64 years), labour forceAssociated with their young age profile, 21% of participation of all new residents was lowernew residents were studying, compared with than longer-term residents (65% compared12% of longer-term residents. A higher with 73%), related to retirement decisions. Theproportion of new residents lived in rented unemployment rate of new residents was 7.8%,housing than longer-term residents (49% almost twice the rate of longer-term residentscompared with 20%). In contrast, longer-term (4.6%). Some unemployed new residents mayresidents were more likely to live in housing not have had time to find work, or to havethat was owned outright or with a mortgage established social networks that are useful in(78% compared with 49%). Renting could be job searching.3more affordable for new residents, or provideflexibility while they try living in an area before Even so, new residents in each age group weredeciding to settle more permanently and more highly qualified: 47% had a degree orperhaps buy a home. Further, renting may be higher qualification compared with 37% ofpreferable for people who make temporary longer-term residents. Consequently, theymoves, for education or contract work. were less likely to work in a low skilled_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 25
    • Population…On the moveNew and longer-term residents Capital Coastal Inland Country Country cities centres centres coastal areas inland areas New residents ’000 1 351.5 563.5 150.4 351.5 355.3 Longer-term residents ’000 9 561.5 1 781.8 550.1 1 134.6 1 286.4 New residents % 12.3 23.7 21.2 23.4 21.3 Total population(a) ’000 11 850.5 2 555.3 756.0 1 609.4 1 783.2 Total population(a) % 63.7 13.7 4.1 8.7 9.6 (a) Includes people who did not have a usual address, did not fully state their address, or were in migratory, shipping or offshore areas 5 years ago.occupation than longer-term residents (42% New residents in capital cities were younger oncompared with 45%), and more likely to live in average than people who moved to the othera higher income household4 (23% compared geographic areas, except inland centres. Newwith 21%). For more information about the residents in capital cities and inland centresrelationship between employment, had a median age of 29 years, while newqualifications and income see the ‘Work residents in the other geographic regions hadoverview’, p. 138–150. median ages of 33 years or more. There was also a large difference between the medianCapital cities ages of new residents (29 years) and people who had left a capital city and moved to a non-According to the 2006 Census, the flow of new metropolitan area or different capital cityresidents into Australia’s capital cities was (34 years).larger than the flows into other areas(1.4 million new residents compared with Reflecting the range of educationalbetween 150,000 and 564,000 in the other opportunities available in capital cities, newareas). However, new residents had a smaller residents aged 15 years and over had higherimpact on the composition of capital cities: participation in education than longer-termthey represented 12% of the usual resident residents (27% compared with 14%).population of the capital cities in 2006, Education thus emerges as one factorcompared with 21% or more in the other associated with migration to capital cities.geographic areas. Supporting this, a higher proportion of new residents in capital cities were students (27%)Capital cities are the main entry points for than in the other geographic areas (10% tomigrants to Australia, and reflecting this, new 22%). The high proportion of students amongresidents who were overseas in 2001 made up new residents from overseas (34%)half of all new residents in capital cities. Almost contributed to this pattern, although newthree quarters of new residents from overseas residents from non-metropolitan areas werewere recent arrivals (see Glossary) and one also more likely to be studying than newquarter were Australian residents who were residents in the other geographic areas.overseas in 2001 and had since returned toAustralia.New residents to capital cities: location in Age profile of residents of capital cities2001 % New resident from 25 other capital city Other capital city New resident from 20 Coastal centre non-metropolitan area Inland centre 15 New resident from overseas Longer-term residentCountry coastal area 10 Country inland area 5 Overseas 0 5–9 25–29 45–49 65–69 85 and over 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Age %_______________________________________________________________________________________26 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…On the moveThe high participation of new residents in cities lived in higher income households (40%).education in capital cities meant that their In contrast, high proportions of new residentslabour force participation was slightly lower from non-metropolitan areas (45%), overseasthan longer-term residents (73% compared (40%) and longer-term residents (43%) workedwith 77% in the 15–64 year age group). Lower in low skilled occupations and they were lesslabour force participation among new likely to live in higher income households.residents from overseas (67%) influenced thelower overall participation of new residents. New residents in capital cities were more likely to live in rental accommodation than newHowever, new residents from other capital residents in the other geographic regions (59%cities had higher labour force participation compared with 49% or less). This is likely tothan longer-term residents (81% compared reflect both the high proportion of studentswith 77%). They were a slightly older group among new residents and their younger agethan new residents from non-metropolitan profile, and the higher cost of buying a houseareas, with a lower proportion of students in capital cities than in other areas. In addition,(17%). They appeared to be doing well in the people who make temporary moves to citieslabour market: half of employed new residents for education or work may prefer rentalfrom other capital cities were Managers or accommodation. For more information seeProfessionals. Associated with this, a high ‘Housing across Brisbane and Melbourne cityproportion of new residents from other capital rings’, p. 224-232.Characteristics of new and longer-term residents: capital cities and coastal centres New residents From From non- capital metropolitan Longer-term cities areas Total(a) residents Capital city Population ’000 254.0 419.9 1 351.5 9 561.5 Proportion of people who… are students(b) % 17.2 23.0 27.5 13.6 are in the labour force(c) % 81.4 77.8 72.9 76.8 are in low skilled occupations(d) % 31.6 44.6 39.7 43.2 live in lower income households(e) % 10.7 17.4 14.5 17.9 live in higher income households(e) % 40.1 23.8 28.0 24.2 Coastal centre Population ’000 198.9 284.9 563.5 1 781.8 Proportion of people who… are students(b) % 12.4 15.9 15.9 11.3 are in the labour force(c) % 74.0 75.7 74.3 74.6 are in low skilled occupations(d) % 40.6 47.8 44.3 48.3 live in lower income households(e) % 20.1 21.8 20.2 24.7 live in higher income households(e) % 20.8 16.8 18.7 15.2 (a) Includes new residents who were overseas in 2001. (b) People aged 15 years and over. (c) People aged 15 to 64 years. (d) Employed people. See Glossary for definition of low skilled occupation. (e) People in private households. See Glossary for definition of lower income and higher income households._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 27
    • Population…On the moveNew residents to coastal centres: location Age profile of residents of coastal centresin 2001 % New resident from capital city 20 New resident from non-metropolitan area Capital city Longer-term resident 15Other coastal centre Inland centre 10Country coastal area 5 Country inland area Overseas 0 5–9 25–29 45–49 65–69 85 and over 0 10 20 30 40 Age % Around 21% of new residents who moved fromCoastal centres non-metropolitan areas were aged 15–24 years, drawn to coastal centres for both work andMigration flows to coastal areas, particularly to study. A high proportion of this group workedthe population centres, such as the Gold Coast in the Retail trade, Accommodation and food(Qld) or Bunbury (WA), are an important services or Construction industries (49%).feature of migration within Australia. According Almost as many were students (45%). Newto the 2006 Census, 564,000 people moved to a residents from capital cities tended to be older,coastal centre from 2001 to 2006. Of new with 21% in the 25–34 year age group. Healthresidents in coastal centres, 35% lived in a care and social assistance and Publiccapital city in 2001, 19% in other coastal administration and safety were the maincentres and 17% in country coastal areas. industries of employment of this group (12% and 11% respectively). Many coastal centres,While capital cities attracted mostly young new particularly those in Queensland and Westernresidents, coastal centres attracted both young Australia, have experienced relatively fastand older migrants. New residents had a population growth.5 Associated expansion inmedian age of 33 years, similar to the median employment opportunities in key industriesage of people who had left a coastal centre and has attracted more people to these areas.moved to a different coastal centre orgeographic area (32 years). The age structureof new residents was notably different to Inland centreslonger-term residents. This, in combination Between 2001 and 2006, the flow of peoplewith the high proportion of the population into inland centres, such as Bendigo orwho were new residents (24%), meant that Tamworth, was smaller (150,000) than flows tonew residents had an impact on the population other regions. This was consistent with thecomposition of coastal centres. small total population of inland centres (756,000) compared with other areasOlder people represented a larger share of all described in this article.new residents in coastal centres than in capitalcities—24% were 50 years and over compared New residents represented 21% of thewith 12% of new residents in capital cities. A population of inland centres. Reflecting arelatively large proportion of new residents in general trend in the movement of populationcoastal centres who moved from capital cities from surrounding areas to urban areas, 37% ofwere in the early retirement age group new residents in inland centres(55–64 years) compared with the age profile of (55,000 people) lived in country inland areas innew residents in capital cities. This reflects the 2001. This was a comparatively large share ofmany people who relocate to coastal centres the new residents, considering the smallon retirement. proportion of Australians who lived in these areas (10% in 2006)._______________________________________________________________________________________28 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…On the moveNew residents to inland centres: location Age profile of inland centresin 2001 % New resident from capital city 20 New resident from non-metropolitan area Capital city Longer-term resident 15 Coastal centre Other inland centre 10Country coastal area 5 Country inland area Overseas 0 5–9 25–29 45–49 65–69 85 and over 0 10 20 30 40 Age %New residents in inland centres had a youngage profile (median age of 29 years), similar to Country coastal areasthe age profile of new residents in capital The characteristics of new residents whocities. This can be attributed to both the large moved to country coastal areas were similar toflow of young people from non-metropolitan those who moved to country inland areas,areas, and the relatively small flow of older though they were quite different to newpeople moving to inland centres, compared residents in capital cities and inland and coastalwith the flow of older people moving to coastal centres. Around 351,000 people were newareas. New residents had a similar age profile residents in country coastal areas in 2006. Newto the people who had left an inland centre residents came mainly from capital citiesand moved elsewhere: both groups had a (42%), and coastal centres (21%). Just overmedian age of 29 years. 23% of all people in country coastal areas were new residents.All of the inland centres have universitycampuses or vocational education facilities, Around 41% of new residents in countryand as in capital cities, these attracted a coastal areas lived in families with childrenrelatively large flow of students, especially from under 15, similar to those in country inlandnon-metropolitan areas. One fifth of new areas (43%) but higher than those in capitalresidents (15 and over) were students, and half cities (37%), making this a distinctive aspect ofof these students were young people (15–24) migration to country areas.who had moved from a non-metropolitan area. Movement of older people is anotherNew and longer-term residents in inland distinctive aspect of migration to countrycentres had similar labour force participation coastal areas. A higher proportion of new(75% and 76% respectively). Employed new residents in country coastal areas than those inresidents most commonly worked in Health other areas were older ‘sea changers’, that iscare and social assistance or Public people of early retirement age (55–64 years)administration and safety (both 12%), while a who previously lived in a capital city. As alarge group of employed longer-term residents result, the median age of new residents inworked in Retail trade (14%). An exception was country coastal areas was 37 years, the highestKalgoorlie, where 25% of new residents and of new residents in any of the geographic20% of longer-term residents worked in the areas. People who had left a country coastalMining industry. area and moved to a different country coastalNew residents to country coastal areas:location in 2001 Age profile of country coastal areas % New resident from capital city Capital city 20 New resident from non-metropolitan area Longer-term resident Coastal centre 15 Inland centreOther country coastal area 10 Country inland area 5 Overseas 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 5–9 25–29 45–49 65–69 85 and over % Age_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 29
    • Population…On the moveCharacteristics of new and longer-term residents: inland centres and country areas New residents From From non- capital metropolitan Longer-term cities areas Total(a) residents Inland centre Population ’000 47.8 88.4 150.4 550.1 Proportion of people who… are students(b) % 19.0 22.7 22.3 12.2 are in the labour force(c) % 77.2 74.4 74.7 76.3 are in low skilled occupations(d) % 36.4 47.0 42.7 48.5 live in lower income households(e) % 17.2 22.0 19.8 23.3 live in higher income households(e) % 24.8 15.4 19.2 14.6 Country coastal area Population ’000 146.3 181.5 351.5 1 134.6 Proportion of people who… are students(b) % 9.0 10.6 10.2 10.1 are in the labour force(c) % 68.7 69.9 69.6 72.3 are in low skilled occupations(d) % 39.7 46.0 42.7 47.7 live in lower income households(e) % 26.0 26.9 25.8 30.1 live in higher income households(e) % 15.4 13.8 15.1 10.8 Country inland area Population ’000 130.1 202.4 355.3 1 286.4 Proportion of people who… are students(b) % 10.4 11.8 11.6 9.7 are in the labour force(c) % 72.3 72.9 72.8 74.8 are in low skilled occupations(d) % 39.9 45.1 42.8 45.7 live in lower income households(e) % 23.7 24.4 23.5 28.1 live in higher income households(e) % 17.7 15.9 17.2 11.9 (a) Includes new residents who were overseas in 2001. (b) People aged 15 years and over. (c) People aged 15 to 64 years. (d) Employed people. See Glossary for definition of low skilled occupation. (e) People in private households. See Glossary for definition of lower income and higher income households._______________________________________________________________________________________30 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Population…On the moveor geographic area were younger on averagethan new residents (median age of 32 years Country inland areascompared with 37 years). In contrast with A large group of people moved to countryother geographic areas, new residents from inland areas between 2001 and 2006 (355,000).non-metropolitan areas and those from capital Even so, many country inland areascities had a similar age profile. experienced population decline in this period.6 Although the largest group of new residents inConsistent with the presence of retired people, country inland areas lived in a capital city innew residents in country coastal areas were 2001 (37%), almost one quarter moved frommore likely to live in a lower income other country inland areas (23%). This washousehold than new residents in other comparatively high, considering how fewgeographic areas (26% compared with 15% to Australians lived in these areas (10% in 2006),24%). Even so, they were more likely than new and suggests substantial population churnresidents in the other areas to live in a house within country inland areas. Such churn maythat was owned outright or with a mortgage be related to a number of factors. Long-term(62% compared with 41% to 57%). This was restructuring of the agricultural industry hasinfluenced by the very high proportion of new led to movement of people with specialisedresidents aged 55–64 living in a home owned skills needed for work available in countryoutright or with a mortgage, particularly those inland areas. Further, drought has had anfrom capital cities (86%)—a larger proportion impact on employment in certain areas. Inof new residents in country coastal areas than addition, there has been substantial growth inin other areas. Many new residents may have employment opportunities in mining in someretired, sold their homes in other areas and country inland areas.bought property on the coast. Their assets mayhave allowed them to buy a home while having Families with children are an important part oflower household income. the picture of migration into country inland areas. Almost 43% of new residents in theseA large group of new residents aged 55–64 areas lived in a family with children under 15,were retirees, with 57% not in the labour force the highest of any geographic area.compared with 45% of longer-term residents.This contributed to the overall lower labour New residents to country inland areas had aforce participation among new residents than median age of 34 years, while people who hadlonger-term residents. left and moved to a different country inland or geographic area had a median age of 30 years.Health care and social assistance and Retail New residents from capital cities were slightlytrade were the most common industries of older on average than new residents fromemployment for new residents to country non-metropolitan areas (median ages ofcoastal areas (both 11% of employed new 35 years and 33 years respectively). This can beresidents). In contrast, Agriculture, forestry partly attributed to the higher proportion ofand fishing and Retail trade were the most new residents from capital cities in the earlycommon industries of employment for longer- retirement age group (55–64 years), perhapsterm residents (both 12%). Longer-term representing rural ‘tree changers’, similar toresidents were twice as likely as new residents coastal ‘sea changers’. Compared with newto work in Agriculture, forestry and fishing. residents, longer-term residents in country inland areas had a much older age profile, with a median age of 44 years.New residents to country inland areas: Age profile: country inland areaslocation in 2001 % New resident from capital city 20 New resident from non-metropolitan area Capital city Longer-term resident 15 Coastal centre Inland centre 10 Country coastal area 5Other country inland area Overseas 0 5–9 25–29 45–49 65–69 85 and over 0 10 20 30 40 Age %_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 31
    • Population…On the moveIn country inland areas a similar proportion ofnew residents and longer-term residents were Endnoteslabour force participants (73% compared with 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003, ‘Youth75%). However, a higher proportion of new migration in Australia’ in Australian Social Trendsresidents aged 45–64 were not in the labour 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.force (35% compared with 26% of longer-termresidents). Of those who were employed, 2 Of the Canberra/Queanbeyan statistical district,Agriculture, forestry and fishing was the most only the Queanbeyan Statistical Subdivision is included as an inland centre.common industry of employment for bothlonger-term residents and new residents from 3 ABS 2002, ‘Searching for work’ in Australiannon-metropolitan areas, although longer-term Social Trends 2002, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.residents were more likely to work in this field(20% compared with 14%). The most common 4 Household income is equivalised gross householdindustry of employment for new residents income. For details of the household incomefrom capital cities was Health care and social groups used see the Glossary.assistance (10%). In Western Australia, Miningwas a major industry of employment for all 5 ABS 2008, Regional Population Growth,new residents (15% compared with 6% of Australia, 2006–07, cat. no. 3218.0, ABS, Canberra.longer-term residents). 6 ABS 2007, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 1996 to 2006, cat. no. 3218.0, ABS, Canberra._______________________________________________________________________________________32 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Overview 34Second generation Australians 46Religion across the generations 54
    • Cultural diversity overview Country of birth, capital city and non- capital city balance In 2006, 44% of Australians were either % Overseas-born 100 born overseas or had at Australian-born least one overseas-born 80 parent. 60 40 20Almost a quarter of Australias population was 0born overseas. With people from over 200 Capital city Balancecountries1, Australia has a diverse mix ofcultures. The populations diversity provides arich variety of Indigenous and non-Indigenouslanguages, religions, beliefs, traditions, andactivities. First Australians In 2006, 2.4% of the population (or 455,000As with the population itself, this diversity people) were Indigenous Australians. Of these,tends to be concentrated in capital cities. 89.6% were Aboriginal, 6.5% were Torres StraitMigrants are drawn to Australias urbanised Islander and 3.9% were both Aboriginal andareas: the 2006 Census showed four fifths of Torres Strait Islander. Further analysis ofAustralias overseas-born population lived in census data relating to Indigenous peoples incapital cities, compared with three fifths of Australia can be found in: Populationpeople born in Australia. Australia’s Indigenous Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Straitpopulation was distributed differently, with Islander Australians, 2006, ABS cat. no.less than one third living in capital cities. 4713.0.Other cultural indicators further highlight thecontrast between Australias urban and rural Asians younger, but moreresidents. In 2006, 90% of people affiliated witha non-Christian religion lived in a capital city. EuropeansSimilarly, 88% of people who spoke a language Australia has many migratory links with the restother than English at home also lived in a of the world. At the time of the 2006 Census,capital city. Of the capital cities, Sydney and Australia was home to 4.4 million overseas-Perth had the highest proportions of overseas- born people, making up one quarter of allborn residents—over one third each. Hobart Australian residents. A furtherhad the lowest proportion of overseas-born one fifth of the population had at least oneAustralians (13%). parent born overseas.This chapter describes the ethnic and cultural Almost three quarters of the overseas-borndimensions of the Australian population and population were born either in Europethe social characteristics of particular migrant (accounting for 47%, or 2.1 million) or Asia2and ancestry groups. Australia’s Indigenous (27%, or 1.2 million). Half of those peoplepopulation, which contributes significantly to born in Europe were from the Unitedthe country’s cultural diversity, is not closely Kingdom, making it the most commonanalysed in this chapter. birthplace (accounting for 24% of the total overseas-born population). New Zealand, the next most common country of birth,_______________________________________________________________________________________34 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural diversity…overviewaccounted for 9% of the overseas-bornpopulation, followed by China and Italy(around 5% each). In 2006, 25% of the Asian- born population hadSignificant differences in the age profiles ofbirthplace groups are linked to historical arrived after 2001,migration policies and migratory patterns. compared with only 7% ofThere is a clear link between time spent in the European-bornAustralia and the median age of the groups.While the median age of those born in population.European countries was 56 years, for thoseborn in Asian countries it was 37 years.Among the top 10 countries of birth, people were born in Europe, compared to only 22% ofborn in Italy were the oldest, with half of this the recently arrived population. Conversely,group (or 98,000 people) aged 66 or over, and Asian-born people represented only 24% ofpeople born in India were the youngest (half longer-standing migrants, but accounted foraged 35 or younger). Differences in the age 44% of all recent arrivals.profiles of birthplace groups help to explainvariations in their socioeconomic status, in Country of birth groups which increased theterms of labour force participation rates, most between 1996 and 2006 were Newunemployment rates and educational Zealand (by around 98,000 people), Chinaattainment. Such characteristics are themselves (96,000) and India (70,000). In contrast,associated with age. European country of birth groups declined sharply over the same period—Italy byWithin some birthplace groups there are large 39,000 people, United Kingdom by 35,000, anddifferences in the number of men and women Greece by 17,000. In fact, since 1996, the 10living in Australia. The groups with the fewest countries of birth which reduced the most inmen relative to women3 included Japan, (with number were all European countries. Thesea sex ratio of 51—that is, 51 Japanese-born population decreases can be attributed tomen for every 100 Japanese-born women in deaths, and low current migration levelsAustralia), Thailand (52), and the Philippines replenishing the group.(55). Birthplace groups with the highest sexratios in Australia were Bangladesh (154), Over time, the changing focus of AustraliasPakistan (134), and India (123). migration program has caused fluctuations in the number of arrivals born in particularThe overseas-born population in Australia is countries. However, the contrast betweenincreasing in number as well as diversity. recent and longer-standing migrants extendsBetween 1996 and 2006, it grew by 13% (from beyond birthplace. There are clear differences3.9 million to 4.4 million people) and featured in ancestry, religious affiliation, and proficiencya major increase in Asian immigration. In 2006, in spoken English, as well as age distribution,over half (52%) of all longer-standing migrants employment status and income.Countries of birth with oldest and Countries of birth with highest and lowestyoungest populations(a) sex ratios(a) Latvia Bangladesh Slovenia Pakistan Italy India Hungary Israel Greece Afghanistan Overseas-born Australian-born Australian-born Overseas-born Bangladesh Ukraine Thailand Russian Federation Taiwan Philippines Afghanistan Thailand Sudan Japan 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Median age Males per 100 females(a) Populations with more than 5,000 people. (a) Populations with more than 5,000 people._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 35
    • Cultural diversity…overview How the census measures cultural background The 2006 Census asked several questions which helped to provide a picture of Australias cultural profile. A key question asked was the individuals country of birth. For those born overseas, their year of arrival in Australia was also collected, and their country of birth provides a useful indication of a persons likely ethnic or cultural background. However, for some overseas-born people their country of birth may be different from their ethnicity, such as people of Chinese ethnicity born in Malaysia, or people of Indian ethnicity born in England. Furthermore, for Australian-born residents, additional information is needed to uncover their diverse ethnic or cultural backgrounds, arising from their parents’ or grandparents’ migration to Australia. The census therefore asked people to identify their two main ancestries, that is; the ethnic or country groups from which their parents or grandparents came. It also asked people to specify whether or not they were Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The census also asked which language people spoke at home, and the religion they were affiliated with. Taken together, the data on country of birth, ancestry, language and religion provide a useful picture of Australias cultural diversity.Top 10 countries of birth, selected characteristics Proportion of Persons overseas-born Median age Sex ratio(a) Country of birth 000 % years United Kingdom 1 038.2 23.5 53.7 100.6 New Zealand 389.5 8.8 39.5 101.8 China(b) 206.6 4.7 39.2 82.3 Italy 199.1 4.5 65.7 107.2 Viet Nam 159.9 3.6 41.0 89.0 India 147.1 3.3 35.8 123.2 Philippines 120.5 2.7 40.4 54.8 Greece 110.0 2.5 63.3 98.3 Germany 106.5 2.4 59.2 91.8 South Africa 104.1 2.4 38.4 96.1 Born elsewhere overseas 1 834.6 41.5 44.0 95.1 Total overseas-born 4 416.0 100.0 46.8 96.0 (a) Number of males per 100 females. (b) Excludes Special Administrative Regions and Taiwan Province.European arrivals down despite The large size of these groups in AustraliaUnited Kingdom dominance reflects the constant inflow of United Kingdom and New Zealand-born arrivals over time:Of people who arrived in Australia between recent arrivals accounted for only 9% of the2002 and 2006, 6 of the 10 most common total United Kingdom-born population inbirthplaces were Asian countries. Nevertheless, Australia, and 18% of the New Zealand-bornthe United Kingdom was the main source of population. In contrast, the migration patternrecent arrivals, supplying 14% of all recent for the Asian-born population has shown aarrivals (or 92,000 people), followed by New more recent surge in arrivals. The next twoZealand (10% or 68,000 people). largest recent arrival groups, the Chinese and Indian-born, accounted for 32% and 38% of their respective population groups in Australia._______________________________________________________________________________________36 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural diversity…overviewRegion of birthplace, recent(a) andlonger-standing(b) overseas-born arrivals Recent arrivals are people who migrated to Australia in the 5 years before the 2006 Census, ie. 2002 to 2006 inclusive. % Recent arrivals60 Longer-standing migrants Longer-standing migrants are people who migrated to Australia before 2002.4020 born population arrived (excluding those born 0 in the UK). The countries of birth with the Asia(c) Europe Oceania and Other Antarctica overseas born highest proportions of longer-standing(a) Arrived between 2002 and 2006. migrants were Italy, Greece and Malta, with(b) Arrived before 2002. around 99% of their populations having arrived(c) Comprises North-East Asia, South-East Asia and in Australia before 2002. The people fromSouthern and Central Asia. these, and other European countries, brought different languages, customs and experiences which are now established in manyAustralias Humanitarian Program enables entry communities across Australia.into the country for people who are subject topersecution or discrimination amounting to More working age recent arrivalsgross violation of human rights and needingresettlement. A number of Australias recent Overall, recent arrivals are younger than botharrivals were born in countries affected by war longer-standing migrants, and the Australian-and political unrest. Over 73% (or around born population (see Age and sex distribution13,000) of Australian residents born in Sudan graphs on p. 38). In 2006, people aged 20–39arrived in 2002 or later. Similarly, a high accounted for over half of all recent arrivalsproportion of those born in Zimbabwe (42% or (54%), but only 23% of longer-standing8,000), Afghanistan (36% or 6,000), and Iraq migrants, and 28% of the Australian-born(29%, or 9,000) arrived in 2002 or later. population.Many large birthplace groups in Australia The age profiles of Australias recent andconsist almost entirely of longer-standing longer-term arrival groups both differ bymigrants. These groups came in response to country of birth. For example, over a quarter ofAustralias migration program which, following the recent arrivals born in the Unitedthe Second World War, sought to rapidly Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand wereexpand the countrys population. aged under 15, compared with only 6.6% of the recently arrived Chinese-born population.Most respondents to the 2006 Census who These differences reflect the variety of reasonsarrived in Australia between 1950 and 1970 associated with moving to Australia.were born in Europe (87%). In fact, this wasthe period when most (53%) of the European-Population change for selected countries of birth, 1996–2006% change100 75 50 25 0–25 India South China New United Greece Italy Poland Africa Zealand Kingdom_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 37
    • Cultural diversity…overviewSelected countries of birth of recent arrivals and longer-standing migrants Longer-standing Recent arrivals migrants Country of birth 000 % 000 % United Kingdom 92.4 14.2 896.6 25.2 New Zealand 67.7 10.4 298.7 8.4 China 62.0 9.5 134.3 3.8 India 54.1 8.3 87.6 2.5 South Africa 26.3 4.0 74.5 2.1 Malaysia 20.5 3.2 68.3 1.9 Philippines 20.1 3.1 95.5 2.7 Korea, Republic of (South) 18.3 2.8 29.5 0.8 United States of America 15.5 2.4 43.3 1.2 Indonesia 14.4 2.2 34.3 1.0 Born elsewhere overseas 258.1 39.7 1 791.4 50.4 Total 649.4 100.0 3 554.4 100.0Chinese-born recent arrivals were largely fastest growing stream (compared to thestudents and many had not yet started a family. Family, and Special Eligibility streams, as wellTwo thirds were aged 20–39 years, and of as the Humanitarian Program). Duringthese, 65% were students and 61% were 1996–97, the Skill Stream accounted forunmarried. This contrasts with Australia’s approximately 23% of all migrants, and byoverall 20–39 year old population, of which 2006–07 this had increased to 43%.416% were students, and 45% were unmarried. During the first few years of settlement, manyOver the past decade, the Governments focus migrants experience difficulty getting work. Aton attracting skilled migrants has resulted in an the time of the 2006 Census, theinflux of working age overseas arrivals. Since unemployment rate5 was 11.8% for recentthe late 1990s, the Skill Stream of Australias arrivals and 5.3% for longer-standing migrants.Migration Program has been the largest and The birthplace groups with the highestAge and sex distribution: overseas-born groups and Australian-born Age group (years) Age group (years) 85+ 85+ Recent arrivals Longer-standing 80–84 80–84 migrants 75–79 75–79 Australian born Australian born 70–74 70–74 65–69 65–69 60–64 60–64 55–59 55–59 50–54 50–54 45–49 45–49 40–44 40–44 35–39 35–39 30–34 30–34 25–29 25–29 20–24 20–24 1 9 5–1 1 9 5–1 1 4 0–1 1 4 0–1 5–9 5–9 0–4 0–4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Males Females Males Females_______________________________________________________________________________________38 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural diversity…overviewunemployment rates were Sudan (28.7%), Iraq ancestry question, 31% reported two ancestries(22.3%), and Afghanistan (17.8%). These (the census form asked for only twocountries, which have all been affected by war, ancestries).feature high proportions of recently arrivedpeople, many of whom arrived through the Responses to the ancestry question in theHumanitarian Program. People born in Ireland census give a richer picture of Australiasand Italy had the lowest unemployment rates cultural background. For example, although(3.3% and 3.5% respectively). 76% of the population were born in Australia, only 37% reported Australian ancestry. ThisCitizenship rises with age lower figure may be partly explained by the high proportion of people with parents andand time grandparents born overseas. Around two thirds of the Australian ancestry group did not state aAt the time of the 2006 Census, 68% of second ancestry.Australias overseas-born residents indicatedthey held Australian citizenship. The From the beginning of the colonial period,proportion of Australians with citizenship people from the United Kingdom and Irelandincreases with the length of time spent in have made up a large majority of arrivals toAustralia, as well as with age. Of all people who Australia. This long term presence is reflectedhad arrived before 1994, 82% were citizens, by the high numbers of people who identifiedcompared to 54% of people who had arrived with the following ancestries: English (6.3during 1999–2000 and 37% of those who had million), Irish (1.8 million), and Scottish (1.5arrived during 2001–02. million).Similarly, 80% of the overseas-born population In 2006, the leading ancestries other thanwho were aged 50 and over were Australian Australian, British and Irish reflected the majorcitizens, compared with 47% of those aged waves of migration after the Second World18–29 and 58% of those aged 30–39 years. War. These groups ranged in number from theThese similarities are largely explained by the 852,000 people who reported Italian ancestryclose connection between age and time spent to the 164,000 who reported Polish ancestry.in Australia (i.e. the older overseas-born They included ancestries associated withpopulation have been in Australia for longer earlier waves of post-war immigration, such asperiods of time). German (812,000) and more recent immigration, such as Indian (235,000). FirstIn 2006, Australias Greek and Croatian-born and second generation Australians made up apopulations had the highest Australian substantial majority of all these groups exceptcitizenship rates at 97% and 96% respectively.3 German ancestry. As recorded in the previousThis reflects their relatively old ages and census, those identifying with Germanlengthy periods of time spent in Australia. ancestry were mostly third-plus generation Australians (62% in 2006).The birthplace with the lowest citizenship ratewas Japan, with only 15% of Japanese-bornresidents holding Australian citizenship. Ofthose born in Japan, half were aged33 or under, and half arrived in Australia after First generation Australians are people1999. living in Australia who were born overseas. In 2006, there were 4.4 million firstLow citizenship rates may reflect source generation Australians (24% of thecountry rules regarding dual citizenship, and population).plans for returning after emigration. Second generation Australians are Australian-born people living in Australia,Australia’s close links to with at least one overseas-born parent. InEurope 2006, there were 3.6 million second generation Australians (20% of theIn total, more than 200 ancestries were population).separately identified in the 2006 Census, manyof which were relatively uncommon. The most Third-plus generation Australians arecommon ancestries were Australian (7.4 Australian-born people whose parentsmillion people) and English (6.3 million were both born in Australia. In 2006, therepeople). Of people who responded to the were 10.1 million third-plus generation Australians (56% of the population)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 39
    • Cultural diversity…overviewTop 10 ancestries by generation Generations in Australia Proportion First Second Third-plus Also stated of total generation generation generation another Persons(a) population Australians Australians Australians ancestry Ancestry 000 % % % % % Australian 7 371.8 37.1 1.8 17.3 80.9 34.9 English 6 283.6 31.6 19.3 21.2 59.5 51.6 Irish 1 803.7 9.1 12.5 14.0 73.5 80.1 Scottish 1 501.2 7.6 18.1 20.7 61.2 77.3 Italian 852.4 4.3 27.1 42.3 30.6 41.2 German 811.5 4.1 18.1 20.4 61.5 74.1 Chinese 669.9 3.4 74.2 21.0 4.8 16.9 Greek 365.2 1.8 34.4 45.6 20.0 23.4 Dutch 310.1 1.6 34.2 44.4 21.4 53.6 Indian 234.7 1.2 77.6 20.5 2.0 17.5 (a) Table presents collective responses to ancestry question. As some people stated two ancestries, the total persons for all ancestries exceed Australias total population.The 2006 Census showed most people of most 4.7% stated a second ancestry). Around 87% ofancestries were born either in the country people who stated Korean ancestry were bornassociated with that ancestry or Australia. For overseas, and of these, only 10% arrived beforeexample, of the people stating Italian ancestry, 1985.73% were born in Australia, and 23% were bornin Italy, and the remaining 4% born in othercountries. However, of people of Chinese Mostly Christian, but non-ancestry, 44% were born in countries other Christians on the risethan Australia and China; and of people ofIndian ancestry 28% were born in countries The 2006 Census revealed that Australianother than Australia and India. society is growing in religious diversity, and is no longer as strongly affiliated to traditionalPeople of Irish and Scottish ancestries were religions. Even so, in 2006, Christianity was thethe most likely to state a second ancestry6, with most common religion of those born in80% of people of Irish ancestry also stating a Australia and overseas (69% and 61%second ancestry. Both groups had high respectively). Australias changing migrationproportions of third-plus generation stream has influenced the countrys religiousAustralians (accounting for 73% of all who profile. The ongoing growth in arrivals fromstated Irish ancestry and 61% for the Scottish). Asia has resulted in large increases in theThis ancestral depth can be attributed to the number of Buddhists, Muslims, and Hindus. Inlength of time since the first Irish and Scottish 2006, these three faiths collectively accountedmigrants arrived, as well as the extent to which for 907,000 affiliates compared to 468,000 athey married people from different decade earlier in 1996.backgrounds. Secularisation is another emerging trend. SinceThe next most likely ancestries to occur in the 1971 Census first introduced No Religioncombination with another ancestry were as an option, the group has grown from 6.7%people of Norwegian (75%), German (74%) of the population to 18.7% in 2006. This shift isand Danish (74%) ancestry. These people were largely the result of younger members of thelargely third-plus generation Australians (46%, population being more likely to state no62% and 52% respectively). religion than older people. In 2006, 7.9% of Australians aged 65 and over stated NoPeople of non-European ancestries were less Religion, compared to 23.5% of thoselikely to state a second ancestry. The least aged 15–34.likely were people of Korean ancestry (only_______________________________________________________________________________________40 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural diversity…overview The religion question Intermarriage reflects migration The question asking people to report their At the time of the 2006 Census, in 59% of religion has been included in every all couple relationships7 (both registered national census. In 1911 and 1921 an and social marriages), both the man and instruction was included indicating that the woman were born in Australia. In the people could object to state their religion. remaining 41% of relationships, one or both members of the couple were born From 1933, the voluntary nature of the overseas. religion question has been emphasised on the form. In 2006, 11% did not respond. Overseas-born partners of Australian-born The question does not measure the men and women were most likely born in respondents level of commitment to their the two most common overseas countries religion or their active involvement. of birth—the United Kingdom and New Participation in religious groups is Zealand. Of the overseas-born population collected in another Australian Bureau of who were in couple relationships with Statistics (ABS) survey, the General Social Australian-born people, 41% of the men, Survey, cat. no. 4159.0. and 38% of the women, were born in the United Kingdom. Australian-born men and women were similarly represented in relationships with New Zealanders (accounting for 11% of each of the sexesCatholicism stable among overseas-born choices).shrinking denominations Italy was the third most common birthplace of men partnered withIn every census most Australians have reported Australian-born women (23,700 Italianan affiliation with Christianity—in 2006, this men). However, Australian-born men, withmajority was 12.7 million people. However, only 8,100 Italian-born wives, were moreaffiliation to Christianity has fallen from 96% in likely to find a life partner from1911 to 64% in 2006. somewhere else. For example, 17,000 Australian men were in a coupleOver this period, the two most common relationship with a Philippines-borndenominations, Catholic and Anglican, woman. In comparison, only 1,800experienced notably different change. Between Australian-born women were in a couple1911 and 2006, Catholics steadily grew from relationship with a Philippines-born man.22% to 26% of the population, but theproportion of Anglicans declined from 38% to In 2006, almost twice as many Australian-19%. These changes in Australias Christian born women as men were with partnersprofile are due in part to the decline in the born in Southern and Eastern Europeproportion of migrants coming from the (59,900 to 30,600). Meanwhile, three timesUnited Kingdom, and the increase from as many Australian-born men than womencountries with predominantly Catholic had partners born in South-East andpopulations. North-East Asia (51,200 to 15,100). It should be noted that birthplace is only oneMore recently, the sizes of Christian cultural background measure and partnersdenominations have fluctuated to varying born in different countries commonlydegrees. Between 1996 and 2006, Catholicism share similar ancestries.grew by 328,000 to 5.1 million. Over the sametime, the next most common Christiandenominations, Anglican, Uniting, andPresbyterian and Reformed, decreased by463,000, leaving 5.4 million people affiliatedwith these denominations in 2006. It is unclearwhether the decline is the result of an ageinggroup of affiliates, or changing alliances.However, some smaller Christiandenominations experienced large growth overthis period. For example, those identifyingwith Pentecostal grew by 26% to around220,000 since 1996._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 41
    • Cultural diversity…overviewChange in religious affiliations, 1996–2006 Change between Proportion born Population in 2006 1996–2006 overseas Religion ‘000 % % % Christian 12 685.8 63.9 0.8 21.7 Catholic 5 126.9 25.8 6.8 23.4 Anglican 3 718.2 18.7 –4.7 16.7 Uniting Church 1 135.4 5.7 –14.9 10.2 Presbyterian and Reformed 596.7 3.0 –11.7 24.1 Eastern Orthodox 544.2 2.7 9.5 46.6 Baptist 316.7 1.6 7.3 24.3 Lutheran 251.1 1.3 0.4 26.0 Pentecostal 219.7 1.1 25.7 27.6 Other Christian 776.9 3.9 19.0 28.5 Non-Christian 1 105.1 5.6 79.3 65.3 Buddhism 418.8 2.1 109.6 70.8 Islam 340.4 1.7 69.4 60.7 Hinduism 148.1 0.7 120.2 83.6 Judaism 88.8 0.4 11.3 50.7 Other non-Christian 109.0 0.5 58.8 45.2 No Religion 3 706.6 18.7 25.7 20.9 Total(a) 19 855.3 100.0 11.8 23.9 (a) Total includes inadequately described religions and people who did not state a religion.Non-Christian religions growing Broad trends in religion, 1946–2006fast % AnglicanRecent migration, particularly from Asia and 50 Catholicthe Middle East, has led to high growth in the Other Christian 40 Non-Christian religionmain non-Christian religions. Between 1996 No religionand 2006, the number of people affiliated with 30non-Christian faiths increased from around 0.6 20million to 1.1 million, and accounted for 5.6%of the total population in 2006 (up from 3.5% 10in 1996). In 2006, 91% of people affiliated with 0non-Christian religions were either born 1936 1950 1964 1978 1992 2006overseas (66%) or had at least one parent bornoverseas (25%). In comparison, 44% of thetotal population were either born overseas(24%) or had at least one parent bornoverseas (20%). experienced the fastest growth since 1996, more than doubling to 148,000, followed by Buddhism which doubled to 419,000.In 2006, Australia’s three most common non- Australias religious groups are furtherChristian religions were Buddhism (accounting discussed in the article ‘Religion across thefor 2.1% of the population), Islam (1.7%) and generations’, p. 54–58.Hinduism (0.7%). Of these groups, Hinduism_______________________________________________________________________________________42 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural diversity…overview Christian arrivals from non-Christian countries The growth of the main non-Christian religions in Australia has been driven largely by migration. However, in 2006, large proportions of Australian residents, born in predominantly non-Christian countries, identified themselves as Christians. These differences may reflect disproportionate Christian migration from these countries. For example, Indonesia’s religious profile, consisting of 88% Islam and 9% Christian affiliates in 2000, differed markedly from Australia’s 2006 Indonesian-born population which consisted of 17% Islam and 59% Christian affiliates. In 2000, only 9% of Malaysia’s population were Christian; but 43% of Malaysian-born people living in Australia were Christian. Similarly, Indias predominantly Hindu population (81% in 2001) was not reproduced in Australia, with 34% of Indian-born Australian residents stating a Christian religion in the 2006 Census (compared with 2.3% of Indias population).8 Christianity by selected birthplace groups and in home country Census data from selected countries Birthplace group in Australia who Christians are Christian(a) in country8 Census year Country % % India 34.0 2.3 2001 Indonesia 59.0 8.9 2000 Malaysia 43.0 9.1 2000 Sri Lanka 44.2 6.9 2001 (a) 2006 Census dataEnglish dominant had at least one parent born overseas (second generation Australians). Speakers ofamongst many spoken Indigenous languages numbered 50,000 people and comprised 1.7% of all non-Englishlanguages speakers.English is the national language of Australia. In2006, 83% of the population (aged 5 years and The most common non-English language wasover) spoke only English at home while less Italian, with it’s 311,600 speakers accountingthan 1% could not speak English at all. The for 1.8% of the Australian population. This wasability to speak English is a criterion that followed by Greek (1.4%), Cantonese (1.3%),improves the opportunities for migrants to Arabic (1.3%) and Mandarin (1.2%). These fourenter Australia; and in 2006, over half the languages were each spoken at home by moreoverseas-born population spoke English at than 200,000 people.home. The ranking of languages partly reflects theAt the time of the 2006 Census, over 200 number of migrants who arrived from certainlanguages were spoken in Australian homes, countries, as well as the size of their families.reflecting past and current migration patterns, However, not all migrants who speakand to a lesser extent, the variety of languages other than English continue to useIndigenous languages spoken by Aboriginals them at home, nor do their children alwaysand Torres Strait Islanders. Of the 3 million learn the language or continue to speak it. As apeople who spoke a non-English language at result, certain languages have been maintainedhome, 74% were born overseas (first in the home to a greater extent than others.generation Australians) and an additional 21%_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 43
    • Cultural diversity…overviewTop 10 languages spoken at home(a) Proportion Proportion who spoke Proportion of total English born in Persons population very well Australia Language spoken at home 000 % % % English 14 577.7 83.0 .. 84.6 Italian 311.6 1.8 59.5 41.1 Greek 242.7 1.4 62.6 51.0 Cantonese 236.0 1.3 44.5 18.8 Arabic 224.7 1.3 61.4 38.8 Mandarin 211.7 1.2 37.8 9.6 Vietnamese 181.2 1.0 36.6 25.5 Spanish 93.9 0.5 59.8 21.6 German 73.4 0.4 76.8 17.9 Hindi 66.4 0.4 83.0 10.3 (a) Excludes persons aged under 5 years.Consistent with migration trends, between1996 and 2006, the largest increases in Endnoteslanguages other than English were those 1 Includes independent states, inhabited dependentoriginating from Asia. During this time, the territories, and areas of special sovereignty.languages9 with the largest increases wereMandarin and Hindi, which both more than 2 Comprises North-East Asia, South-East Asia anddoubled in speakers to 212,000 and Southern and Central Asia66,000 people respectively. 3 These groups exclude countries of birth with lessReflecting the older ages of their speakers, than 5000 people in Australia.European languages have experienced thelargest decreases. The German speaking 4 Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) 2007, Settler arrivals 2006–07, DIAC,population had the largest proportional Canberra.decrease and, by 2006, had contracted to threequarters of its 1996 size. The Italian language 5 Unemployment rate calculated as people aged 15–had the largest numerical decrease in speakers 64 years who are in the labour force and(down 56,000). unemployed.Some languages are better retained by later 6 Excludes ancestries with populations of less thangenerations than others. For example, third- 5000 people in Australia.plus generation Australians of Greek ancestrywere more likely than their Italian counterparts 7 Does not include same-sex partnerships.to speak a non-English language (28.7% and5.4% respectively). The extent of language 8 United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD),retention may relate to the age people leave Demographic Yearbook: Volume 2b –home, as well as their propensity to marry Ethnocultural characteristics, Table 6, viewed 24 November 2008, <http://unstats.un.org/unsdpeople of other ethnicities. /demographic/products/dyb/dybcens.htm > 9 Of the leading 25 non-English languages spoken in 2006._______________________________________________________________________________________44 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Second generation AustraliansSecond generation Australians were born inAustralia, with one or both of their parents First generation Australians are thoseborn overseas. While some may see themselves who were born overseas and migrated toas Australian only, others may also maintain an Australia. As a group they are notaffiliation with their parent’s former country. homogenous but vary enormously in theirThe census is one of the few Australian Bureau circumstances. Factors such as their age onof Statistics (ABS) collections that can identify arrival, where they came from, thesecond generation Australians, and portray circumstances of their departure fromsome of the diversity within the group. their birthplace, and their length of time in Australia, all contribute to a wide variety ofIn 1996, a major study of the socioeconomic experiences for first generation Australians.outcomes for second generation Australians In 2006 there were 4.4 million firstshowed that ‘… the second generation as a generation Australians.group are doing or have done better thantheir peers who are at least third generation, Second generation Australians arein terms of educational attainment and Australian-born with one or both parentsoccupation status. However, there is also born overseas. Their parents’ experiencesconsiderable diversity in outcomes by origin’.1 of migration and settlement in Australia areThis article further explores the diversity likely to impact on the perceptions andamong second generation Australians and circumstances of second generationcompares their characteristics and Australians. Likewise their ownsocioeconomic status with regard to their experiences of community and acceptance,different ancestries. It also compares second affect their current situation. In 2006 theregeneration Australians with other generations. were 3.6 million second generation Australians.In 2006, there were 3.6 million secondgeneration Australians identified in the census. Third-plus generation Australians are allThis group comprises 25% of Australians. In other Australians—that is, those who werecomparison, 18% of people in 1976 and 20% of born in Australia of Australian-bornpeople in 1996 were second generation. parents. One or more of their grandparents may have been born overseas or they may have several generations ofSecond generation Australians are ancestors born in Australia. This group alsoyounger than other generations includes the descendants of IndigenousThe characteristics of second generation Australians. In 2006 there were 10.1 millionAustralians reflect the timing and composition third-plus generation Australians.of their parents’ migration to Australia.Migration to Australia increased significantly In the 2006 Census 1.7 million Australiansin the 1950s and 1960s, so most second (9%) did not state either their birthplace orgeneration Australians were born after this their parents’ birthplace. Therefore theirperiod. Waves of migration result in migrants generation can not be identified fromwith similar cultural backgrounds arriving in census data.Australia at the same time. As a consequencetheir children also tend to be born around the In this report, the term Australian refers tosame time periods. all people living in Australia for one year or more at the time of the 2006The median age of all second generation Census.Australians was 28 years. Overall they wereyounger than both their first and third-plus_______________________________________________________________________________________46 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansAge distribution of first, second and third-plus generation Australians, 2006 % First generation 10 Second generation Third-plus generation 8 6 4 2 0 0–4 15–19 30–34 45–49 60–64 75–79 90+ Agegeneration counterparts (who had medianages of 46 and 35 years respectively). In 2006, Many second generation71% of the second generation were aged less Australians hadthan 40 years old (that is they were born after1966). British/Irish heritage The 2006 Census did not ask for the country ofSecond generation Australians with only one birth of an individual’s parents, only whetherparent born overseas were younger (median they were born in Australia or overseas.age 26) than their counterparts with both However it did ask individuals to report theirparents born overseas (median age 29). ancestry. They were asked to report up to two ancestries. Ancestry is reported by theThe age distribution of second generation individual and ‘…reflects their own assessmentAustralians echoes the waves of migration. For of their cultural and ethnic background’.2example in 2006, the proportion of secondgeneration children peaked at age 10–14 years In 2006, 65% of second generation Australiansand matched a similar peak in the age of their reported either British/Irish ancestry ormigrant parents at 40–44 years. Australian ancestry or both. Specifically, 46% of second generation Australians reported theirAs well, the age distribution of second ancestry as British/Irish and 35% reported it asgeneration Australians also reflects the peaks Australian. In comparison, 59% of the third-and troughs in the birth rates for all plus generation and 3% of the first generationAustralians. The peaks in age groups for reported having Australian ancestry.second generation Australians are similar tothe peaks in the third-plus generation (inparticular for those aged 0–19 years and 20–39years). However the second generation has no Highest reported ancestries(a)corresponding peak in the Baby Boomer agegroup (because there were not many migrants %in the 1940s or earlier to parent a large second British or Irish ancestry 60 Australian ancestrygeneration of Baby Boomers). 40When the differing age profiles of thegenerations were taken into account, there waslittle difference in living arrangements between 20first, second or third-plus generationAustralians. However, reflecting their younger 0age profile, a lower proportion of second 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationgeneration Australians lived as couples than Australian Australian Australianfirst or third-plus generation Australians. (a) The ancestry question in the census allows up to two responses, so an individual can be counted in more than one category._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 47
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansSelected ancestries(a)(b) reported by first Second generation Australians, selectedand second generation Australians ancestries % First generation Australian ancestry15 Second generation12 Age 0–9 9 10–19 6 20–29 3 30–39 40–49 0 Italian German Greek Dutch 50–59 Lebanese Vietnamese Chinese 60–69 70–79(a) The ancestry question in the census allows up to two 80+responses, so an individual can be counted in more thanone category. 0 10 20 30 40 50(b) Ancestries which were most likely to be reported by % of all second generation Australianssecond generation Australians (excluding British or Irishand Australian).Of second generation Australians with both Italian ancestryparents born overseas, 6% described their Ageancestry as Australian, compared with 57% of 0–9those with only one parent born overseas. 10–19Of all the other ancestries reported by second 20–29generation Australians, Italian was the next 30–39most common (10%). Around 4% of second 40–49generation Australians reported each of 50–59German, Greek, Chinese and Dutch ancestries. 60–69 70–79While for most ancestries, more people 80+identify with that ancestry in the secondgeneration than the first, the reverse is true 0 5 10 15 20when the main wave of immigration from a % of all second generation Australiansregion occurred in the recent past. Forexample, more first generation Australiansreported Chinese and Vietnamese ancestriesthan second generation Australians. Chinese ancestryAncestry responses vary by age Age 0–9The ancestries of second generation 10–19Australians varied by age and reflected the 20–29patterns of migration of their first generationparents. While British/Irish and Australian were 30–39the most common ancestries for every age 40–49group, they were particularly prevalent in the 50–59older ages. The response of Australian ancestry 60–69was lowest for those aged 40–59 years, but 70–79there was resurgence in this response for 0–19 80+year olds in the second generation. Theresurgence was not just among the younger 0 2 4 6 8 10members of that age group where it could % of all second generation Australiansreflect the aspirations of their migrant parents(who are likely to have filled in the census). Ofsecond generation Australians aged 18–19, 39%reported Australian as one of their ancestries.The response of British/Irish ancestry followeda similar pattern except that there was noresurgence in the 0–19 age group._______________________________________________________________________________________48 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansAside from British/Irish and Australian Second Generation Australians whoancestry, the ancestries reported by second spoke a language other than English atgeneration Australians comprised hundreds of home, selected ancestries(a)diverse backgrounds. While they varied insignificance by age, each individual ancestrygenerally only made up a very small proportion Vietnamese Lebaneseof all second generation Australians. Italian, ChineseGreek and German were more common Greekancestries for middle-age second generation CroatianAustralians, peaking in the 40–49 years group Italianfor Italian (20%) and German (7%), and in Polish30–39 years group for Greek (9%). Many of the Malteseparents of these groups entered Australia in Germanthe late 1940s to 1960s, before their second Australiangeneration children were born. Dutch 0 20 40 60 80 100Chinese was a prominent ancestry for the %younger age group, with 9% of 0–9 year old (a) Australian ancestry plus other top second generationsecond generation Australians reported as ancestries (excluding those that mainly speak English).having Chinese ancestry. Chinese migration toAustralia peaked in the mid-1990s, and manysecond generation Australians reportingChinese ancestry were born after this date. The likelihood of speaking a language other than English at home varied significantly byMost second generation ancestry group. Second generation AustraliansAustralians speak English at home with Vietnamese (89%) and Lebanese (71%) ancestry were highly likely to speak a languageLanguage and religion can provide useful other than English in the home, while peopleinsights into the cultural connections of with Dutch (4%) and German (8%) ancestrysecond generation Australians. were far less likely. This pattern can be partly explained by the varying ages of secondOf all second generation Australians, 20% generation Australians from different ancestriesspoke a language other than English at home, and the length of time that some ancestrycompared with 49% of first generation groups have been in Australia. It may alsoAustralians and 2% of third-plus generation reflect the higher importance attached toAustralians. Second generation Australians maintaining language within some ancestrywere more likely to speak a language other groups.than English at home if both parents were bornoverseas (38% compared with 5% if only one Catholic affiliation strong amongparent was born overseas). second generation AustraliansThe most common languages spoken at home Religious affiliation often reflects the ancestriesby second generation Australians included of second generation Australians. It can be a tieItalian, Greek, Arabic, Vietnamese and between separate ancestry groups. ForCantonese. example, two ancestry groups which are both predominantly Catholic may have higherThe propensity of second generation intermarriage rates. On the other hand,Australians to speak a language other than religion can separate communities within anEnglish in the home declined with age. While ancestry group: an ancestry group where some28% of 0–19 year old second generation are Christian and others Islamic could reflectAustralians spoke a non-English language at two quite separate cultural groups.home, only 1% of those aged 80 years and overdid. This is not surprising given that secondgeneration children are more likely to live withtheir migrant parents, and converse with themin their native language._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 49
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansReligious affiliations Second generation Australians have higher education levels than Catholic third-plus generation Australians Anglican Of second generation Australians aged 20 years Eastern Orthodox or more in 2006, 21% held a Bachelor degree Uniting Church or higher, compared with 24% of first 1st generation Islam 2nd generation generation and 17% of third-plus generationPresbyterian & Ref. 3rd+ generation Australians. Since levels of educational attainment can differ markedly depending on Buddhism age, and the three generation groups have No Religion different age patterns, this could merely reflect Not stated the differences in their ages. However, in every age group, second generation Australians hold 0 10 20 30 40 % Bachelor degrees at a similar or lower level than first generation Australians but at a higher level than the third-plus generation. Similar proportions of first and secondLike the first and third-plus generations, generation Australians held no qualificationssecond generation Australians were more likely and did not complete Year 12—30% and 29%to be Catholic (30%) than any other Christian respectively, compared with 39% of third-plusdenomination or religion. But some of the generation Australians.other common religious affiliations of secondgeneration Australians varied from otherAustralians. For example, 6% of secondgeneration Australians reported Eastern Second generation Australians’ educationOrthodox as their religion compared with 1% levels by selected ancestry(a)of third-plus generation Australians.The median age of second generation Aged 40Australians varied considerably across religious Aged 20–39 and overaffiliations. The median age of Catholics was Bachelor Did not27 years compared with 30 years for Eastern degree completeOrthodox and 10 years for Islam. Second or higher Year 12(b)generation Australians with Anglican, Uniting Ancestry % %Church, or Presbyterian and Reformed Churchaffiliations were all older (with median ages of Italian 23.0 38.735, 39 and 46 years respectively). For more Greek 27.5 28.2information on religion and age see ‘Religionacross the generations’, p. 54–58. German 22.6 37.6 Chinese 48.4 27.4Socioeconomic Dutch 23.9 31.8circumstances of second Lebanese 18.6 37.0generation Australians Maltese 17.4 49.3Because second generation Australians are so Polish 32.0 30.8diverse, their socioeconomic circumstances Vietnamese 27.8 (c)vary greatly. The following analysis excludespeople who reported British/Irish ancestry. Croatian 25.5 29.7The outcomes for this group are in most cases Australian 22.7 44.1broadly equivalent to those reportingAustralian ancestry which are, in turn, similar (a) Australian ancestry plus top 10 second generation ancestries excluding British/Irish.to third-plus generation Australians. OnlyAustralians aged 20 years or more are included (b) Or a non-school qualification.in the analysis. (c) The numbers of older Vietnamese second generation Australians were very small._______________________________________________________________________________________50 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansSecond generation Australians with different Second generation Australiansancestries have markedly different educational more likely to be professionalsoutcomes. Because both the levels ofeducational achievement vary with age across Second generation Australians aged 20 yearsthe Australian population, and the pattern of and over had a similar occupational profile toancestries also varies with age, it is necessary to first and third-plus generation Australians: inanalyse educational attainment within age each group the most common occupationgroups. category was Professionals.In 2006, 48% of second generation people Some specific occupations that stood out asreporting Chinese ancestry aged 20–39 held a particularly popular with second generationBachelor degree or higher qualification, Australians included Graphic and webcompared with 17% of Maltese and 19% of designers and illustrators, Cabinetmakers,Lebanese of the same age. A high proportion Solicitors, Hairdressers and most computingof second generation people aged 20–39 with professions. Those least reported includedPolish ancestry also held a Bachelor degree or Taxi drivers and Cleaning and laundry workers.above (32%). In comparison, of those in thisage group who reported Australian ancestry, Certain ancestry groups stood out among23% held a Bachelor degree or above. second generation Australians for their differing occupation choices. Sometimes theseOf second generation people aged 40 and over differences may be related to the average agewho reported Australian ancestry, 44% had not of those from particular ancestries.completed Year 12 or a non-schoolqualification. In comparison, most otherancestry groups had lower proportions whohad no school or non-school qualification. Occupation and ancestry(a) of secondOnly Maltese ancestry was higher, with 49% of generation Australiansthose aged 40 and over reporting no school ornon-school qualification. Professional occupationsUnemployment among second rate per 1,000 Chinesegeneration was lower than first 40 Vietnamese Italiangeneration Australians Lebanese 30 All 2nd generationLow unemployment rates can be a keyindicator of economic success.3 In 2006, the 20unemployment rate (see Glossary) for secondgeneration Australians aged 20 years and over 10was 4%, which was the same as that for third-plus generation Australians. In comparison, the 0 Medical Pharmacists Software & Solicitorsunemployment rate for first generation practitioners applicationAustralians was 6%. It made little difference programmerswhether second generation Australians hadone or both parents born overseas.However, unemployment levels varied across Trade occupationsancestry groups. The unemployment rate forsecond generation Australians was low for rate per ChineseItalian, Dutch and Maltese ancestry (all around 1,000 Vietnamese3% when age standardised) while it was high 20 Italian Lebanesefor Turkish, Vietnamese and Lebanese (11%, All 2nd Generation 1511% and 7% respectively when agestandardised). The latter three groups had very 10high proportions of second generationAustralians who spoke a language other than 5English at home (78%, 89% and 71% 0respectively) compared with all second Electricians Motor Hairdressers Bakersgeneration Australians (20%). mechanics & pastrycooks (a) The ancestry question in the census allows up to two responses. Thus an individual can be counted in more than one category._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 51
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansSecond generation Australians with Chinese Second generation Australiansancestry were more likely to hold a have higher incomes than otherprofessional position (39%) than people fromany other ancestry group. In particular second Australiansgeneration Australians with Chinese ancestry Slightly more second generation Australianswere more likely than most other Australians (aged 20 years and over) than those in the firstto be doctors, dentists and most other health or third-plus generations had higher incomesprofessionals with the exception of nursing. (i.e. gross personal incomes of $1000 per week or more)—24%, compared with 20% and 22%Second generation Australians with respectively. This was true even when theVietnamese ancestry were more likely to be different age structures of the threeSales workers (18%) than any other ancestry populations were taken into account.groups and also had a high proportion ofProfessionals (27%). Like those with Chinese Further, a higher proportion of secondancestry, second generation Australians with generation Australians with both parents bornVietnamese ancestry were commonly found in overseas had higher incomes (25%) than thosehealth-related professions, particularly as with only one parent born overseas (22%).Pharmacists. They also worked as Bakers andpastry cooks at a higher rate than any other Of the top 30 ancestries for second generationancestry. Australians, those with Austrian ancestry were the most likely have higher incomesSecond generation Australians with Italian (34%).While the older age profiles of someancestry (who tended to be older than their ancestry groups (such as Austrian, Greek andChinese and Vietnamese counterparts) tended Italian) were likely to have resulted in thoseto work in skilled trade occupations such as groups having higher personal incomesMotor mechanics and Hairdressers. among second generation Australians, others such as Chinese, had a younger age profile butDespite having a younger age profile, second still reported a relatively high proportion withgeneration Australians reporting Lebanese higher incomes. In contrast, only 22% of thoseancestry had some similar occupational with Australian ancestry and 10% of those withpatterns to those with Italian ancestry. In Vietnamese ancestry had higher incomes.particular they were commonly found in skilledtrades such as Electricians, Motor mechanicsand Hairdressers.Second generation Australians aged 20 years and over, with higher incomes(a), selectedancestries(b) Austrian Greek Chinese Italian Indian German Maltese Australian Lebanese VietnameseAll 2nd generation Australians 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 %(a) Weekly gross personal income of $1000 or more.(b) The ancestry question in the census allows up to two responses. Thus an individual can be counted in more than onecategory._______________________________________________________________________________________52 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Second generation AustraliansEndnotes1 Khoo, S., McDonald P., Giorgas, D., and Birrell, B.2002, Second Generation Australians, a jointpublication of the Australian Centre for PopulationResearch and the Department of Immigration andMulticultural and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra.2 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003,‘Ancestry of Australia’s population’ in AustralianSocial Trends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.3 Department of Immigration and Citizenship(DIAC) 2007, Migrant Labour Market Outcomes,Fact sheet 14, DIAC, Canberra._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 53
    • Religion across the generationsSince the 1970s, two contrasting trends have Broad trends in religion over time, 1947–shaped Australia’s changing religious profile. 2006On one hand, increased multiculturalism hasdriven the introduction and growth of many % Anglicannew religions. On the other, Australias growing 50 Catholicsecularisation has reduced affiliations among 40 Other Christian Non-Christian religionmost Christian denominations. No religion 30As well as affecting Australias ethnic 20composition, migration trends have led togrowth in certain religious groups, and a greater 10diversity of religious affiliations than in previous 0times. In 2006, 91% of people affiliated with a 1947 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001non-Christian religion were either bornoverseas (66%) or had at least one overseas-born parent (25%). Of those born overseas, 4out of 5 were born in Asia2, North Africa or theMiddle East. This articles point-in-time analysis assumes that most people do not change their religiousIn 2006, over 1.1 million Australians were affiliation throughout their adult life. Thisaffiliated with a non-Christian religion. The assumption is supported by following thethree main religions were Buddhism, Islam and religious affiliation reported by the same groupHinduism (accounting for 419,000, 340,000 and of Baby Boomers at different censuses through148,000 people respectively). Each of these their life. The graph below shows the stability ofreligions has experienced remarkable growth in the group’s religious affiliation. Changes overAustralia. Since 1986, the number of Islam the same time amongst other adult generationsaffiliates increased 3 times; Buddhists, 5 times; were even smaller.3and Hindus, 7 times. Even so, in 2006, non-Christian religions accounted for only 5.6% ofthe population because of the small base. Baby Boomers’ religious affiliation, 1976–Even more striking than the growth of non- 2006(a)Christian religions has been the secularisation %of Australian society. Indicative of this trend is 35 Anglicanthat between 1971 and 2006, the proportion of Catholic 30 No religionpeople who stated ‘No Religion’ increased from6.7% of the population to 19%. The younger 25generation is less likely to adopt religious 20beliefs than their parents or grandparents, andcomprise a high proportion of those who stated 15no religion. Consequently, the main Protestant 10denominations (that is, Anglican, Presbyterian, 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006and the Uniting Church) have all decreased Census yearsince 1996, and have older age profiles than theoverall population. (a) Australian-born Baby Boomers (aged 50–59 in 2006).Each generation in Australia has a uniquereligious profile. This article examines theseprofiles and discusses the differences between,as well as within, the 5 generation groupspresented in this report._______________________________________________________________________________________54 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Religion across the generations Main responses, 2006 Why the religion question is asked Oldest: Anglicans most common The census results are drawn on by Anglican religious organisations seeking information Catholic about religious affiliation in Australia. They Uniting Church and others use the information to assess Presbyterian(a) the need for religious-based hospitals, community services, and schools. No Religion Non-Christian religion The question does not measure the degree 0 10 20 30 40 of participation or commitment to religion. % Additionally, a response of ‘No Religion’ does not imply no spirituality but rather Lucky: Catholics and Anglicans equal that the respondent is not affiliated with any of the formally recognised religious Anglican groups.1 The question has been optional in Catholic all Australian censuses. In 2006, 11.2% of Uniting Church the population chose not to respond—the Presbyterian(a) iGeneration had the highest proportion of No Religion non-respondents (11.9%), and the Lucky Non-Christian religion Generation, the lowest (9.7%). 0 10 20 30 40 % Boomers: Catholics more commonOldest Generation (aged80 and over) Anglican Catholic Uniting ChurchIn 2006, 4 out of 5 Oldest Generation members Presbyterian(a)were affiliated with a Christian denomination—the most of all the generations. Of the No Religion Non-Christian religiongeneration’s 727,000 surviving members in2006, over 220,000 (or 30%) were Anglicans and 0 10 20 30 40165,000 were Catholics (23%). These %denominations were followed by the UnitingChurch (which accounted for 10.7% of the Gen X and Y: ‘No Religion’ gaininggeneration), and the Presbyterian andReformed Churches (6.5%). Anglican CatholicOldest Generation members were 3 times less Uniting Churchlikely than the rest of the population to state Presbyterian(a)‘No Religion’ (6.4% compared with 19%). No ReligionFurther, they were more likely than the Non-Christian religionyounger cohorts to be represented in certainChristian denominations: 7.9% of all 0 10 20 30 40Presbyterian and Reformed affiliates, and 6.9% %of all Uniting Church affiliates were members ofthe Oldest Generation, compared with 3.7% of iGeneration: pattern similar to X and Ythe total population. AnglicanOnly 2.1% of the Oldest Generation were Catholicaffiliated with a non-Christian religion. This was Uniting Churchhalf as many affiliates as the Baby Boomers Presbyterian(a)(5.3% of the cohort), and a third as many as No ReligionGeneration X and Y (7.4%). This reflects the Non-Christian religionregions in which the generations migrants wereborn. Only 10% of the Oldest Generations 0 10 20 30 40 %overseas-born population were born in Asia,compared with 25% of Baby Boomers, and 42% (a) Includes affiliates of Christian Reformed Churches.of Generation X and Y members._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 55
    • Cultural Diversity…Religion across the generationsReligion of the generation groups, by age % Anglican50 Catholic Anglican Other Christian Catholic Non-Christian religions Other Christian No Religion40 Non-Christian religions No Religion302010 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 iGeneration Generation Baby Boomers Lucky Oldest X and Y Generation Generation Age Age (years) in 2006Lucky Generation (aged (accounting for 3.6% and 0.7% of the Lucky Generation respectively).60–79) People affiliated with non-Christian religionsThe Lucky Generation are a fairly homogenous accounted for 2.8% of the Lucky Generationcohort in terms of religious affiliation, with only (compared with 5.6% of the overall population).slight variation between the older and younger This reflects the migration patterns associatedmembers. The younger members, born just with this generation. Of the generations top 25before or during World War II (1936–1945), countries of birth in 20064, Viet Nam was thewere more likely to state ‘No Religion’ than the only birthplace group with more non-Christianolder members. In 2006, 11.0% of those born members than Christians. In contrast, 9 of theduring the war (aged 60 to 67) stated ‘No 25 most common countries of birth forReligion’, compared with 8.0% of the older Generation X and Y members (aged 20–39) hadmembers of the group (aged 68 to 79). more non-Christian than Christian affiliates in 2006.In 2006, the Lucky Generation had 2.2 millionChristian affiliates. This represented a similarproportion of Christians to the Oldest Baby Boomers (aged 40–Generation (78% and 79% respectively).However, within these two generations, the 59)distribution of Christian denominations As the first group to be raised with televisions indiffered. The predominance of Anglicans over their homes5, Baby Boomers were exposed toCatholics in the Oldest Generation (30% to 23% world events including the Cold War, the Vietof the cohort) was not repeated in the Lucky Nam War, the sexual revolution, peaceGeneration, where there were equal shares (of movements and the birth of rock and roll. They26%). The Lucky Generations 317,000 overseas- are considered more liberal-minded thanborn Catholics (compared with the 175,000 Australia’s older generations.overseas-born Anglicans), contributed to thischange. In 2006, two thirds of the 5.5 million Baby Boomers were affiliated with a Christian religionAlmost all the other main Christian (67%). One quarter of the generation wasdenominations had slightly smaller cohort Catholic, one fifth was Anglican and just undershares than in the Oldest Generation. The only one fifth stated ‘No Religion’. However, unlikeexceptions were the Eastern Orthodox and earlier generations, religious affiliation variedPentecostal churches, both with nearly double notably by age across the Baby Boomerthe share of the Oldest Generation. However, Generation. The profile of older Baby Boomersthese groups remained proportionately small (55–59 years) more closely resembled that of_______________________________________________________________________________________56 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Cultural Diversity…Religion across the generationsolder generations with Catholics (25%) only Of all generations, Generation X and Y was theslightly more numerous than the Anglicans least Christian. Just over half the 5.5 million(24%) and all other Christian denominations members were Christian (56%) and 7.4%(22%). In contrast, among the younger Baby belonged to a non-Christian religion. It was alsoBoomers (aged 40–45), Catholics (26%) clearly the first generation (compared to previous,outnumbered Anglicans and all other Christians older generations) in which the Anglican(around 19% each). denomination was not among the two most common responses. Instead, Anglicans, whoAffiliation to each of Australias top 5 Christian accounted for 15% of the generation, weredenominations was lower for Baby Boomers outnumbered by Catholics (25%) and peoplethan Lucky Generation members. The lower with no religion (23%). Of other Christianproportion of Christians in the Baby Boomer denominations, the Uniting Church (4.2%) andgeneration was accounted for by the higher the Eastern Orthodox Church (2.8%) had theproportion who stated ‘No Religion’ (17%, most affiliates.compared with 9.5% of the Lucky Generation),or who were affiliates of non-Christian religions Within the generation, Catholic representation(5.3%, compared with 2.8%). The only main rose slightly across the ages, but AnglicansChristian denomination with a higher featured more prominently amongst oldergenerational share was Pentecostals, who members: 17% of 30–39 year olds wereaccounted for 1.1% of Baby Boomers Anglican, compared with 13% of 20–29 year(compared with less than 1% of Lucky and olds. Conversely, younger members of theOldest Generation members). generation were more likely to state ‘No Religion than older members (25% and 22%Baby Boomers represented the mid-point in respectively). Non-Christian religions were alsoAustralias religious profile in that older more common at the younger ages (8.1%Australians were more likely than Baby compared with 6.7%).Boomers to be Christian and less likely to haveno religion. Conversely, younger Australians Generation X and Y had the largest proportionwere less likely than Baby Boomers to be of people affiliated with non-Christian religionsChristian and more likely to have no religion. (7.4%). Indeed, it was the only generation in which all three main non-Christian religionsGeneration X and Y (aged featured in the 10 most common religions. Buddhists accounted for 2.7% of the20–39) Generation X and Y population (or 149,300 people), followed by Muslims (2.3% orIn 2006, members of Generation X and Y 123,800 people) and Hindus (1.2% orbelonged to age groups facing many life 67,300 people). Although 28% of Australianschanges. Younger members were confronting belonged to Generation X and Y in 2006, 36% ofimportant decisions about post-school study, Buddhists and Muslims, and 45% of Hindusentering the workforce, and leaving home. belonged to this generation.Many of the older members, having recentlyalso faced these issues, may have been starting Migration patterns help to explain the higherand raising families. levels of affiliation to non-Christian religions in Generation X and Y. In 2006, 20 birthplaceThis is also the life stage when many people groups in Australia had more than half theirmake a decision about religion, in some cases members affiliated with non-Christian religions.turning away from family practices. Changing These countries of birth were located in Asia,religious affiliation during this transition phase the Middle East, Africa, and Polynesia. Of all thecan be illustrated by Australian-born Generation generations, Generation X and Y had the mostX and Y members aged 25–34. In 2006, 26% members born in these countries: 21.7% (of theidentified with no religion—an increase from generation’s overseas-born members),20% when they were aged 15–24 in 1996, and compared with 13.0% (Baby Boomers),12% when 5–14 in 1986. Over this time period, 6.4% (Lucky Generation), and 4.9% (OldestChristianity among the cohort decreased from Generation).75% in 1986 to 63% in 2006. This was despitethe proportion of unrecorded responses to thereligion question falling from 12% to 7.1%. Thismovement away from religion occurred overthe ages when most would have left the familyhome and begun to respond to the questionthemselves._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 57
    • Cultural Diversity…Religion across the generationsiGeneration (aged Endnotes0–19) 1 The 2006 Census categorised religions according to the Australian StandardThe iGeneration cannot be analysed in the Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG)same way as older generations. In many cases, Second Edition, 2005, cat. no. 1266.0, ABS,parents and guardians would have reported Canberra.their childs religion. While some parents mayconsider religious affiliation to be established 2 Comprises North-East Asia, South-East Asiaupon baptism or at birth, others choose to wait and Southern and Central Asia.until their children can make the decisionthemselves. In 2006, 58% of children aged 3 Compared with other generations which hadless than 5 had a religion stated for them. adult members in 1976.Over half the iGenerations 5.3 million members 4 Excluding Australia.were reported as Christian (59%), 23% had noreligion, and 5.9% were affiliated with non- 5 The Australian Online Television Museum,Christian religions. Within the generation, the viewed 17 November 2008,youngest children (aged less than 5) were the <http://www.austvhistory.com/>.most likely to be identified as having no religion(28%). From this youngest age group, affiliationto Christian denominations followed a similarpattern, rising steadily at each year of age andpeaking during the early teenage years. As aresult, the 11–16 year olds were most likelyamong this generation to be identified asChristian (63%), and least likely to have noreligion (20%)._______________________________________________________________________________________58 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Overview 60Children’s living arrangements 74Families with young children:a Sydney case study 81
    • Living arrangements overviewOver the last 20 years, households and familieshave become more diverse. There has been adecline in the proportion of families with Family diversity ischildren, a trend towards smaller families and increasing, but half thean increase in the proportion of people livingin couple only and lone person households. population live in a twoThese trends reflect broad social and economic parent family with children.changes, including young people remaining ineducation for longer periods, higherparticipation of women in the labour force,lower fertility, higher numbers of divorcedpeople and an ageing population. The wider community faces the challenge of continuing to provide appropriate servicesLiving arrangements can influence people’s such as aged care, income support, housing,health, wellbeing and access to social and health and family services, within a context ofmaterial resources. Equally, these factors can increasing diversity in living arrangements.also influence people’s living arrangements.People(a), families and households with children under 15(d) 31.6% of families 35.9% of all people with children over 15 Couple families(c) One family only 83% of families households 14.2% of families 69.6% of all people 70.4% of households 13.3% of all people 82.5% of all people Households without children in private Multi-family 37.2% of families dwellings households 20.4% of all people 7,466,400 1.3% of households households 2.8% of all people with children under 15(d) 8.2% of families 18,603,200 Group households One parent 6.7% of all people people 3.9% of households families(c) 3.4% of all people 15.2% of families with children over 15 98.2% of all 11.0% of all people people(b) only Lone person 7.0% of families households Other families(c) 4.4% of all people 24.4% of households 1.8% of families 9.6% of all people 1.0% of all people(a) Includes people enumerated at home on Census Night only. Family households may also include unrelated individuals;therefore the number of people living in family households will not equal the number of persons living in families.(b) The remaining 1.8% of the population who were enumerated at home on Census Night did not live in households wherethe usual residence was a private dwelling.(c) Excluding families in multi-family households.(d) These families may also contain children aged 15 years and over._______________________________________________________________________________________60 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overviewSelected living arrangements, 1986 and by looking at individuals living within these2006(a) households. The results can be very different: for example, in 2006 lone person households made up almost one quarter (24%) of all Couple households in Australia, yet only 10% of people without children were living in a lone person household. In this Couple family with overview, the main emphasis is on individualschildren under 15 years in families and households. One parent family withchildren under 15 years Families are identified in the census by the Group household presence of related people who are usually resident in the same household. While this Lone person household 1986 concept captures within a household the 2006 support traditionally shared between spouses, 0 10 20 30 40 50 partners, parents, children and siblings who % live together, many families extend beyond the bounds of a single household. For example, children of separated parents often share their(a) Excludes people not counted in their usual place ofresidence. time between two households. In 2006–07, there were just over one million children aged under 18 years (22% of all children in this age group) who had a natural parent livingHouseholds and families in the elsewhere.1 In other families, financial or2006 Census emotional support is provided to adultThe diagram on the previous page illustrates children living away from home, to separatedhow households counted in the 2006 Census spouses, or to elderly relatives. People in loneare grouped into different household and person or group households may have strongfamily types. Living arrangements can be family connections outside the household.examined on different levels: by looking at the That said, unrelated household members, suchcharacteristics of families and households, or as those in group households, may rely on others in the household for care and support. Households of people born overseas are larger… In households where at least one partner or parent (in couple or one parent family households), or adult (in other households) was born overseas, the average household size was 2.8 people. This is higher than households where all of these adults were born in Australia (2.5 people). By birthplace region, the households of people born in North-West Europe were the smallest, averaging 2.5 people, while households of people born in North Africa and the Middle East were the largest, each with an average size of 3.5 people. The older age profile of Australians born in North-West Europe means that their households are generally less likely to contain children and more likely to be lone person households; the opposite is true for those born in North Africa and the Middle East. The median age of adult members within households containing people born in North West Europe was 51 years, while for those born in North Africa and the Middle East it was 41 years. This compares with 45 years for the total adult population. …but have fewer children While households of people born overseas were larger, those with young children were smaller than comparable households with only Australian-born parents. The average number of children under 15 in households with one or more parent born overseas (and with children under 15) was 1.76; in similar households where all parents were born in Australia, the average was 1.84. This also varied by region, with the households of people born in North Africa and the Middle East having the highest average number of children aged under 15 (2.06), and the households of people born in North-East Asia (for example, China) having the lowest (1.53)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 61
    • Living arrangements…overviewChanges in household characteristics, 1986 and 2006 Average number of Average household Households children under 15(a) size(b) 1986 2006 1986 2006 1986 2006 % % no. no. no. no. Single family households 75.4 70.4 0.88 0.72 3.28 3.07 Families with children under 15 35.3 28.0 1.89 1.81 4.17 3.99 with couple 30.8 22.3 1.93 1.86 4.32 4.21 with one parent 4.5 5.8 1.64 1.65 3.17 3.14 Multi-family households 1.8 1.3 1.33 1.34 4.95 5.57 Non-family households 22.7 28.3 .. .. 1.21 1.19 Total 100.0 100.0 0.69 0.53 2.84 2.58 (a) Includes all usually resident children aged under 15 years present on Census Night, plus any children aged under 15 years temporarily absent. In 1986 dependent students aged 15–20 years who were temporarily absent on Census Night were also included; based on later census data they are estimated to be a very small percentage of the total group. (b) Household size is based on the number of people present on Census Night and usually resident in the household, plus any household members temporarily absent. In 1986 information on persons temporarily absent was only collected for spouses and dependent children, therefore any other temporarily absent family or household members have not been included.In 2006, almost half the population lived in a group households (two or more unrelatedcouple family with children (49%); a further adults) has remained steady at around 3%20% lived in a couple family with no children; throughout this period.and 11% lived in a one parent family. A smallproportion of people (3%) lived in a Households becoming smaller,household with more than one family. These one parent families more commonfamilies tended to have different characteristicsfrom single family households and are treated Increases in the proportion of people living inas a separate household type. couple families without children, in lone person households, and in one parent familiesChanges in society have seen people more have each contributed to householdslikely to postpone partnering and child- becoming smaller. The average household sizebearing, more likely to be divorced or in 1986 was 2.8 people, falling to 2.6 people inseparated, and more likely to live longer than 2006. The impact of these changes on housingin previous generations. Changes in living is explored further in ‘Housing overview’,arrangements reflect these developments in p. 204–214.Australian society. The biggest change over thelast 20 years has been the decrease in theproportion of people living in a couple family Living arrangementswith children under 15 years, down from 46% through the life cyclein 1986 to 36% in 2006.2 On the other hand,more people—both young and old—were The majority of people’s living arrangementsliving in a couple family without children, the change during the course of their life. Whileproportion rising from 17% in 1986 to 20% in these changes follow a general pattern, they2006. are less predictable than 20 years ago. The living arrangements of young adults, familiesThe number of people living alone has also with children, and older adults are affected inrisen, from around 1 in 15 (6.5%) in 1986 to different ways by changes in patterns ofalmost 1 in 10 (9.6%) in 2006. In addition, education and work participation, housing,considerably more people are living in one fertility, separation, divorce and longevity.parent families with children under 15 years, Their effect on different life-cycle groups isup from 4.7% in 1986 to 6.7% in 2006. examined in the following sections.However, the proportion of people living in_______________________________________________________________________________________62 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overview The life-cycle groups The life-cycle groups, used throughout this report, classify households into easily recognisable and common living arrangements. Together, the groups account for over three quarters of the Australian population. Life-cycle groups …are households containing: Young group household Two or more people, all unrelated, all aged 15–34 years Young lone person Only one person aged 15–34 years Young couple family without children A couple without children, both members of the couple aged 15–34 years Families with children Couple family with young children A couple with children, youngest child aged 0–4 years Couple family with school-aged children A couple with children, youngest child aged 5–14 years Couple family with young adult children A couple with children, youngest child aged 15–29 years One parent family with young children A one parent family, youngest child aged 0–4 years One parent family with school-aged children A one parent family, youngest child aged 5–14 years One parent family with young adult children A one parent family, youngest child aged 15–29 years Middle-aged and older adults Middle-aged couple family without children A couple without children, the younger partner aged 45– 64 years3 Older couple family without children A couple without children, both partners aged 65 years or more Older lone person Only one person aged 65 years or more Because households can only be counted in one life-cycle group, households with more than one family are not included in the life-cycle groups. In addition, unrelated individuals living with families and visitors on Census Night are outside the scope of analysis for this overview. Households containing related adults (such as a sibling of one of the partners) are included in the analysis, unless explicitly excluded.Living arrangements of As a further reflection of these transitions, young adults displayed the most diversity inyoung adults terms of living arrangements. As more young people delay getting married and havingFrom the late teens to early 30s, most young children, the nature of this diversity hasadults undergo a number of life transitions changed over the last two decades. Forwhich affect their living arrangements: example, 39% of 15–34 year olds in 2006 werecompleting study; taking up paid employment; living with one or more parents, up from 35%moving away from home; forming in 1986 (see box ‘Twentysomethings’ living atrelationships; marrying; and having children. home, on the following page). In 2006, another 23% were themselves parents or partners in aReflecting these transitions, a relatively high family with children, down from 33% in 1986.proportion of young adults were living in MajorCities, drawn by education and workopportunities. In 2006, 73% of 15–34 year oldswere living in Major Cities, compared with 68%of the total population. For more informationon the movement of people in Australia see‘On the move’, p. 24–32._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 63
    • Living arrangements…overview ‘Twentysomethings’ living at those aged 20–24, and 53% of those aged home 25–29.4 The main reason these young people returned home was financial. Other common reasons included family support, Over the last 20 years there has been an and the ending of their own relationship. increase in the number of young adults living with their parents, from 24% of people aged 20–29 years in 1986 to 31% in In 2006, one quarter (24%) of 20–29 year 2006. This trend is associated with young olds living at home lived in one parent people’s increasing participation in families—higher than in 1986 (19%). The education, and the delay of partnering and other 76% lived with both parents, parenthood. compared with 81% in 1986. While a larger proportion of people in their In 2006, 23% of people aged 20–24 years early 20s lived with parents than people in living with parents lived with a lone parent. their late 20s, this latter group increased at This was higher for 25–29 year olds, at a faster rate. In 1986, 37% of 20–24 year 26%. Lower proportions of these age olds were living with at least one parent, groups lived with a lone parent in 1986: compared with 44% in 2006. Among 25–29 17% of people in their early 20s and 25% of year olds, 11% lived with their parents in people in their late 20s. Due to the 1986 but this increased rapidly to 17% in formation of new one parent families 2006. arising from parents separation, divorce or widowhood, the likelihood of living with one parent increases with age. However, According to the 2006–07 Australian there could be other factors: both children Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Family and parents in one parent families may Characteristics and Transitions survey, have fewer resources than those in couple many young people who lived with their families, and so be more likely to live in the parents had left home and subsequently same household to provide support for returned. This was the case for 26% of each other. 20–29 year olds living with parents …most were studying or working % One third (32%) of 20–29 year olds who 50 One parent family lived with one or both parents were Couple family studying at an educational institution. Of 40 these, 70% were also employed full-time or part-time. 30 20 Of the remaining 68% who were not studying full-time, just over two thirds of 10 these (67%) were working full-time, and another 17% were working part-time. 0 1986 2006 1986 2006 Overall, 11% of 20–29 year olds who lived 20–24 years 25–29 years with parents were neither studying nor in paid employment. More than a third of these people were living with a lone parent (35%), higher than the proportion of all 20–29 year olds living with parents (24%).In 2006, many young adults aged 15–34 lived in The proportion of young adults in younghouseholds without parents or children, or group households (where all members wereother relatives. These group households were aged 15–34 years) did not change betweenpopular among people in their early 20s, but 1986 and 2006 (7%). Group households areby their late 20s, living in a couple household largely a phenomenon among people in thesewithout children was the most common living ages: two thirds (66%) of people in all grouparrangement. Living alone was not common households were aged 15–34 years.among the younger members of this age groupbut became increasingly common among theolder members._______________________________________________________________________________________64 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overviewSelected living arrangements of young Top 5 countries of birth, overseas-bornadults students in young group households(a) % Lived alone40 Lived in group household China(b) Partner in couple without children30 India20 Malaysia Hong Kong10 Indonesia 0 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Age % (a) Proportion of overseas-born full-time students living in these households.Another 14% of young adults in 2006 lived as (b) Excludes Special Administrative Regions and Taiwanpart of a young couple family without Province.children (that is, both members aged 15–34);unchanged since 1986. A relatively smallproportion of 15–34 year olds lived alone (6%), Fewer young couples withoutalthough this group has increased slightly since children are married…1986 (5%). Although the proportion of 15–34 year olds living in young couple families withoutHigher levels of working and children has remained the same (around 14%),studying among young people in over the last 20 years there has been a largegroup households decrease in the proportion of these people who were living in a registered marriage, fromGroup households provide a way for many 75% in 1986 to 44% in 2006. This is consistentyoung people to share living and housing costs with the trends for young people to livewhile studying or in the early stages of their together before entering a registered marriage,working life. Members of young group to marry at older ages, or not to marry at all. Inhouseholds were more likely than their peers 2006 the likelihood of being in a registered(i.e. all 15–34 year olds not living in young marriage increased with age across this group,group households) to work full-time (54% ranging from 7% of 15–19 year olds to 59% ofcompared with 45%) or to study full-time (30% 30–34 year olds.compared with 27%).More than half of all full-time …many have higher incomes,students in young group most live in citieshouseholds were born overseas Young couple families without children were more than twice as likely as other AustraliansPeople born overseas made up 54% of all full- to have a higher household income5, with 47%time students living in young group falling into this income group (whichhouseholds. Of these 27% were born in China, comprises 20% of the total population). Thisanother 13% were born in India and 8% were increased with age, from 7% of 15–19 year oldsborn in Malaysia. to 62% of 30–34 year olds. High employment amongst these couples would have contributed significantly to their higher household incomes. In 2006, 92% of Two thirds of all people partners in young couple families without children were employed compared with 61% living in group households of the total adult population. were aged between 15 Like all young people, people in young couple and 34 years in 2006. families without children were more likely to live in Major Cities than the total population (76%, compared with 68%). This was more common in the older age groups, with 81% of 30–34 year olds living in Major Cities._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 65
    • Living arrangements…overviewCharacteristics of members of young People living in families with childrencouple families without children 1986 2006 % In registered marriage100 Higher household income(a) Life-cycle group(a) % % Living in major cities 80 Couple family 60 with young children 20.7 16.2 40 with school-aged children 24.8 19.7 20 with young adult children 12.1 11.2 0 Total 57.6 47.1 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 Age One parent family(a) For details of the income groups used see Glossary. with young children 1.5 2.1 with school-aged children 3.2 4.6Living arrangements of with young adult children 2.2 2.9families with children Total 6.9 9.6Families with children remained the most Other living arrangement 35.5 43.3common living arrangement in 2006, althoughthis has declined considerably over the last 20 Total(b) 100.0 100.0years. In 2006, slightly more than half the ‘000 ‘000population (57%) lived as parents, partners,children or other relatives in a couple or one Total(b) 14 880 18 930parent family with children aged under 30, (a) Groups are determined by the age of the youngestcompared with nearly two thirds of people child in the family. See box on p. 63 for detailed(65%) in 1986. People in couple and one description of life-cycle groups.parent families with young children (youngest (b) Excludes people not counted in place of usualunder 5 years of age) accounted for 18% of the residence.population; in families with school-agedchildren (youngest child aged 5–14 years),24%; and in families with young adult children Families with young children (aged 0–4 years)(15–29 years), 14%. living in Major Cities had an average of 2.0 children of any age—smaller than familiesBetween 1986 and 2006, the number of one with young children in Inner and Outerparent families with children aged under 30 Regional areas (average of 2.2 children) and inrose from 383,000 to 764,000—increasing as a Remote and Very Remote areas (average of 2.4proportion of all families from 10% to 15%. As children).a result, of all people living in families withchildren, the proportion of those living in one Families with young children in the remoteparent families increased from 1 in every 9 Northern Territory regions of Daly, Alligatorpeople (11%) to 1 in every 6 people (17%). and Finniss had the highest average number of children, at 3.3, 3.1 and 3.0 respectively.6While this section chiefly examines the living These regions had high proportions ofarrangements of all people in families with Indigenous peoples, who have higher fertilitychildren, more information on the children in rates than non-Indigenous people.7 Familiesthese families can be found in the article with young children in the areas of Inner‘Children’s living arrangements’, p. 74–80. Melbourne, Inner Sydney and Inner Brisbane had the lowest average number of children;Young families are larger outside each about 1.7. Higher concentrations ofMajor Cities medium and high density housing in these inner city areas may make them less attractiveThe distribution of people in families with for larger families. For more information onyoung children and families with school-aged young families in metropolitan areas, seechildren around Australia was similar to the ‘Families with young children: A Sydney casegeneral population. However, the average study’, p. 81–88.number of children living in these familiesvaried by location, with families in Regionaland Remote Areas tending to be larger thanthose in cities_______________________________________________________________________________________66 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overviewAverage number of children in family(a) Children leave home earlier in Regional and Remote areas no. with young children3.0 Unlike families with young children and with school aged children2.5 with young adult children families with school-aged children, families2.0 with young adult children were smaller outside Major Cities. In these families, the average1.5 number of children per family was 1.6 in Major1.0 Cities, 1.5 in Regional areas and0.5 1.4 children in Remote or Very Remote areas 0 (see graph, Average number of children in Major Cities Inner/Outer Remote/ family). This is closely related to the availability Regional Very Remote of opportunities for young people. Many Remoteness areas young people who grow up in Regional and Remote areas move to larger towns and cities(a) Groups are determined by the age of the youngest to pursue higher education or employment,child in the family. See box on p. 63 for detaileddescription of life-cycle groups. and make up a large proportion of people moving out of these areas (see ‘Where do Australians live?’, p. 16–23, and ‘On the move’,In families with school-aged children, the p. 24–32).average number of children per family in MajorCities (2.1) was only slightly lower than in A further reflection of this trend is theRegional areas (2.2) and in Remote areas (2.2). relatively low proportion of people living inFamilies with school-aged children in the families with young adult children outsideremote area of Bathurst-Melville in the Major Cities: while 15% of people in MajorNorthern Territory had the highest average Cities were in families with young adultnumber of children (2.7); this area had a very children (compared with 14% overall), onlyhigh proportion of Indigenous people. The 11% of people in Regional areas and 6% oflowest average was Inner Melbourne (1.8). people in Remote and Very Remote areas were in this family type.People living in families with children (a), by Remoteness area(b) Families with young adult children Families with school aged children 60 Families with young children 50 40 30 20 10 0 Major Cities Inner/Outer Regional Remote/Very Australia Remote Remoteness areas(a) Groups are determined by the age of the youngest child in the family. See box on p. 63 for detailed description of life-cycle groups.(b) Proportion of population in each Remoteness Area who live in families with children._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 67
    • Living arrangements…overviewFamilies with young children mostlikely to move house Recent arrivals in one parent familiesPeople in families with young children weremore likely than those with school-aged The family types of recent arrivals tochildren and those with young adult children Australia (those who arrived from 2002 toto have moved house in the year before the 2006) can be influenced by their migration2006 Census. At the time of the census, just circumstances as well as by conditions inover one fifth (21%) of all people in families the country of origin. For example, therewith young children (not including babies aged may be a relatively high proportion of oneunder one year) were living at an address that parent families in the country of origin; orwas different from one year earlier. For people it may be more feasible for one parentin families with school-aged children, 13% had families from some countries to migrate tomoved, and for those in families with young Australia than it is for others. Further, oneadult children, just 9% had moved. Families parent families may be a temporarywith young children may need to move to a arrangement, with the other partnerlarger house or a more family oriented planning to arrive in Australia later; or thelocation. As children grow older families may family members in Australia may bebe less likely to move to avoid disrupting their planning to return home.children’s education. Recent arrivals from Sudan were morePeople in one parent families were more likely likely than those from other countries tothan those in couple families to be living at a be in one parent families, with 33% ofdifferent address from one year earlier (19% those in families with children in onecompared with 13% respectively). Consistent parent families. Almost all of Sudanese-with the pattern for couple families, people in born recent arrivals came to Australia viaone parent families with young children were refugee and humanitarian programs.8 Likethe most likely to have moved (32%). other refugee populations, many Sudanese-born residents could have experienced family separation or loss prior to arriving in Australia.People who moved address in year before2006 Census, by selected family life-cyclegroup(a) Recent arrivals in families with children, top 5 and bottom 5 by family % type(a) Families with young children40 Families with school aged children Families with young adult children One parent Couple families30 families(b) with children(b) County of birth % %20 Sudan 33.1 66.910 Taiwan 30.6 69.4 0 South Korea 27.2 72.8 Couple family One parent family Hong Kong 21.3 78.7(a) Groups are determined by the age of the youngest Viet Nam 19.3 80.7child in the family. See box on p. 63 for detaileddescription of life-cycle groups. South Africa 4.7 95.3 Pakistan 4.6 95.4 United Kingdom 4.1 95.9 India 3.4 96.6 Bangladesh 3.2 96.8 (a) Of countries of origin with recent arrival populations in Australia of 5,000 or more. (b) People in families with youngest child aged 0–29 years._______________________________________________________________________________________68 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overviewMothers in paid employment, by age of Characteristics of lone parents(a)youngest child(a) Age of youngest child % Employed full-time100 Employed part-time 0–4 5–14 15–29 80 Total employed years years years 60 % % % 40 Age of parent 20 15–34 years 67.4 21.5 0.5 0 35–44 years 28.1 50.5 18.7 0 5 10 15 20 Age of youngest child 45 years or more 4.6 27.9 80.7(a) Proportion of female parents in couple or one parentfamily life-cycle groups. Household income(b) Lower 50% 90.3 81.8 54.9Mothers employment increases Upper 50% 9.7 18.2 45.1with age of youngest child Marital statusIn both couple and one parent families, the Never married 58.8 30.2 10.7proportion of mothers who were employedincreased with the age of the youngest child, Divorced orfrom 41% of mothers whose youngest child separated 36.0 61.4 71.1was aged under a year old to a peak of 80% of Married ormothers whose youngest child was aged 16. widowed 5.2 8.4 18.2Consistent with child caring responsibilities,most working mothers with young children Total 100.0 100 100.0were employed part-time rather than full-time. ‘000 ‘000 ‘000In contrast, the proportion of fathers in paid Total families 119.6 291.8 218.8employment remained fairly steady, from 91% (a) Parents in one parent families with youngest childin families with the youngest child aged 0–4, aged 0–29 years.to 90% in families with the youngest child (b) Distribution of person by equivalised grossaged 5–14. household income. See Glossary for definition.Regardless of the age of their children, lonemothers were less likely to be employed than However, financial circumstances appeared tomothers in couple families with children, improve for parents of older children. In onepossibly due in part to the difficulties of parent families with young children (agedundertaking paid employment while caring for 0–4), 90% of parents in these families had achildren. However, the proportion employed household income below the median. Indid increase with the age of the youngest child, contrast, 55% of parents in one parent familiesfrom 33% of lone mothers with young children with young adult children (aged 15–29) wereto 70% of lone mothers with young adult below the median. In the case of the latter, thechildren (compared with 53% and 75% household income reflects the earnings ofrespectively of mothers in couple families). both the parent as well as any earning from the young adult.Lone parents’ income low but Similarly, the marital status of lone parentsincreases with age of child varied with the age of the child. In one parentLone parents tended to be over-represented in families with young children, most parentslower household income brackets, as a had never been married (59%). In comparison,consequence of lower rates of employment, most parents in one parent families withalong with access to a single income only. school-aged children and in one parentThree quarters (74%) of lone parents lived in a families with young adult children werehousehold with a household income below the divorced or separated (61% and 71%).national median9 of $639 per week. Incomparison, 42% of parents in couple familieswith children had a household income belowthe median._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 69
    • Living arrangements…overviewYounger and middle-aged couple Income and housing characteristics of people in couples without childrenfamilies without childrenCouple families without children have become Young couple Middle-agedmore common in Australian society. On the one (15–34) couple (45–64)hand, young people are forming couples but family without family without children childrendelaying or choosing not to have children. Onthe other hand, the middle-aged Baby Boomer % %Generation are becoming empty nesters, andincreasing life expectancy means that more Household income(a)couples are surviving into older age groups. Higher income 47.3 28.8Despite similar living arrangements, these twogroups have very different characteristics. Middle income 12.6 17.0 Lower income 4.7 22.5In most young couple families withoutchildren in 2006, both partners were employed Dwelling tenure(83%). In only 48% of middle-aged couplefamilies without children3, both partners were Owned outright 3.5 58.1employed, but in another 27% only one partner Owned with awas working. This helps to explain differences mortgage 46.4 30.6in household income. Almost half (47%) themembers of young couple families without Rented 49.8 10.9children had a higher household income,compared with 29% of people in middle-aged Dwelling structurecouple families without children. Separate house 60.8 88.3However, partners in young couple families Higher density(b) 38.6 10.5without children were unlikely to own theirhome outright, with half living in a rented Locationdwelling (50%), and most of the remainder Major Cities 76.2 57.5living in a dwelling that was owned with amortgage (46%). In contrast, most members of Rest of state 23.8 42.5middle-aged couple families without children Total 100.0 100.0had paid off their home (58%). ‘000 ‘000Compared with people in young couple Total 661.8 1 411.8families without children, people in middle-aged couple families without children were (a) For details of the income groups used see Glossary.less likely to live in higher density housing and (b) Includes semi-detached, row or terrace house,less likely to live in major cities. townhouse, flat, unit or apartment. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 70 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…overviewLiving arrangements of Due to differences in life expectancy, women tend to outlive their male partners. As a result,middle-aged and older women aged 65 years or more were more likely to live alone than men of the same age—adults 34% of women aged 65 and over and 40% ofAs the Baby Boomers generation reaches women aged 85 and over lived alone,retirement age and the population gets older, compared with 18% and 25% of men,the living arrangements of older adults are respectively.becoming a greater focus to those needing toplan for services such as housing and aged Conversely, men aged 65 years and over werecare. more likely to live in couple families without children—61% of men aged 65 and over livedTransitions in living arrangements are common in a couple family without children, comparedamong people aged 45 years or more, although with 38% of women aged 65 and over. Inless common compared to young adults: addition to life expectancy, this difference isparents become empty nesters as children also compounded by men tending to be olderleave home; the death of a partner leads to than their female partners.many older people living alone; and increasedfrailty can lead to a move into aged care or to Living in Major Cities less popularlive with other relatives. for middle-aged couples, more popular for older couplesFor 45–54 year olds the most common livingarrangement was as a parent in a family with People in middle-aged couple families withoutchildren of any age (61%), but for 55–64 year children were less likely to be living in Majorolds living in a couple family without children Cities compared with all 45–64 year olds, withwas the most common living arrangement 58% living in Major Cities and 40% in Regional(50%). areas. In contrast, 67% of all 45–64 year olds lived in Major Cities and 31% lived in RegionalAmong people aged 65 years or more, couple areas. At least two factors contribute to afamilies without children were still the most higher proportion of middle-aged couplecommon living arrangement (48%). Beyond families without children in Regional areas.middle age, people were increasingly likely to On the one hand, couples may move out oflive alone, with around one quarter (27%) of Major Cities after their children leave home;people aged 65 years or more living on their either to change career, or to use retirement asown. However, the proportion of people living an opportunity for a ‘sea’ or ‘tree change’. Onalone declined in the very old age groups from the other hand, children leave home earliera peak of 39% at the age of 85. This is from Regional areas, leaving behind couplesassociated with increased frailty making with no children. For more information onindependent living difficult. For more internal migration, see ‘On the move’,information on older people needing p. 24–32.assistance, see the ‘Community overview’p. 90–101.Living arrangements of middle-aged and Middle-aged and older adults living inolder adults Major Cities % % Parent in family with children80 70 Couple family with no children Lone person household60 6540 60 Couple without children, both partners aged 45 or more20 55 Lone person household 0 Total 45 and over 50 45 55 65 75 85 and over 45–54 55–64 65–74 75–84 85 and over Age Age_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 71
    • Living arrangements…overviewPeople in older couple families withoutchildren were more likely to live in Major EndnotesCities than middle-aged couple families 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2008, Familywithout children (64% compared with 58%), Characteristics and Transitions, Australia, 2006–similar to the total population aged 65 and 07, cat. no. 4442.0, ABS, Canberra.over (67%). 2 1986 has been chosen as the census year forUnlike couple families without children, the comparison with 2006. In 1986 changes were made to census family coding, making a meaningfullocation of lone persons varied little with age. comparison with earlier years more difficult.Of older lone persons (aged 65 and over), 66%were living in Major Cities and 33% were living 3 To facilitate comparisons, where one of thein Regional areas. This was similar to lone partners in middle-aged couple families withoutpersons aged 45–64 years (65% in Major Cities, children are aged 65 years or more they have been32% in Regional areas). excluded from this analysis.Middle-aged couples: moving into 4. ABS data available on request, Family Characteristics and Transitions Survey, Australia,retirement 2006–07, cat. no. 4442.0.Approximately 64% of people living in middle-aged couple families without children3 were 5 Household income is equivalised gross householdemployed, and 43% were working full-time. income. For details of the household income groupsThey had lower rates of employment used see Glossary.compared with other people their age: 69% of 6 Unless otherwise indicated, geographical areasall 45–64 year olds were in paid employment referred to in this overview are Statisticalincluding 49% who were employed full-time. Subdivisions, see Glossary.However, people in middle-aged couple 7 ABS 2003, Year Book Australia 2003, cat. no.families without children in 2006 were more 1301.0, p. 114, ABS, Canberra.likely to be working than in 1986, when only46% were in paid employment. This was 8 Department of Immigration and Citizenshipconsistent with generally lower participation (DIAC) 2008, Top 20 Countries by Migrationrates in 1986. For example, 56% of all 45–64 Stream, DIAC Settlement Database, data extractedyear olds were working. For more information on 11 April 2008, <www.settlement.immi.gov.au>.on changes to employment patterns see‘Generations of employment’, p. 159–166. 9 Equivalised gross household income, see Glossary for a definition. This median is based on the distribution of household incomes for persons._______________________________________________________________________________________72 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Children’s living arrangementsFor children, emotional, financial and material Children living with a lone parentsupport is mainly provided by those they livewith, making the family central to their In 2006, the majority of Australian childrenwellbeing.1 Most Australian children live in counted in private dwellings on Census Nightfamilies with both of their natural or adoptive were living in families with both their natural orparents to care for them. However, the living adoptive parents (75%). The second mostarrangements of some families are complex and common living arrangement was children livingcan change for many reasons. Sometimes these with just one of their natural or adoptivechanges, or transitions, can have a detrimental parents in a one parent family (18%).effect on family functioning2 and disadvantagechildren in areas such as household income, Although the census did not collect informationhousing, health and education.3, 4, 5 about shared care arrangements between parents living in separate locations, someIn 2006, just under four million Australian children living with a lone parent also spend achildren aged 0–14 were counted on Census significant proportion of their time living withNight (20% of all Australians counted). Most their other natural parent. According to thechildren were living with one or both of their 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)natural or adoptive parents (87.1%), while a Family Characteristics and Transitions survey,small proportion of children (6.5%) were living 4% of all children aged 0–17, with a naturalwith step parents, or other adults such as foster parent living elsewhere (38,000 children), spentparents or grandparents. Another 6.4% of half or more of their time per year living withchildren were counted in non-private dwellings their other natural parent.6such as boarding schools, or were counted asvisitors in other dwellings. A high proportion of children who were not living with their natural or adoptive parents were living in one parent families. Unrelated children were more likely to live in a one parentChildren in different living arrangements family (62%) than a couple family, as were otherwise related children (58%). Just under Children half of grandchildren (42%) and one third of % ’000 foster children (31%) lived in one parent families.6 Natural/adopted children 87.1 3 428.0 Step children 5.0 197.9 Grandchildren 0.6 24.0 Proportion of children in couple and one Otherwise related children 0.5 19.7 parent families in each living arrangement Foster children 0.2 9.1 % Couple family 100 Unrelated children 0.2 6.6 One parent family Children visiting other 75 private households 2.0 77.8 50 Children in non-private 0.8 30.1 25 dwellings Total(a) 100.0 3 937.2 0 Natural/ Step Grand Otherwise Foster Unrelated (a) Includes children counted in non-classifiable adopted child child related child child dwellings and migratory or offshore Collection Districts. child child_______________________________________________________________________________________74 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangementsCharacteristics of families andhouseholds with children Types of living arrangements Unless otherwise noted, all childrenThe characteristics of children’s families and discussed are aged 0–14.households provide insights into what it may belike for children living in different familyarrangements. Natural or adopted child: a child who lives with and is related by birth or adoption to a lone parent or both parents in a couple.Number of children in the familyIn 2006, the average number of children in the Step child: a child who lives with and isfamily differed depending on children’s living related by birth or adoption to one parentarrangements. The averages include all children in a couple relationship but is not related byin the family who were aged under 25. For birth or adoption to the other. As aexample, in couple families where there was at consequence of relationship breakdown orleast one natural or adopted child under the the death of a spouse, some one parentage of 15, and there were only natural or families may include children reported asadopted children present in the family, the step children.average number of children under the age of 25was 2.1. In a family where there was at least one Foster child: a child being raised by anstep child aged under 15 present, the average unrelated family in the absence of anynumber of all children in the family was higher natural, adoptive, or step parent(s), and(2.4). This is likely to reflect that two adults ‘foster’ was the response to the questionforming a new relationship may bring children about relationship to people in thefrom a previous relationship and go on to have household.one or more children together, to form ablended family. Grandchild: a child living in a family where there is at least one grandparent present and a direct parent/child relationship cannot be established with anyone else inAverage number of children and family the family. In 2006, 46% of these familiesmembers(a) had only grandchildren under the age of 15 and grandparents present. In the other 54% of families there was a combination of other Average number in family adults and/or children present. In some of Children(b) People these families, the adult or even another child may have been the parent of the Couple family with grandchild, but the census could not natural/adopted children establish this link. only 2.11 4.15 One parent family with Otherwise related child: a child living in a natural/adopted children 1.91 3.02 family with at least one other relative but Family with step children 2.36 4.41 where a direct parent–child relationship cannot be established with anyone in the Family with grandchildren 1.88 4.04 family. The child can be related by blood or Family with otherwise marriage, for example brother/sister, related children 2.43 4.54 nephew/niece. Family with foster children 3.01 4.84 Unrelated child: a child being raised by an Family with unrelated unrelated family in the absence of any children 2.22 3.84 natural, adoptive, or step parent(s). This group excludes children identified as (a) Families with children aged under 15 years. Family categories are not mutually exclusive, for example a family ‘foster’ on the census form. with foster children may include both foster and natural/adopted children. (b) Average includes all children under the age of 25. Children under the age of 15, and/or dependent students under the age of 25, who were temporarily absent on Census Night are also included._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 75
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangementsFamilies with at least one foster child under the Children living in households(a) with lowerage of 15 had the largest average number of or very low household income(b)children (3.0). This could be because manyfoster families care for more than one foster % Couple familychild. Just under half (46%) of all foster families 100 One parent familycared for more than one foster child and just 75over one third (36%) cared for at least onefoster child as well as at least one other child. 50Families with at least one grandchild under the 25age of 15 had the lowest average number of 0children under the age of 25 (1.9). However, an Natural/ Step Grand Otherwise Foster Unrelatedaverage of 4.0 people lived in these families, adopted child child related child childeven though almost half of grandchildren lived child childwith a lone grandparent (42%). Explaining this,26% of grandchildren lived with their (a) A number of these groups had a high proportion ofgrandparent(s) as well as one or more older households where household income could not begrandchildren, aunts, uncles, or other relatives calculated. Therefore graphed data are indicative only. See Endnote 7 for further information.aged 25 and over. Families with otherwise (b) For details of the income groups used see Endnote 8.related children also had a high averagenumber of people (4.5) even though more thanhalf were one parent families (57%). Children with no employed parentHousehold income Children living with no employed parent have a greater risk of experiencing financial hardshipAs children are dependent on their parents and and may also experience adverse impacts onfamilies for food, clothing, shelter and social their psychological wellbeing and long-termopportunities, children’s current and future personal development.9standards of living depend, to a large extent, ontheir household’s income. An indication of the In 2006, 6% of natural or adopted childrenrelative standard of living of different (152,800 children) were living in a couple familyhouseholds can be obtained by comparing where neither parent was employed. Inhousehold incomes, that is, gross weekly comparison, just over half of natural or adoptedhousehold income, equivalised to account for children in one parent families were living withdifferences in household size and composition a parent who was not employed (52% or(see Glossary for more detail). 344,800 children). However, some of these children would have a non-resident parent whoIn 2006, children who were not living with a was employed and providing financialnatural or adoptive parent (that is, assistance, as well as being a role model.grandchildren, foster, otherwise related andunrelated children) were almost twice as likely These patterns were similar for children into be living in households with lower, or very other living arrangements although at higherlow household incomes7, 8, as step children and levels. The circumstances of grandchildrennatural or adopted children. However, across living with their grandparents are somewhatthe board, children living with a lone parent or different, since many grandparents are retired.lone adult carer were more likely to be in ahousehold with lower or very low householdincome than those in a couple family. Children in families with no employedOf all children at home on Census Night in parent2006, those in one parent families were 2.8times more likely to be living in a household % Couple familywith lower or very low household income than 80 One parent familychildren living in couple families. 60The highest proportion of children living in 40households with lower or very low householdincomes were those living with a lone, 20otherwise related adult (79%) and those living 0with a lone grandparent (80%). Natural/ Step Other child adopted child child_______________________________________________________________________________________76 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangements without a mortgage (78%), than natural or Children living with same-sex adopted children living in a household with a couples lone parent (38%). Those living with a lone parent were more likely to be living in rental In 2006, approximately 3,200 children were accommodation (61%). living with same-sex couples. Most of these children were living with same-sex female As the proportion of people living in homes couples (89%). owned outright increases with age, it is not surprising that the highest proportion of Over half the children living with same-sex children living in dwellings that were owned couples were reported to be step children outright were those living with their (57%), while 38% were reported to be the grandparents (27% or 6,100 children). natural or adopted children of both parents. However, 67% of children living with a lone grandparent (6,500 children), were living in a Examination of same-sex data from the rented dwelling. This was the highest census may have some limitations. These proportion of children living in rented include the reluctance of some people to dwellings of all family arrangements. Over 47% report being in a same-sex de facto of the grandchildren living in rented dwellings partnership and the lack of knowledge that with a lone grandparent were in a home rented same-sex relationships would be counted as from a state or territory housing authority. such in the census. A high proportion of step children living in a couple family were in rented dwellings (40%). This was despite the fact that a relatively low proportion of step children lived in householdsHousing tenure with lower or very low household incomes,Paying off a mortgage, or paying rent, can have compared with children in other familya significant impact on the amount of income a arrangements.family has available to meet their overall livingcosts. However, once a mortgage has beenrepaid, households may enjoy reduced housingcosts, effectively improving their economic Children living in rented dwellingsposition. This reduction in housing costs overthe long term is one reason why many % Couple familyAustralian families aspire to own their own 80 One parent familyhome. Home ownership, with or without a 60mortgage, also generally provides a sense ofstability, privacy and autonomy10 and is 40associated with higher levels of attachment andidentification with a local area11. 20 0In 2006, children living with both their natural Natural/ Step Grand Otherwise Foster Unrelatedor adoptive parents were more likely to be adopted child child related child childliving in a home that was owned, with or child child Children in non-private dwellings The 2006 Census counted 30,100 children aged 0–14 in non-private dwellings on Census Night. Non-private dwellings include accommodation such as hotels, hospitals, institutions and boarding schools. Of the children in non-private dwellings, 30% were in hotels or motels, 24% were in boarding schools and 17% were in hospitals or hostels for the disabled. Of those who were at boarding school, 90% stated they were attending a non-government school. On Census Night, 750 children were counted in institutions, including childcare, corrective and other welfare institutions. This was higher than in 2001 (500 children), but was still low when compared with the 1986 Census, when 1,700 children were reported to be in institutions. This reduction has mainly been due to child protection services shifting away from institution-based services.12_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 77
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangementsLiving arrangements of Indigenous Of all the Indigenous children living in familychildren households (161,100), 43% were living with both their natural or adoptive parents whileIn the 2006 Census, 4.6% or 171,000 Australian 40% were living with a lone natural or adoptivechildren under the age of 15 were identified as parent. This was very different to non-being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Indigenous children’s living arrangements,origin. Even though this was a small proportion where 76% of children were living with bothof all Australian children, it represented over their natural or adoptive parents and 17% wereone third (38%) of the Indigenous population. living with a lone natural or adoptive parent.Consequently, the living arrangements ofIndigenous children are of interest, particularly A further 6.7% (10,800) of Indigenous childrensince a much higher proportion of Indigenous were living with step parents, 4.6% (7,300) werechildren were living in family arrangements that living with grandparents and 3.7% (6,000) werecould lead to disadvantage than non-Indigenous living with otherwise related adults.children in 2006. The 7,300 Indigenous children living with their grandparents represented almost one third (32%) of all children living with their grandparents. Indigenous children also Using census data to analyse represented almost one third (32%) of all otherwise related children. Although some Indigenous living arrangements Indigenous children living with their The census is one of the main sources of grandparents or otherwise related adults may data about Aboriginal and Torres Strait be disadvantaged in terms of household income Islander peoples. It provides the basis for and housing, they may benefit culturally. For Indigenous population estimates and is the example, a relatively high proportion of these key source of socioeconomic characteristics children were reported to be speaking an of Indigenous Australians for small Indigenous language at home. In 2006, 31% of geographic areas. otherwise related Indigenous children (1,600 children) and 22% of Indigenous grandchildren However, there are a number of issues (1,600 children) reported speaking an which affect the use of census data for the Indigenous language at home. This compares Indigenous population. These include: with only 9% of Indigenous natural or adopted underenumeration of the Indigenous children. population, census records where Indigenous status is unknown, and the changing proportion of people identifying as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Indigenous children’s living arrangements between censuses. Consequently, care should be taken when interpreting Children information about Indigenous children’s living arrangements and family % ’000 composition, since census questions about Natural/adopted children family relationships cannot fully capture the living in couple family 43.0 69.3 complexity of many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. Natural/adopted children living in one parent family 39.8 64.2 For more information about Indigenous Step children 6.7 10.8 census data see Population Characteristics, Grandchildren 4.6 7.3 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006, ABS cat. no. 4713.0. Also Otherwise related children 3.7 6.0 see the research monograph Agency, Foster children 1.4 2.3 Contingency and Census Process: Observations of the 2006 Indigenous Unrelated children 0.7 1.2 Enumeration Strategy in Remote Total in private Aboriginal Australia, no. 28, by Frances dwellings(a) 100.0 161.1 Morphy from the Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research. (a) Total excludes children counted in non-private and non-classifiable dwellings, migratory, or off-shore collection districts and children visiting other households on Census Night._______________________________________________________________________________________78 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangementsIndigenous children were also over-representedamong foster children. In 2006, just over onequarter of foster children were Indigenous (26% In 2006, 24,000 childrenor 2,300 children). Of all families with at least lived with theirone Indigenous foster child, 42% also had atleast one foster parent who was Indigenous. grandparents, with noThis reflects the Aboriginal Child Placement parent in the family.Principle which expresses a preference for theplacement of Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander children with other Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander people when they areplaced outside their family.13 were approximately twice as likely to be living in a household with lower, or very low income7The complexity of Indigenous children’s living than natural or adopted children. Only 42% ofarrangements can be seen in the proportion of grandchildren (9,300 children) were living in aIndigenous children living in multiple family family with at least one employed grandparent.households (see Glossary). In 2006, 12% ofIndigenous children living in family households Having to support grandchildren, while alsolived in households with more than one family paying for housing, can be financial burden forcompared with 3% of non-Indigenous children. many grandparents. Going against the general pattern of higher levels of home ownershipGrandchildren living with their among older people10, only 34% ofgrandparents—a case study grandchildren living with both their grandparents, and 16% of children living with aMany of the different household and family lone grandparent, were living in a home ownedcharacteristics discussed in this article can be outright. In fact, grandchildren living with abrought together to focus on one small lone grandparent were the most likely of allpopulation group. For the first time, 2006 children to be living in a rented dwelling (67%).Census data can be used to focus on families Of all grandchildren living with a lonewhere there are grandchildren living with their grandparent in rented dwellings, 47% lived in agrandparents and there are no parents present house rented from a state or territory housingin the family (although these families may have authority.other family members present, such as aunts,uncles or older siblings). These families are of There was a high proportion of grandchildrengreat interest, as many children who can no living in Outer Regional, Remote or Verylonger live with their natural parents are cared Remote areas of Australia (29% or 6,900for by their grandparents. In 2006, 24,000 grandchildren) and two thirds of these childrenchildren lived in these families. were Indigenous.Often the circumstances leading to childrenliving with their grandparents are traumatic, andinclude family breakdown, substance abuse,mental health problems, or the death of aparent.14 In many cases grandparents take on Family coding and other datathe care of more than one child, as evidenced sourcesby the average number of children being caredfor by grandparents There are limitations when using census(1.9 children). This can place a strain on the data to study complex families and theirgrandparents as they may not be prepared relationships. For information on thesepsychologically, financially or physically for this limitations, see family coding in therole.15 However, many take on this role to give Glossary.their grandchildren the best chance of leadinghappy and healthy lives.16 The ABS survey Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia, 2006–07, cat no.Most grandparents are older than parents 4442.0 was also conducted in 2006 andlooking after children under the age of 15 specifically focuses on family composition.(median ages of 57 years and 38 years This survey is another rich source ofrespectively) and have fewer resources available information on families and can provideto cover the added expenses of caring for further insight into family transitions overchildren.15, 16 The 2006 Census indicates that time, parental contact arrangements andgrandchildren living with their grandparents family structure._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 79
    • Living arrangements…Children’s living arrangementsEndnotes 12 ABS 2003, ‘People in institutional settings’ in Australian Social Trends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS,1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003, Canberra.‘Changing families’ in Australian Social Trends 2003,cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra. 13 Lock, J.A. 1997, The Aboriginal Child Placement Principle: Research Project no. 7, New South Wales2 ABS 2001, Measuring Wellbeing: Frameworks for Law Reform Commission, Sydney.Australian Social Statistics, cat. no. 4160.0, ABS,Canberra. 14 ABS 2005, ‘Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren’ in Australian Social Trends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.3 ABS 2007, ‘One parent families’ in AustralianSocial Trends 2007, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra. 15 Statistics Canada 2003, ‘Across the generations: Grandparents and grandchildren’ in Canadian4 Sawyer, M. et al. 2000, The Mental Health of Young Social Trends, Winter 2003, cat. no. 11–008.People in Australia, Department of Heath and AgedCare, Canberra. 16 Fitzpatrick, M. and Reeve, P. 2003, ‘Grandparents’5 Cashmore, J. 2001, Submission to the Inquiry into raising grandchildren—a new class of disadvantagedthe Provision of Public Education in New South Australians’ in Family Matters, No. 66, AustralianWales, Social Policy Research Centre, UNSW. Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne.6 ABS 2008, Family Characteristics and Transitions,Australia 2006–07, cat. no. 4442.0, ABS, Canberra.7 A high proportion of grandchildren (23%),otherwise related (25%), foster (16%) and unrelatedchildren (25%) were living in households where ahousehold income could not be calculated, usuallybecause a household member did not state theirpersonal income. Therefore, any discussion aboutthese groups’ household incomes is only anindication of the proportion of these children livingin households with lower or very low householdincomes.8 People with very low household incomes had grossequivalised household incomes which were in thelowest 10% of the distribution of household incomefor all persons. People with lower householdincomes had incomes that were greater than 10%and up to 30% in this distribution. People with a verylow household income have generally been omittedin discussions of household income in other parts ofthis report. This is because many of the people livingin these households have had access to resources,such as savings, that allow them to have expenditurelevels consistent with people on moderate incomes(see Glossary for more detail). However, a largeproportion of grandchildren, otherwise related,foster and unrelated children were living inhouseholds with very low household incomes andincluding these children provides a more informativepicture of their household incomes than if they wereexcluded.9 ABS 2004, Measures of Australia’s Progress, cat. no.1370.0, ABS, Canberra.10 ABS 2003, ‘Home ownership across Australia’ inAustralian Social Trends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS,Canberra.11 Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute(AHURI) 2007, How do housing and housingassistance relate to social cohesion?, AHURIResearch and Policy Bulletin, Issue 92, November2007, AHURI, Melbourne._______________________________________________________________________________________80 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Families with young children: a Sydney case studyAs families change over time, the areas where Where families with youngthey live also change. Identifying areas where children livelarge proportions of families with youngchildren live, and understanding how these In 2006, the majority of people in families withareas change over time, can assist in the young children lived in Major Cities (68%),planning of new suburbs and the provision of while 19% lived in Inner Regional areas andservices for these families. In this article, a 10% lived in Outer Regional areas. Almost 3%family with young children refers to any family of people in families with young children livedthat includes at least one child aged under 5. in Remote or Very Remote areas of Australia.Over the past 35 years the proportion of young Even though there were relatively few peoplechildren (those under the age of 5) in Australia in families with young children living inhas decreased from 9.6% of the total Remote and Very Remote areas overall, thesepopulation in 1971, to 6.4% in 2006. This areas had the highest proportion of theirchange can be attributed to two main factors: population living in families with youngpeople living longer, which has increased the children. One quarter of the total populationproportion of older Australians in the in Remote and Very Remote areas was living inpopulation, and a decline of the total fertility families with young children, compared withrate—the average number of babies born to 18% in Major Cities, 18% in Inner Regionaleach woman (see Glossary). The total fertility areas and 19% in Outer Regional areas.rate has decreased from 2.95 babies perwoman in 1971 to 1.81 in 2006.1 For more The higher proportion of families with younginformation on the ageing population see the children in Remote and Very Remote areas of‘Population overview’, p. 2–8. Australia is associated with the higher proportion of Aboriginal and Torres StraitWith fewer babies being born, the proportion Islander peoples living in these areas (15% inof families with young children has decreased Remote areas and 48% in Very Remote areas).since 1986, from 22% of all couple and oneparent families, with or without children, to17% in 2006.People living in families with young children(a): Remoteness areas Families with People in families Young children(b) young children with young children Remoteness area 000 000 000 % of population Major Cities 836.4 615.3 2 374.8 18.2 Inner Regional 233.6 169.7 669.9 18.1 Outer Regional 117.0 83.5 332.9 19.0 Remote/Very Remote 34.6 23.9 102.6 25.0 Total 1 221.6 892.5 3 480.2 18.4 (a) A family with young children refers to any family that includes at least one child under the age of 5. (b) Excludes all children who were not at home on Census Night._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 81
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case studyGenerally, there are higher levels of fertility without a mortgage, while almost one thirdamong Indigenous women, (2.12 babies per (33%) lived in rented accommodation. ForIndigenous woman compared with 1.81 for all more information about housing acrossAustralian women1), and families with at least different life-cycle groups see the ‘Housingone Indigenous person have a higher average overview’, p. 204–214.number of children per family (2.49) thanfamilies without an Indigenous person (2.02). In 2006, the majority of families with young children were living in separate houses (86%),As the majority of families with young children while only 7.2% were living in semi-detached,live in Major Cities, this article explores trends row, or terrace houses and 6.8% were living inand patterns occurring in these areas. For flats, units or apartments. Within Australia’smore information about the classification of Major Cities, the outer suburbs tend to containMajor Cities, see ‘Remoteness Areas’ in higher proportions of families with youngGlossary. children3, as these areas generally have higher proportions of separate houses. Some of theseHousing—an important factor for families are attracted by the relatively low cost of the established housing in these areas. Forfamilies with young children others, new housing developments in theMost Australians live in a home that is owned, outer suburbs are chosen because they offerwith or without a mortgage (72%). The larger numbers of new separate houses, whichtransition to purchasing a home often occurs are suitable for families with children. Forwhen people form a couple and want to start a more information on differences in housingfamily.2 In 2006, almost two thirds (65%) of across cities see, ‘Housing across Brisbane andpeople in families with young children were Melbourne city rings’,living in a home they owned, either with or p. 224–232.Areas with high proportions of people living in families with young children(a): top twoStatistical Local Areas (SLAs) in capital cities—1986, 1996 and 2006 1986 1996 2006 SLA % SLA % SLA % Blacktown - South- Sydney Campbelltown 36.5 Campbelltown 28.6 West 26.3 Penrith 33.6 Blacktown 27.9 Liverpool - West 26.2 Melbourne Melton 37.3 Knox - South 36.1 Wyndham - South 33.4 Bulla 36.0 Casey - Cranbourne 34.8 Melton - East 31.1 Brisbane Eagleby 45.9 Marsden 34.8 Wakerley 34.8 Marsden 45.0 Greenbank - Part B 32.4 Upper Kedron 32.3 Adelaide Munno Para 33.7 Munno Para 27.7 Salisbury Bal 23.7 Happy Valley 33.2 Elizabeth 24.8 Playford - West Central 23.6 Wanneroo - North- Perth Wanneroo 31.1 West 36.2 Wanneroo - North-West 25.1 Armadale 28.9 Swan 28.4 Wanneroo - South 23.0 Hobart Brighton - Pt A 45.9 Brighton 33.2 Brighton 24.8 Kingborough - Pt A 29.9 Sorell - Pt A 26.7 Kingborough - Pt A 19.9 Darwin Moulden 51.8 Woodroffe 42.5 City remainder 36.5 Driver 46.9 Moulden 40.1 Durack 35.2 Canberra Richardson 51.5 Banks 44.2 Amaroo 35.8 Monash 47.9 Conder 43.3 Dunlop 31.6 (a) A family with young children refers to any family that includes at least one child under the age of 5._______________________________________________________________________________________82 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case study Comparing geographical areas and families over time Geographical areas: Comparing populations within particular areas over time can be difficult as the boundaries defining the areas may change. Comparing where families with young children live over time is particularly difficult as many of these families live in the newer, outer suburban areas. Some of these areas were undeveloped land at the time of past censuses, while others have had their borders changed over time as their populations have increased. The Sydney case studies in this article are based on Local Government Areas (LGAs) whose boundaries have remained relatively consistent over time. The other examples provided in this article are either LGAs or smaller Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that fit within an LGA. These areas may have undergone more substantial boundary changes over time but are generally comparable. For more information on LGAs and SLAs, see Glossary. Sydney comparison: Comparisons are made between case study LGAs—Baulkham Hills, Blacktown and Mosman—and the entire Statistical Division (SD) of Sydney. This SD encompasses all areas of Sydney shown in the map below. Data in this article are based on place of enumeration to allow comparisons over time.People in families with young children(a): Proportion of the total population in StatisticalLocal Areas, Sydney Statistical Division, 2006 # Toukley Gosford # Baulkham Baulkham Baulkham Baulkham Hills (A) Hills (A) Hills (A) Hills (A) Hills (A) Hills (A) # Palm Beach Katoomba # Blacktown (C) Blacktown (C) (C) Blacktown (C) Blacktown (C) (C) Manly # # Mosman (A) Mosman (A) Mosman (A) Mosman (A) Mosman (A) Mosman (A) Parramatta Per cent 24.2 or more # 18.7 – 24.2 Cronulla 12.9 – 18.7 Less than 12.9 # Picton Study areas 0 40 Kilometres(a) A family with young children refers to any family that includes at least one child under the age of 5._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 83
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case study Baulkham Hills: age profile, 1971 and Families over time 2006 In censuses before 1986, a family with at 000 least one child under the age of 5 cannot 12 1971 2006 be identified. For years before 1986, this article uses the proportion of children 9 aged 0–4 in an area as a proxy; after 1986 6 the proportion of families with young children is used. 3 0 0–4 20–24 40–44 60–64 10–14 30–34 50–54 70+ AgeNew suburbs—growthand ageing Even though the proportion of young childrenThe movement of families with children to has increased slightly in the area, the familiesmore recently developed, outer suburban that have lived in Baulkham Hills for a longareas of a city can result in a relatively young time now have older children. This hasage profile in the population when these areas resulted in a more even distribution of ageare first established.2 However, if many of groups and makes it less likely that the areathese families stay in the same area over time will return to having a very high proportion ofand fewer new families with young children young children in the next 5 to 10 years.move into the area, the profile of thepopulation begins to age. Census data show Other factors may also help to keep thesigns of this ageing process in SLAs such as proportion of families with young childrenBrowns Plains in Brisbane, Kambah and Kaleen lower for the whole LGA in the near future.in Canberra, and the southern area of Knox in Firstly, in 2006, the proportion of women ofMelbourne. child-bearing age (20–39 years) in Baulkham Hills, was lower than in 1971 (27% comparedBaulkham Hills changes over time with 34%). Secondly, in 2006, the total fertilityThe LGA of Baulkham Hills, in Sydney, is an rate of women living in the area was 1.72example of an area where the population has babies. This was below the national rate of 1.81grown and aged. Baulkham Hills is located on babies per woman and well below the rates inthe outskirts of Sydney. In the 1960s urban some other areas in Sydney that also had highdevelopment started to accelerate in the area.4 proportions of families with young children,By 1971 Baulkham Hills had the highest such as Blacktown (2.08) and Camden (2.06).1proportion of young children (aged 0–4) inSydney (14%). However, after 1971, the In 2006, families with young children inpopulation of the area started to age and the Baulkham Hills had higher housing costs (rentproportion of young children decreased, while and mortgage payments) than other areas ofthe proportion of primary school aged Sydney. The median monthly home loanchildren and then high school aged children repayment for families with young children inincreased. By 1996, the proportion of young Baulkham Hills in 2006, was $2,250, $250 morechildren had decreased to 5.8%. than the Sydney median for families with young children ($2,000). The median weeklyHowever, since 1996, new land development rent for families with young children was $340has occurred in the northern part of Baulkham per week, compared with $250 for families withHills. This and other development has young children across Sydney.increased the number of houses and hasallowed the population of the whole area to Along with the higher cost of housing in thegrow. People in families with young children area, the household incomes of families withmoving to the area have contributed to this young children in Baulkham Hills were alsogrowth. Almost half (47%) of all people in high compared with families with youngyoung families living in Baulkham Hills in 2006 children across Sydney. In 2006, 36% of younghad moved to the area in the past 5 years. This families living in Baulkham Hills were living inhas caused a slight increase in the proportion households with higher household incomes5of young children across the area (6.4% in 2001 compared with 24% for Sydney. Higherto 6.7% in 2006). housing costs may be a factor in families with young children on lower incomes not living in this area._______________________________________________________________________________________84 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case studyFamilies with young children in Baulkham Blacktown(a): Age profile, 1971 and 2006Hills 000 1971 25 2006 Baulkham Hills Sydney 20 15 % % 10 Living in separate houses 88.8 72.4 5 Main tenure types 0 0–4 20–24 40–44 60–64 Renting 19.2 34.0 10–14 30–34 50–54 70+ Age Home owners with mortgage 69.0 54.7 (a) There was a small boundary change in Blacktown Home owners without between 1971 and 1981. mortgage 10.8 10.1 One parent families 6.6 13.6 Blacktown—many families with Living in households with higher household young children income(a) 36.1 24.3 The LGA of Blacktown, in Sydney, is an $ $ example of an area that has had a high proportion of families with young children for Median weekly rental many years. In 2006, Blacktown had the payment 340 250 second highest proportion of families with Median monthly mortgage young children in Sydney (24.1%) and in 1986 loan repayment 2 250 2 000 it had the fifth highest proportion (29.8%). While such families cannot be separately no. no. identified in 1971 Census data, the data do Average no. of children show that in 1971 the area had the second per family(b) 2.04 2.00 highest proportion of children aged 0–4 in Sydney (13.4% of the population): in 2006 this years years proportion was 8.3%. Mean age of mothers 34.2 33.3 (a) For details of the income groups used see Glossary. Many factors could contribute to the high proportion of families with young children (b) This average includes all children under the age of 25 living in Blacktown over a long period of time. present on Census Night. It also accounts for children under the age of 15, and/or dependent students under One factor may be the consistent addition of the age of 25, who were temporarily absent on Census separate houses to the area since 1976. Night. Between 1976 and 2006 the number of separate houses in Blacktown increased by 94%. As many families prefer to live in separate houses, this steady increase is likely to haveSome suburbs stay young attracted families (or people planning to start aWhile in some areas the proportions of young family) to move to Blacktown or to stay withinchildren and their families decline with time, in the area.others a relatively high proportion of familieswith young children can be maintained for In addition to the increase in the total numbermany years. Although LGAs such as Melton in of separate houses in Blacktown over the lastMelbourne, Wollondilly in Sydney, Wanneroo 30 years, the housing costs are lower than inin Perth and Brighton in Hobart, have all some other parts of Sydney. This may haveexperienced a decrease in the proportion of helped to attract families with young childrenpeople living in families with young children who wanted to buy or rent a separate home. Insince 1986, they have maintained a high 2006, the median housing loan repayment forproportion of people in families with young families with young children in Blacktown waschildren when compared with other areas in $1,840 per month, $160 lower than the mediantheir respective capital cities. for all families with young children in Sydney ($2,000). The median weekly rent was also lower than for Sydney as a whole ($220 and $250 per week respectively)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 85
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case studyFamilies with young children in In 2006, the women in Blacktown were havingBlacktown more children than those in other areas of Sydney. This was shown by the high fertility Blacktown Sydney rate in the area—2.08 babies per woman.1 This was the third highest fertility rate in Sydney % % after Bankstown (2.15) and Auburn (2.12).1 Living in separate houses 85.2 72.4 On average the mothers in Blacktown were younger (32 years) than mothers in Sydney as Main tenure types a whole (33 years). Renting 37.8 34.0 Home owners with Established, high mortgage 55.0 54.7 socioeconomic suburbs Home owners without mortgage 6.3 10.1 Even though areas such as Blacktown have maintained a high proportion of children One parent families 20.3 13.6 compared with other areas in major cities, they Living in households with have still experienced a decrease in the higher household proportion of families with young children income(a) 11.3 24.3 over time. However, this trend has not been repeated in many well-established, ‘more $ $ advantaged’6, metropolitan areas where the Median weekly rental proportion of families with young children is payment 220 250 usually low. In these well-established areas, the proportion of families with young children has Median monthly remained relatively stable or has risen slightly. mortgage loan repayment 1 840 2 000 Examples of such areas are the LGAs of no. no. Cottesloe in Perth, Burnside in Adelaide, Average no. of children Woollahra and Mosman in Sydney and the per family(b) 2.13 2.00 smaller SLA of Bayside-Brighton in Melbourne. years years The slight increase in the proportion of Mean age of mothers 31.8 33.3 families with young children in these areas may reflect the recent increase in the fertility rate (a) For details of the income groups used see Glossary. that has occurred in many of the more (b) This average includes all children under the age of 25 advantaged areas of Australia. Women in more present on Census Night. It also accounts for children advantaged areas have traditionally had lower under the age of 15, and/or dependent students under fertility rates than in other areas. However, the age of 25, who were temporarily absent on Census Night. between 2001 and 2005 the fertility rate for women living in more advantaged areas accounted for 59% of the overall increase in Australias total fertility rate.7 This might beAlong with the lower housing costs, the attributed to ‘catch up’ fertility as olderincomes of families with young children in women, who may have delayed havingBlacktown were lower than other areas. In children while they completed study and/or2006, 11% of these families were living in established careers, start a family.households with a higher household income5,compared with 24% of all families with youngchildren in Sydney. Mosman women start families The LGA of Mosman is a typical example of aOf all people in families with young children high socioeconomic, advantaged area whereliving in Blacktown in 2006, 32% had moved to the proportion of people in families withthe area in the 5 years prior to the 2006 young children has remained low and fairlyCensus. This was a much lower proportion stable, with only a slight increase from 15.6% inthan in Baulkham Hills (47%). It was also lower 1986 to 16.6% in 2006. In line with this, overthan the proportion of all people in families the same period, the proportion of youngwith young children, living in Sydney, who had children aged 0–4 also increased slightly, frommoved between LGAs in the previous 5 years 5.2% in 1986 to 6.2% in 2006.(38%). This indicates that a higher proportionof people already living in Blacktown may behaving their first child. Further, many of thefamilies who had children in 2001 have hadmore children since._______________________________________________________________________________________86 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case studyMosman: Age profile, 1971 and 2006 Families with young children in Mosman000 Mosman Sydney 19713.0 20062.5 % %2.0 Living in separate houses 55.3 72.41.5 Main tenure types1.0 Renting 42.3 34.00.5 0–4 20–24 40–44 60–64 Home owners with 10–14 30–34 50–54 70+ mortgage 41.9 54.7 Age Home owners without mortgage 15.1 10.1 One parent families 5.8 13.6These changes reflect an increase in the totalfertility rate in the area, although it still Living in households with higher householdremains low. The total fertility rate of women income(a) 67.7 24.3in Mosman increased from 1.36 babies perwoman in 2001 to 1.47 in 2006.1 $ $ Median weekly rentalMosman is much closer to the central business payment 580 250district of Sydney than Blacktown andBaulkham Hills and has a higher proportion of Median monthly mortgagehigher density housing than the outer loan repayment 3 790 2 000suburban areas. In 2006, only 37% of dwellings no. no.in Mosman were detached houses while 52%were flats, units or apartments and 11% were Average no. of childrensemi-detached houses. There has also been per family(b) 1.89 2.00little development of new housing in the area years yearswith only a 9% increase in dwellings between1986 and 2006. Mean age of mothers 36.8 33.3 (a) For details of the income groups used see Glossary.The low proportion of families with youngchildren in the area may be associated with the (b) This average includes all children under the age of 25 present on Census Night. It also accounts for childrensmall proportion of separate houses compared under the age of 15, and/or dependent students underwith many outer suburban areas of Sydney, as the age of 25, who were temporarily absent on Censuswell as the small amount of new housing Night.development in Mosman. The high price ofreal estate in Mosman may also be a factor. In2006, families with young children in Mosman, children living in the area in 2006 had movedwho had a mortgage on their home, were there in the past 5 years. Of those in familiespaying a median monthly home loan with young children who had moved, over halfrepayment of $3,790, which was $1,790 more (53%) were renting. This was very different tothan the median monthly home loan Baulkham Hills where a similarly highrepayment for all families with young children proportion of people in young families hadin Sydney. The median rent for families with moved into the area in the past 5 years (47%),young children in Mosman was also higher but a much lower proportion of these were($580 per week) than for families with young renting (27%).children in Sydney overall ($250 per week).These high housing costs are likely to be Although renting is often associated with lowerputting living in Mosman out of reach for many household income8, this was not the case infamilies with young children. Associated with Mosman. Of those people in young familiesthese higher housing costs, 68% of families who had moved into Mosman in the past 5with young children that were living in the area years and were renting, a high proportionin 2006, were living in households with a (65%) were living in households with higherhigher household income5. household incomes5. This may indicate that these families choose to rent in Mosman ratherDespite the factors that might discourage than be owners with a mortgage further awayfamilies with young children from living in from the centre of the city.Mosman, 54% of people in families with young_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 87
    • Living arrangements…Families with young children: A Sydney case studyEndnotes1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2007, Births,Australia, 2006, cat. no. 3301.0, ABS, Canberra.2 Baum S. and Wulff, M. 2003, Housing aspirationsof Australian households, Final Report No. 30,Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute,Melbourne.3 ABS 2002, ‘Regional population ageing’ inAustralian Social Trends 2002, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS,Canberra.4 Baulkham Hills Shire Council 2007–2008, Historyof the Shire—Timeline, viewed 17 June 2008,<http://www.baulkhamhills.nsw.gov.au/History-of-the-Shire-Timeline.html>.5 Household income is equivalised gross householdincome. For details of the household incomegroups used see Glossary.6 More advantaged areas are those areas in the top40% of all Australian SLAs indexed by the Index ofRelative Socio-Economic Advantage/ Disadvantage(SEIFA). For more information, see InformationPaper: An Introduction to Socio-Economic Indexesfor Areas (SEIFA), 2006, cat. no. 2039.0, ABS,Canberra.7 ABS 2007, ‘Recent increases in Australias fertility’in Australian Social Trends 2007, cat. no. 4102.0,ABS, Canberra.8 ABS 2008, ‘Renter households’ in AustralianSocial Trends 2007, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra._______________________________________________________________________________________88 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Overview 90Volunteering across Australia 103Caring across the life cycle 107
    • Community overviewCommunities are groups of people who havesomething in common, such as familyrelationship, friendship, location or interest. In 2006, half of AustralianCommunities span many different aspects of a adults helped to buildperson’s life, such as cultural or religiousactivities, employment, education, sport and community by caring forleisure. Community involvement can children, or a person withcontribute to a persons wellbeing by providing a disability, or doinga sense of identity and belonging, oropportunities to build positive relationships. voluntary work.Further, communities contribute to socialcohesion by building people’s capacity to worktogether and for each other, to address socialproblems and support those in need. Women lead the way in theThe census provides a wealth of informationabout communities in local areas. Articles in growing ranks of volunteersthis chapter provide a national and local The 2006 Census provides a good picture ofpicture of some aspects of community the characteristics of volunteers. More womeninvolvement. Unpaid work, included in the had volunteered than men, regardless of age,2006 Census for the first time, is an important living arrangements, labour force participation,aspect of community involvement. Apart from hours in paid work per week, religiousdomestic work in the home, it encompasses affiliation or country of birth. Part-timevoluntary work, child care and unpaid care for workers, especially those who worked underpeople with a disability. This overview also 20 hours a week, volunteered at higher ratesfocuses on people who need assistance with than those working full-time or those whocore activities. Many people requiring were not employed.assistance face barriers to communityinvolvement and need support from others to People living in rural areas of Australia wereparticipate. Much of the care received by this more likely to volunteer than those living ingroup is unpaid, provided by family members urban areas: around 28% of residents of Ruraland others in the community. areas volunteered, compared with 18% of residents of Major Urban areas and 23% ofVoluntary work residents of Other Urban areas (see Glossary for definition of geographic areas). For moreVolunteers help to meet needs in society and information, see ‘Volunteering acrossin turn volunteering can give people a sense of Australia’, p. 103–106.satisfaction and opportunities to interact withothers. Over the last decade, a growing Overall, people born in Australia were morenumber of Australians have participated in likely to volunteer than those born overseasvoluntary work. The Australian Bureau of (22% compared with 15%). However peopleStatistics (ABS) Voluntary Work Survey (2006) who were born overseas and who spoke onlyshowed that 35% of people aged 18 years and English at home were almost as likely toover had volunteered in the previous year, a volunteer (20%) as Australian-born people, andhigher proportion than in 2000 (32%) and in there were considerable differences between1995 (24%).1 birthplace groups. For example, a high proportion of people born in North America (31%) and Melanesia and Micronesia (23%) had volunteered._______________________________________________________________________________________90 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewWhile there was also considerable variation reflects a link with participation in education.within the major religious groups, Christians Over half of young people were studying (56%were generally more likely than people of the of 15–24 year olds), and students in this agesame age with no religious affiliation to have group had higher participation in voluntaryvolunteered. Although people who were work than others (20% of students volunteeredaffiliated with a non-Christian religion were less compared with 12% of people who were notlikely to volunteer than Christians or people studying). Consistent with this, dependentwith no religion, people of a non-Christian students were more likely to volunteer thanreligion who spoke only English at home were people of similar ages but at different stages ofmore likely to volunteer (26%) than Christians the life cycle (see table page 92).(23%) and people with no religion (18%) whoalso spoke only English at home. Along with dependent students, members of young group households and young loneVolunteering across the life cycle persons had higher levels of participation in voluntary work (19% and 18% respectively)…Young people than young non-dependent children still living with parents and those in young coupleVolunteering is related broadly to age and families without children (12% and 14%more specifically to the stage people are at in respectively). Young people in lone and groupthe life cycle. The proportion of young people households may have fewer familywho volunteered was relatively low compared responsibilities and more free time than otherwith other age groups. However, the pattern of young people.volunteering in the younger age groupsCharacteristics of people aged 15 years and over who volunteered Total Male Female Persons Volunteers population(a) % % % 000 000 Country of birth Australia 19.1 24.0 21.6 2 183.0 10 583.6 Overseas 13.6 17.3 15.5 612.9 4 178.3 Religion No religion 15.3 20.4 17.6 478.5 2 793.2 Religious affiliation 18.3 22.6 20.5 2 219.0 11 380.4 Christian religion 18.7 23.0 21.0 2 070.4 10 393.6 Non-Christian religion 14.7 17.2 15.9 148.7 986.8 Place of usual residence Major Urban 15.4 19.6 17.6 7 959.5 10 675.4 Other Urban 19.9 25.2 22.7 2 354.5 3 370.3 Rural area 24.6 30.8 27.6 1 208.0 1 834.2 Labour force status Worked part-time (under 20 hours) 21.9 29.3 27.0 326.1 1 224.3 Worked part-time (20 to 34 hours) 18.5 24.5 22.6 326.1 1 460.9 Worked full-time (35 hours or more) 17.4 19.3 18.1 1 040.1 5 827.4 Total employed(b) 17.7 22.7 20.0 1 786.9 9 104.2 Not employed 16.9 21.3 19.5 1 049.3 5 774.9 Total 17.4 22.0 19.8 2 851.0 15 918.1 (a) Total population includes people who did not state voluntary work. (b) Includes people who were employed but away from work._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 91
    • Community…overviewAge profile of volunteers lower level of participation (18%). Opportunities for parents to assist with school, % Male sport and other organised activities tend to30 Female diminish as children move into their late teens.25 Participation in voluntary work among adults in20 couple families with young adult children15 (21%) was lower than people in couple families with school-aged children (30%).10 Lone parents were less likely than their 5 counterparts in couple families to volunteer, 15–19 35–39 55–59 75–79 possibly reflecting time and resource 25–29 45–49 65–69 85+ constraints of sole parenting. Age …Retirement years Participation in voluntary work was slightly…Families with children lower among people aged 45–59, but reached a second peak in the 60s age group. In this ageMany adults with young children contributed group people generally move from work toto society through voluntary work, seen in the retirement, and by their late 60s most peoplepeak levels of volunteering among people in are no longer in the labour force. Many peopletheir 30s and 40s. Adults in couple families in this group have time and skills to offer towith school-aged children were the most likely voluntary organisations, and volunteering into volunteer: 30% of people in such families turn offers them an alternative vocation andhad volunteered. In comparison, people in the opportunity to contribute to societycouple families with young children had aPeople aged 15 and over in selected life-cycle groups who volunteered Male Female Persons Volunteers Total(a) % % % 000 000 Dependent student(b) 17.8 22.6 20.3 160.7 888.5 Young non-dependent child(b)(c) 10.2 14.5 11.9 107.9 960.9 Young group household 15.6 22.0 18.5 62.7 349.1 Young lone person 15.3 20.8 17.7 50.0 291.2 Young couple family without children 12.6 15.5 14.0 94.0 677.6 Couple family with young children 15.3 19.8 17.6 250.5 1 457.8 One parent family with young children 10.4 13.0 12.7 16.3 135.1 Couple family with school-aged children 25.3 33.9 29.7 491.6 1 705.1 One parent family with school-aged children 18.8 25.6 24.4 73.6 315.8 Couple family with young adult children 19.2 22.1 20.7 230.5 1 144.2 One parent family with young adult children 15.4 19.8 18.7 41.9 232.7 Middle-aged couple family 21.0 24.0 22.5 351.1 1 605.9 Older couple family without children 21.4 24.2 22.8 192.6 955.4 Older lone person 15.8 22.8 20.7 113.0 649.1 Total(d) 17.4 22.0 19.8 2 851.0 15 918.1 (a) Total population includes people who did not state voluntary work. (b) Other life-cycle tables throughout this report do not separately identify dependent students and young non-dependent children, rather they are included in the family categories to which they belong. (c) Includes non-dependent grandchildren. (d) Includes people not included in selected life-cycle groups. See Glossary for more information on life-cycle groups._______________________________________________________________________________________92 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewoutside of paid employment. Participation in cared for a child in the previous two weeks:voluntary work declined among those aged 3.2 million parents cared for their own70 and older. In older age, people may children, including 0.2 million who cared forexperience a number of significant events that their own and another child, and 1.1 millioncan lead to social isolation, including people supported families by caring forretirement, death of a partner, living alone and children who were not their own.failing health. Fewer older men living as olderlone persons had volunteered (16%) than men Over the past few decades, care arrangementsliving in an older couple family without for Australian children have changed. Morechildren (21%), as men living alone are women are in paid employment than in theconcentrated in the oldest ages, and are more past and parents are increasingly using formallikely to be limited by health problems. child care arrangements to allow them to undertake paid work while raising a family. AsUnpaid child care well, many children are cared for by grandparents, siblings, relatives, friends andThe future of Australia will be significantly neighbours (known as informal child care).shaped by today’s children. Quality care and According to the 2005 ABS Child Care Survey,support for children provided by parents, over half of all children under 13 years of agefamilies and the broader community is an were only cared for by their parents, one thirdinvestment in the continuation and future received informal child care (some inprosperity of society. The 2006 Census combination with formal child care) and onecounted just under 4 million children aged fifth received formal care (some inunder 15 years. Around 4.4 million adults had combination with informal child care).3 Measures of unpaid work in the 2006 Census Voluntary work A volunteer is a person aged 15 years and over who did voluntary work through an organisation or group in the 12 months prior to Census Night 2006. Information on volunteers was also collected in the 2006 Voluntary Work Survey (VWS), conducted as part of the General Social Survey. The number of volunteers measured in the census (2.9 million) is considerably lower than in the VWS (5.2 million).1 Different collections methods explain these different results. The census is self reported, and in some cases one household member reports for others in the household, while the VWS is conducted by personal interviewers who provide prompts. Even so, census data are valuable as they provide insights into volunteering patterns in different local communities and the characteristics of volunteers. When interpreting results from the census, it must be recognised that people of different backgrounds may have different understandings of what constitutes voluntary work, and the activities that might be considered as voluntary work. Unpaid child care The 2006 Census identified people aged 15 years and over who spent time in the previous fortnight caring for their own child, and people who cared for grandchildren, or children of relatives, friends or neighbours without being paid. Only care for children under 15 was included. Interpretation of what caring for a child means can vary between individuals. The census did not collect information about the time a person spent caring for a child, or how time with children is spent. Unpaid care for a person with a disability In the 2006 Census, 1.6 million people aged 15 years and over indicated that they had provided unpaid care in the 2 weeks before the census. Unpaid care was defined as help or assistance with daily activities to a person because of a disability, a long term illness or problems related to old age. This count of people who provided care was lower than the total population of Carers identified by the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) in 2003 (2.6 million).2 The lower count in the census can be explained by differences between the census and SDAC, in both definitions and collection methods. In the census it is not possible to link people who provided unpaid care with the people who they were assisting._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 93
    • Community…overviewMost parents care for children, In the 2006 Census there were aroundthough mothers more likely to live 201,000 people who cared for their own child but did not live with their natural child. Justwith and care for children under 72% of this group were non-residentCaring for children is most common for people fathers. Over 44% of non-resident fathers whoin their late 30s, and many people aged 25–54 had cared for their own child lived in a non-cared for their own children. There are clear family household, mainly alone. One third ofage and gender differences in parental child these non-resident fathers lived in a familycare. Of people aged 15–44, women were more without their natural child, such as a steplikely than men to care for their own child (see family or couple without children. The censusgraph next page). The main factor explaining does not identify all non-resident parents,this is that women are much more likely than namely non-resident parents who did not havemen to live with their natural children. In 2003 contact with their child in the previous twoonly 18% of all non-resident parents were weeks, or those who lived with their naturalwomen.4 In addition, women tend to partner child and had another natural child livingand have children at an earlier age than elsewhere.men.5, 6, 7 The 2006 Census shows that themajority of parents who lived with children The Family Characteristics and Transitionsunder 15 had provided child care. Although a Survey (2006–07) estimated that there werehigher proportion of women than men in such around 470,000 non-resident parents infamilies provided child care (87% compared Australia, the great majority of whom werewith 76%), men working full-time were almost non-resident fathers (82%).4as likely as women working full-time to care fortheir own child.Living arrangements of parents who cared for their own children Male Female ’000 % ’000 % Lived with their natural child Partner in couple family 1 169.8 95.9 1 393.2 81.1 Lone parent 50.6 4.1 323.9 18.9 Total 1 220.5 100.0 1 717.1 100.0 Did not live with their natural child Partner in couple family or lone parent(a) 47.8 33.0 28.0 49.7 Other person in family household(b) 30.4 20.9 15.2 26.9 Non-family household 64.1 44.2 11.5 20.4 Other living arrangement 2.7 1.9 1.7 3.0 Total 144.9 100.0 56.4 100.0 All parents who cared for their children Total lived with their natural child 1 220.5 85.7 1 717.1 94.3 Total did not live with their natural child 144.9 10.2 56.4 3.1 Total(c) 1 423.7 100.0 1 820.3 100.0 (a) Includes step parents, and partners in a couple family without children or with unrelated children. Includes lone parents with step children or unrelated children only. (b) Includes children aged 15 years and over, other relatives and unrelated individuals in a family household. (c) Total includes visitors, and step parents where one or more children in the family were temporarily absent._______________________________________________________________________________________94 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewMany older women play role in Unpaid child care(a)raising others’ children % Male cared for own childrenIn 2006, 1.3 million people provided unpaid 80 Female cared for own childrencare for another child, who was not their own. Male cared for other children 60 Female cared for other childrenTwo thirds of the people who providedinformal child care were women. Women of all 40ages were more likely than men to care foranother child. Although fewer women than 20men of working age were in full-timeemployment, women were more likely to care 0for another child regardless of their working 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85+arrangements. AgeMore than half the people who cared for (a) People who cared for their own and other childrenanother child were aged 50 and over, and it is are included in both cared for own children and caredlikely that many of these people cared for for other children.grandchildren. The ABS Child Care Survey(2005) shows that 60% of children receivinginformal child care were being looked after by People aged 15–49 living in a one parent orgrandparents.3 Gender differences were most couple family with children under 15 werepronounced in the 50–74 age group, with more likely to provide informal child care thanwomen being twice as likely as men to have people with other living arrangements. Aroundcared for another child (19% compared with 76% of this group were parents who typically9%). People of this age living in a one parent might have cared for children of relatives orfamily with children under 15 were more likely friends, and 24% were older children (aged 15than people with other living arrangements to and over) or other relatives who may havecare for another child. Around 45% of this cared for young children in their family. Peoplegroup were grandmothers living with their aged 15–49 living in a couple family withoutchild and grandchild, and 38% were lone children were almost as likely to have cared formothers. another child as people living in a couple family with children under 15.People who cared for other people’s children 15–49 50–74 years years Total(a) % % % Men 4.4 9.2 5.9 Women 8.8 19.0 11.6 Couple family with no children 7.1 18.5 13.2 Couple family with children under 15 7.3 13.2 7.7 Couple family with children 15 and over 4.4 10.2 6.6 One parent family with children under 15 10.2 27.2 11.6 One parent family with children 15 and over 4.9 9.7 6.2 Other family 5.2 7.3 5.4 Lone or group household 5.8 9.6 6.7 Total 6.6 14.2 8.8 Total (000) 596.1 635.5 1 276.1 (a) Total includes people aged 75 years and over._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 95
    • Community…overviewProviding informal child care was equally future, due to population growth and ageing,common in most states and territories (6–7% which will lead to increasing numbers andof men and 11–13% of women). An exception proportions of older people in the population;was the Northern Territory: 9% of men and and increasing longevity, including longevity16% of women who lived in the Northern for people with a disability.9Territory had cared for another child. In Ruralareas of the Northern Territory 13% of men At the time of the 2006 Census, 4.4% ofand 23% of women had provided informal Australians needed daily assistance with corechild care. This possibly reflects the activities such as self-care, moving around orunavailability of commercial child care services, communicating, because of a long term healthor for child care to be undertaken by extended condition, a disability or old age (refer to boxfamily members in Indigenous communities in below for more information). There werethese areas. around 566,000 private households that included a person who required suchPeople with a need for assistance. The likelihood of having a need for assistance increases with age: less than 1 in 10assistance people aged under 65 needed assistance; 2 in 10 people aged 65 and over; and 5 in 10Participation in community and cultural life is people aged 85 and over had such a need.recognised as a basic human need, and in theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights as afundamental human right.8 The census caninform us about the living conditions,employment and education of people with aneed for assistance. This information can be Need for assistanceused to highlight some of the areas in which The census definition of a person with apeople with a need for assistance face barriers ‘core activity need for assistance’ is ato participating in society. They may be limited person needing help or assistance in oneby their impairment, or by external factors or more of the three core activities of self-such as reliance on a carer, the attitudes of care, mobility and communication becauseothers, the physical environment or the of a disability or a long term healthinclusiveness of social institutions. condition (lasting six months or more), or old age.The Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers(SDAC) showed that in 2003 there were 4.0 The census measure of core activity needmillion people with a disability (see Glossary), for assistance counted only a portion of alland 1.2 million of those people had a severe or Australians with a disability. The Survey ofprofound limitation.2 The rate of profound or Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC)2severe core activity limitation was stable collected by the ABS is considered tobetween 1998 and 2003, although the number comprehensively measure disabilityof people with a severe or profound core populations. The census concept of coreactivity limitation increased in this period. activity need for assistance relates to theNumbers are projected to increase in the severe or profound core activity limitation concept used in SDAC.Number of people with a core activity The number of people with a core activityneed for assistance need for assistance identified in the 2006 Census (821,600) is smaller than the000 number of people with a severe or Male profound disability counted in the 200380 Female SDAC (1,244,500), owing to the briefer set60 of questions used on the census form, the different collection methodology and the40 6.4% non-response to the census questions20 on need for assistance. 0 Graphs and tables in this chapter present 0–4 20–24 40–44 60–64 80–84 100+ data from the 2006 Census measure of Age ‘core activity need for assistance’._______________________________________________________________________________________96 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewNeed for assistance across the life person’s level of functioning; and the effect ofcycle data collection—young people may respond themselves, while parents report on behalf of…Children children aged under 15.10The 2006 Census shows that under 2%(64,000) of all children under 15 had a need for …Young adults and middle-aged peopleassistance. Two in every three children with a Just over 300,000 people aged 15–64 had aneed for assistance were boys. Supporting this, need for assistance, accounting for 38% of allSDAC (2003) showed that boys were more people who required assistance according tolikely than girls to report any type of disability the 2006 Census. Up to the age of 65 yearsand were more likely to have a severe or men were more likely to report a need forprofound limitation, due mainly to boys having assistance than women. Consequently theregreater likelihood of genetic disorder.10 Almost were around 44,000 more men than womenall children reporting a need for assistance in who required assistance aged under 65. Onethe 2006 Census lived in a family in a private contributing factor is the higher rates of injuryhome (99%). Of all children living in a family, among young men compared with women.11children requiring assistance were less likely tolive in a couple family than other children (70% Most adults (15–64) who required assistancecompared with 81%) and more likely to live in (93%) lived in a private home. However, adultsa one parent family (30% compared with 19%). who required assistance were more likely to live in group or lone households than adultsA slightly higher proportion of school-aged who did not require assistance, particularlychildren (5–14 years) had a need for assistance those aged 35–64 years. Young adults (15–34than young children (0–4 years). This is chiefly years) who required assistance were half asexplained by the diagnosis of intellectual likely as others in the same age group to live indisability. Some health conditions are not a couple family, while they were much morediagnosed in the first few years of life but are likely to live with their parents. People agedincreasingly being diagnosed in school aged 35–64 who required assistance were slightlychildren through early intervention programs more likely than those who did not requireat schools and health clinics. assistance to live in a couple family without children, though half as likely to live in aThe proportion of young people aged 15–24 couple family with children. Some people withwith a need for assistance was lower than the a need for assistance in this age group mayproportion of school-aged children. Many have developed a disability later in life, afterfactors contribute to this, including successful partnering or raising a family.interventions in childhood that improve theLiving arrangements of young adults with and without a need for assistance(a)Partner, couple family without children Parent, couple family with children Lone parent Lived with parents Other relative or person Lone or group household Non-private dwelling Required assistance No assistance required 0 20 40 60 %(a) Proportion of people aged 15–34 years in these living arrangements._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 97
    • Community…overviewLiving arrangements of middle-aged people with and without a need for assistance(a)Partner, couple family without children Parent, couple family with children Lone parent Lived with parents Other relative or person Lone or group household Non-private dwelling Required assistance No assistance required 0 10 20 30 40 50 %(a) Proportion of people aged 35–64 years in these living arrangements.A small proportion of adults who required Just over two thirds of older people with aassistance were accommodated in non-private need for assistance lived in a private home, anddwellings (5% of 15–34 year olds and 8% of 35– a third lived in a non-private dwelling—mainly64 year olds), including nursing homes and in cared accommodation (see Glossary). Ahostels for people with a disability. quarter of older people with a need for assistance lived with their partner in a family…Older people without children, although they were half as likely as other people of this age group to liveIn the 2006 Census, a sizeable group of people in this type of family. One fifth lived alone, awho needed assistance were aged 65 and over group with a special need for support services.(450,000), accounting for 55% of all those Another fifth lived in a family with children orrequiring assistance. A large proportion of relatives, and possibly received support fromthese were women: for every man aged them. This group included older people living65 and over with a need for assistance there with their adult children in a couple or onewere almost two women of the same age with parent family, and those who lived withsuch a need. A contributing factor is that older parents or relatives (see graph below).women are more likely than men to survive toages and experience health problems relatedto old age.Living arrangements of older people with and without a need for assistance(a) Partner, couple family without children Parent, couple family with children Lone or group household Cared accommodation Lived with parents or relatives Lone parent Required assistance No assistance required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 %(a) Proportion of people aged 65 years and over in these living arrangements._______________________________________________________________________________________98 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewEmployment and education lives compared with younger age groups. It also suggests that some people in this ageEmployment and education are linked to a group may have developed a disability later inpersons wellbeing, through income earned life, after attaining an education. In contrast, aand involvement in society. The overwhelming person with an early-onset disability may havemajority of people with a need for assistance restricted educational opportunities: whilewere not in the labour force, probably similar proportions of young people ofreflecting the severe or profound nature of secondary school age (15–19 years) with andtheir disability. Around 81% of people who without a need for assistance were attendingrequired assistance and were of working age an educational institution, there was a larger(15–64 years) were not in the labour force, gap in the 20–24 age group.while 16% were employed and 3% wereunemployed. Fewer people needing assistancePeople who required assistance tended to have accessed internet at homelower educational attainment than others. Of Among other things, internet access at homethose 20–64 years, 26% of people who allows people to learn about and access manyrequired assistance had completed secondary government and business services, news andschool and 29% had obtained a non-school current affairs, and communicate with others.qualification. In comparison just over half ofpeople with no need for assistance had Having access to the internet may becompleted secondary school, and a similar particularly important for people with aproportion had a non-school qualification. disability, many of whom leave home less often than they prefer.2 However, people with aThe gap in formal educational attainment need for assistance who lived in privatebetween people with a need for assistance and households were considerably less likely thanothers was smaller in the older working age others to have an internet connection at homegroup (55–64 years) than younger age groups. regardless of their age: 55% lived in aThis is partly explained by the lower household with an internet connection andeducational attainment of this age group as a 34% lived in a household with broadbandwhole, who experienced different connection, compared with 76% and 51% ofopportunities to undertake education in their people with no need for assistance.Socioeconomic characteristics of people with and without a need for assistance(a) Required assistance Did not require assistance Male Female Male Female % % % % Labour force status(a) Employed 16.9 15.7 79.3 66.4 Unemployed 2.9 2.1 4.4 3.7 Not in the labour force 80.3 82.1 16.3 29.9 Enrolled in education 15–19 years 72.7 74.8 73.9 77.6 20–24 years 20.6 27.3 33.3 36.5 Completed Year 12(b) 24.3 27.9 52.2 54.6 Has a non-school qualification(b) 31.8 26.5 58.4 50.3 Internet access(c) Internet access at home 55.1 55.8 75.5 75.7 Broadband connection at home 34.3 34.1 51.9 50.0 (a) People aged 15–64 years. (b) People aged 20–64 years. (c) People in occupied private dwellings only._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 99
    • Community…overviewNeed for assistance higher in Southern and Eastern EuropeansIndigenous population more likely to require assistanceIndigenous Australians suffer more ill-health There was considerable variation in thethan other Australians. Many reports have proportion of people who required assistanceshown that the Indigenous population is between birthplace groups. A higherdisadvantaged across many socioeconomic proportion of people born in Southern andindicators that are associated with health, and Eastern Europe (including Italy, Greece,are more likely to be exposed to a range of Croatia and Poland) had a need for assistancehealth risk factors, both environmental and compared with the Australian-born population.behavioural. Aboriginal and Torres Strait The age structure of this birthplace group wasIslander peoples have a lower life expectancy much older (median age of 59 years) than thethan other Australians, and higher rates of Australian-born population (median age ofchronic diseases, such as kidney disease, 32 years), although the level of need fordiabetes and heart disease. assistance in this group was higher even after removing the effect of age.The National Aboriginal and Torres StraitIslander Social Survey (2002) showed that afteradjusting for differences in the age structure of Unpaid care to a personthe two populations, the rate of with a disabilityprofound/severe core activity limitation amongIndigenous peoples aged 18 years and over in Carers play an essential role in the community.non-remote areas was 2.1 times the The people who provide assistance to family orcorresponding rate for non-Indigenous friends with a disability ensure that thesepeople.12 people receive needed physical care, emotional support and companionship. CarersIn the 2006 Census, 4.6% of the Indigenous can also help people with a need for assistancepopulation stated a need for assistance, slightly to maintain their connection to theirhigher than the non-Indigenous population community. According to the 2003 SDAC,(4.4%). However, the Indigenous population is 2.6 million Australians provided help toconsiderably younger than the non-Indigenous someone because of disability, long termpopulation. When this is taken into account health problems or old age.2 Family membersthe proportion of Indigenous peoples and friends are the most important source ofrequiring assistance was twice as high as for support for Australians with a disability.non-Indigenous people, in line with earlier Around 85% of people with a disability whosurvey results. The age and gender pattern of needed assistance living in householdsneed for assistance in the Indigenous received help from family members or friendspopulation was similar to the pattern for the and 57% received formal care.2non-Indigenous population. For example,young Indigenous men are more likely than Two thirds of all carers wereyoung Indigenous women to have a need for women, though older carers wereassistance, but this pattern reverses in the mainly menpopulation aged 60 and over. The 2006 Census shows that 11% of the Australian population had provided unpaid care to family members or others with aIndigenous status of men and women disability in the fortnight prior to the census.with a need for assistance Women who had provided care outnumbered men—62% of all carers were women. Women % of any birthplace, living arrangement or labour Male, Indigenous25 Female, Indigenous force status were more likely than similar men20 Male, non-Indigenous to provide unpaid care. Taking on a caring role Female, non-Indigenous can have a negative impact on a person. Carers15 may have more limited opportunities to do10 paid work, study or other activities, sometimes resulting in financial hardship and poor 5 health.2, 13 For more information see ‘Caring 0 across the life cycle’, p. 107–112. 0–4 10–14 20–24 30–34 40–44 50–54 60+ Age_______________________________________________________________________________________100 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…overviewPeople who provided unpaid care to aperson with a disability Endnotes 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2007, % Voluntary Work, Australia, 2006, cat. no. 4441.0, Male25 Female ABS, Canberra.20 2 ABS 2003, Disability, Ageing and Carers,15 Australia, 2003, cat. no. 4430.0, ABS, Canberra.10 3 ABS 2006, Child Care, Australia, 2005, cat. no. 4402.0, ABS, Canberra. 5 0 4 ABS 2008, Family Characteristics and Transitions, Australia, 2006–07, cat. no. 4442.0, 15–19 35–39 55–59 75–79 95+ ABS, Canberra. 5 ABS 2007, Marriages, Australia, 2006, cat. no. 3306.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra.The proportion of people who providedunpaid care for a person with a disability 6 De Vaus, D., Qu, L. and Weston, R. 2003,increased steadily over the life course until ‘Changing Patterns of Partnering’ in Family Matters,peaking in the 50s age group: 21% of women No.64, Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS),and 12% of men aged 50–59 had provided Melbourne.unpaid care. Among women, the proportionproviding care steadily decreased after 60 years 7 ABS 2007, Births, Australia, 2006, cat. no. 3301.0,of age. In contrast, the proportion of men who ABS, Canberra.provided care gradually decreased after 65years. Consequently, in the older age groups a 8 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, viewed 7 March 2008higher proportion of men provided care than <http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html>.women. This can be explained by partnercare—older men were substantially more likely 9 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)than women to live with a partner (69% of men 2007, Australias welfare 2007, AIHW cat. no. AUSaged 75 and over compared with 33% of 93, AIHW, Canberra.women), while many women outlive theirpartners and live alone. 10 AIHW 2004, Children with disabilities in Australia. AIHW cat. no. DIS 38, AIHW, Canberra.There was little difference between peopleborn in Australia and people born overseas. 11 AIHW 2008, Injury among young Australians,Around 11% of the Australian-born and 10% of AIHW Bulletin 60, AIHW, Canberra.the overseas-born population had providedcare to a person with a disability. The 12 ABS and AIHW 2005, The health and welfare ofproportion was higher for certain birthplace Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, ABS cat. no. 4704.0, ABS, Canberra. AIHWgroups. For example, 16% of women and 10% cat. no. IHW 14, AIHW, Canberra.of men born in North Africa and the MiddleEast, and 15% of women and 11% of men born 13 Edwards, B., Higgins, D.J., Gray, M., Zmijewski, N.in Southern and Eastern Europe had provided and Kingston, M. 2008, The nature and impact ofcare. These differences may be explained by caring for family members with a disability indifferent cultural norms of care in birthplace Australia, Research Report No.16, AIFS, Melbourne.groups, and in the case of the Southern andEastern European-born community, an olderage profile and so higher level of need forassistance._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 101
    • Volunteering across AustraliaVolunteering makes a valuable economic and Mobility and voluntary worksocial contribution to society. Volunteersprovide services which would otherwise have People who moved community (Statisticalto be paid for or left undone, allowing Local Area, see Glossary) in the 12 monthsnon-profit organisations to allocate their often prior to the 2006 Census were less likely tolimited financial resources elsewhere. The have volunteered than longer-term residents.value of work contributed by volunteers to In 2006, 17% of recent movers participated innon-profit institutions in 1999–2000 was voluntary work compared with 21% ofestimated at $8.9 billion.1 Voluntary work also non-movers. However, this pattern varied withhelps build networks, shared values and social age, with differences most pronounced at thecohesion while providing volunteers with peak volunteering age groups of 40–49 yearsopportunities for social engagement2 and to and 65–69 years, and among those aged 70–84exercise social responsibility by helping others years. There was little difference inor the community. volunteering rates for those aged under 30. See the ‘Community overview’ for informationThis article focuses on the 20% of the adult about volunteering across the life cycle,population who reported in the 2006 Census p. 90–101.that they had volunteered. It examines therelationship between mobility and The lower rate among movers appears to beparticipation in voluntary work, differences in temporary: those people who had movedvolunteering rates between Urban Centres and between 1 and 5 years before the 2006 CensusRural Localities across Australia, and the had only a slightly lower rate of voluntary workcharacteristics of communities with high rates (19%) than non-movers (21%). This suggestsof volunteering. that after an initial period of settling into a community, new arrivals gradually become integrated into the community through activities such as voluntary work. It also suggests that communities experiencing recent population change (for example, growth) are Voluntary work only likely to experience a temporary Volunteers are those people aged 15 years reduction in people participating in voluntary and over who reported in the 2006 Census work. However, communities with high that they had volunteered at least once in population turnover may also have a high the previous 12 months. The volunteering turnover in volunteers, which could affect the rate for a given area is the proportion of continuity of programs and activities they are that areas population aged 15 years and involved in. over who had volunteered in the previous 12 months. Age profile of volunteers by whether moved SLA in last 12 months Urban Centres and Rural Localities % 25 A Rural Locality is generally defined as a 20 population cluster of between 200 and 999 15 people, while an Urban Centre has 1,000 or more people. For the purposes of this 10 article, Urban Centres have been further 5 Moved SLA split into Small Urban Centres of between Did not move SLA 0 1,000 and 9,999 people and Large Urban 15–19 35–39 55–59 75–79 Centres of 10,000 or more people. 25–29 45–49 65–69 85+ Age_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 103
    • Community…Volunteering across AustraliaUrban Centres and Rural Localities well (13% compared with 5%). Differences in English proficiency between urban and ruralResults of the 2006 Census show a relationship areas may partly explain different volunteeringbetween population size and participation in rates. In Large Urban Centres, 3.6% of thevoluntary work (see graph below). As population spoke English not well or not at allpopulation size increases, participation in compared to 0.7% in Small Urban Centres andvoluntary work declines. In 2006, 27% of adults 1.4% in Rural Localities. Differences may alsoliving in Rural Localities had volunteered, reflect varying attitudes as to what constitutescompared with 25% of those in Small Urban volunteering across cultural groups.Centres and 18% of those in Large UrbanCentres. Volunteering in Small UrbanThese differences can be partly explained by Centresthe different age and life cycle structures of Among Small Urban Centres, rates of voluntarythese populations. The two peak age groups work ranged from 3% to 44% in 2006. Afor participation in voluntary work were 40–49 comparison of communities with high rates ofand 65–69 years, and Rural Localities generally participation in voluntary work showshad older populations than Small Urban considerable variation in the characteristics ofCentres and Large Urban Centres with median their populations. For example, Barcaldine inages of 40, 39 and 36 years respectively. Rates Queenslands Central West and Jamestown toof participation in voluntary work are also the north of Adelaide in South Australia bothgenerally higher among parents of school-aged had high rates of voluntary work (see tablechildren (see the ‘Community overview’, next page) despite very different populationp. 90–101) and Rural Localities had a slightly profiles. Barcaldine had a median age ofhigher proportion of children aged under 15 36 years and a high proportion of children,years (22%) than Small Urban Centres (21%) with 23% of the population aged 0–14 years.and Large Urban Centres (19%). In addition,smaller communities in rural and regional This is consistent with findings on theareas may have more interconnected social relationship between voluntary work and lifenetworks which facilitate cooperation among cycle stage, with parents of primary school-residents3, or they may have a greater need for aged children more likely to volunteer thanvolunteers to meet demands for services and others. Jamestown had a much olderentertainment that are provided by the population with a median age of 46 years andgovernment or businesses in the larger Urban only 17% of the population aged 0–14 years.Centres. This community typifies the second peak in volunteering that occurs for people aged inFor some people, lack of proficiency in spoken their 60s as they retire from paid work. ItEnglish may be a barrier to participation in should also be noted that voluntary workvoluntary work. Overall in 2006, people who encompasses a wide range of activities andspoke English well or very well were more than volunteers at different life cycle stages may betwice as likely to have volunteered as those involved in very different types of voluntarywho did not speak English or did not speak it work.Population size by proportion of population who volunteered % volunteered 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000 Population size_______________________________________________________________________________________104 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…Volunteering across AustraliaSmall Urban Centres with the highest volunteering rates in each state/territory(a) Population Median Total aged Median Religious household population Volunteers 0–14 age affiliation income(b) no. % % years % $ Balranald NSW 1 200 38.6 19.5 40 81.8 479 Tathra NSW 1 600 36.7 18.5 45 70.3 556 Ouyen Vic. 1 100 44.3 17.7 45 74.2 458 Charlton Vic. 1 100 42.9 18.0 48 78.2 420 Barcaldine Qld 1 300 36.8 22.6 36 78.1 525 Maleny Qld 1 300 36.0 20.1 42 57.8 435 Jamestown SA 1 400 41.9 16.9 46 72.4 508 Crystal Brook SA 1 200 41.6 18.3 45 70.2 460 Exmouth WA 1 800 34.3 19.7 37 53.4 667 Kalbarri WA 1 300 33.8 20.8 41 60.3 501 Evandale Tas. 1 100 30.8 24.8 39 71.0 533 Deloraine Tas. 2 200 28.4 20.0 42 68.4 425 Nhulunbuy NT 4 100 31.6 26.4 33 58.0 1 134 Jabiru NT 1 100 24.6 24.7 32 41.6 1 018 All Small Urban Centres Aust. .. 25.0 21.3 39 69.9 507 (a) ACT has no Urban Centres with a population between 1,000 and 9,999. (b) Median equivalised gross weekly household income.While volunteering tends to be associated with employed part-time, below the 17% overallsocio-demographic characteristics such as life rate for Small Urban Centres. In Crystal Brookcycle stage, religious affiliation and 42% of the population volunteered.employment status (outlined above and in theCommunity overview, p. 90–101), local factors Volunteering in Large Urbanalso play a role in determining participation Centresrates. For example, rates of religious affiliationvaried in Barcaldine (78%) and Jamestown Like Small Urban Centres, voluntary work rates(72%) despite high rates of voluntary work in in Large Urban Centres ranged widely fromboth communities. 13% to 34% in 2006. Large Urban Centres with high rates of participation in voluntary workGenerally, participation in voluntary work is had a range of population profiles. Warragul, ahigher among those who work part-time than commercial centre in the agricultural and dairyamong those who work full-time or are not in farming region of West Gippsland, had one ofthe labour force (see ‘Community overview’, the highest rates of voluntary work in Victoriap. 90–101). However, communities with high (27%). This Large Urban Centre had a medianlevels of volunteering had a wide range of age of 37 years and a high proportion oflabour force participation patterns. For children, with 22% of its population aged 0–14.example, in the tourist resort town of Exmouth Victor Harbor in South Australia had a similarlyon the remote North West Cape of Western high voluntary work rate (30%) despite havingAustralia, where one third of the population a much older population. This coastal resortvolunteered, 75% of adults were in the labour town on the Fleurieu Peninsula had a medianforce and 20% of adults worked part-time. In age of 56 years, and only 13% of thecontrast, Crystal Brook, the service centre at population aged 0–14 years. Again, thesethe southern end of the Flinders Ranges in figures reflect the peaks in volunteering thatSouth Australia, had a lower labour force occur among parents of primary school-agedparticipation rate (48%) and 14% of adults children and people aged in their 60s who have retired from paid work._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 105
    • Community…Volunteering across AustraliaLarge Urban Centres with the highest volunteering rates in each state/territory(a) Total Population Median Religious Household population Volunteers aged 0–14 age affiliation income(b) no. % % years % $ Armidale NSW 19 500 30.6 19.5 32 73.2 523 Bowral NSW 11 500 27.0 19.5 46 76.2 674 Horsham Vic. 14 100 33.0 20.0 39 74.6 523 Warragul Vic. 11 500 27.5 22.0 37 66.1 559 Nambour Qld 13 500 25.2 20.8 39 66.3 487 Warwick Qld 12 600 25.1 22.8 36 78.7 469 Crafers- Bridgewater SA 13 400 32.6 19.4 40 55.7 802 Victor Harbor SA 10 400 30.2 12.7 56 63.7 420 Albany WA 25 200 24.4 20.4 39 59.8 530 Busselton WA 15 400 23.8 21.0 39 61.8 548 Kingston- Blackmans Bay Tas. 17 300 25.2 20.8 37 69.1 657 Hobart Tas. 128 600 21.4 17.2 39 66.4 593 Alice Springs NT 21 600 26.5 23.5 32 59.3 792 Darwin NT 66 300 21.4 20.1 33 60.8 823 Canberra- ACT/ Queanbeyan NSW 356 100 23.4 19.4 34 67.3 901 All Large Urban Centres Aust. .. 18.1 19.4 36 70.5 666 (a) ACT has only one Urban Centre with a population of 10,000 or more. (b) Median equivalised gross weekly household income.The 2006 General Social Survey found arelationship between socioeconomic status Endnotesand voluntary work with higher rates of 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2002,volunteering recorded for those areas with Australian National Accounts: Non-Profitgreater socioeconomic advantage.4 The census Institutions Satellite Account, 1999–2000, cat. no.collects income data from individuals, from 5256.0, ABS, Canberra.which median household income5 can bederived. Results from the 2006 Census show a 2 ABS 2006, Aspects of Social Capital, Australia, 2006, cat. no. 4911.0, ABS, Canberra.range of median household incomes acrossLarge Urban Centres with high rates of 3 Allcott, H., Karlan, D., Mobius, M., Rosenblat, T.voluntary work. For example, in South and Szeidl, A. 2007, ‘Community size and networkAustralia, Crafers-Bridgewater in the Adelaide closure’ in American Economic Review, Vol. 97,Hills had a median household income of $802 No. 2, p. 80–85.per week compared with $420 for VictorHarbor. Both communities had voluntary work 4 ABS 2007, Voluntary Work, Australia, 2006, cat.rates around 30%. However, it should be noted no. 4441.0, ABS, Canberra.that Victor Harbor had a higher homeownership rate, suggesting that it may have 5 Median equivalised gross household income,higher socioeconomic status than implied by referred to here as median household income (seehousehold income alone. In Victor Harbor, Glossary).42% of the population lived in fully ownedhomes (that is, without a mortgage) comparedwith 34% in Crafers-Bridgewater._______________________________________________________________________________________106 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Caring across the life cycleAcross Australian society, people provide mental health problems.2 Other researchunpaid care to others. Many people raise reveals that the experiences of carers arechildren and support them during their early diverse and can sometimes have positiveyears of life, and some continue to support outcomes, such as a closer relationshipchildren into young adulthood and beyond. At between carers and the recipient of their care.1some stage in their life, many people providecare for children, partners, family members or Young carersfriends who have a disability, long term illnessor problems related to old age. Some people There are particular concerns in theprovide care for more than one person at the community about the circumstances of youngsame time in their life, and some provide care people who provide unpaid care to a personfor many years. The 2006 Census showed that with a disability, long term illness or problemsover 5 million adults (31% of men and 41% of related to old age. On one hand, caring forwomen) provided care to their own child, such people can provide young people withanother child, or a person with a disability. skills, close relationships and an identity. On the other hand, having caring responsibilitiesThe provision of adequate support for a at a young age can affect many areas of life,person with a disability is a family, community such as participation in education and work,and government concern. Of equal concern is having a social life or forming relationships.3the need to provide support for people whoprovide unpaid care to a person with a According to the 2006 Census, 5% of youngdisability. Research shows that caring is costly people aged 15–24 (119,400 young people)for carers and their families, in terms of provided unpaid care to a person with afinances, relationships, opportunities for disability. Of these young carers, 30,300 (25%)employment and social participation.1, 2 Carers were co-resident carers, that is they lived withare also at risk of experiencing physical and a person who needed assistance with core Unpaid child care is time spent looking after a child under 15 years of age by family members, friends or neighbours without payment. The census asked people if they provided unpaid child care in the previous fortnight. Unpaid care is care, help or assistance with daily activities a person gives to a family member or other person because of a disability, long term illness or problems related to old age. Unpaid care encompasses a range of daily activities, including, but not limited to: bathing, dressing, toileting and feeding; helping to move around; understanding or being understood by others; or providing emotional support and helping maintain friendships and social activities. See Glossary for further information. A carer is a person who provided unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long term illness or problems related to old age in the fortnight before the 2006 Census. A co-resident carer is a carer (see above) who lived in the same household as a person with a core activity need for assistance because of a disability, long term health condition (lasting 6 months or more) or problems related to old age (see Glossary: ‘core activity need for assistance’). It is likely that co-resident carers provided care to a person needing assistance who they lived with. However this is not certain, because in the census it is not possible to link people who provided unpaid care with the people they were assisting. See Glossary for further explanation of co-resident carers._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 107
    • Community…Caring across the life cycleactivities because of a disability, long term co-resident carers were even less likely to behealth condition (lasting 6 months or more) or employed (60%). While young carers made upold age (see box on previous page). Almost all just under 5% of their age group, they madeof these lived with a relative, commonly a up 9% of people in their age group who wereparent, needing assistance. A smaller group of neither studying nor employed.these young co-resident carers (9,400), lived ina household where there were no other adults Raising childrenaged 25 or over who provided unpaid care. Through their adult years, many people areYoung Indigenous Australians (aged 15–34) involved in raising children. According to thewere 1.8 times more likely to be carers than 2006 Census, a high proportion of people agednon-Indigenous Australians, related to the 25–54 were caring for their own children andearlier onset of long-term health conditions in this peaked at 35–39 years. Caring for a child inthe Indigenous population. For more the early years of their life requires a highinformation see A Profile of Carers in investment of time and energy. As children getAustralia, 2008, ABS cat. no. 4448.0. older and gradually become independent they tend to require less care and supervision fromIn the 15–24 year age group, similar parents, although many parents continue toproportions of young carers and other young provide some support to their children intopeople who did not provide care were enrolled adulthood, even after they leave home.in education (51% and 55% respectively).There was no difference in the proportion of Parents with the dual responsibilities of raisingyoung carers and people who did not provide children and caring for another person, oftenunpaid care aged 18–19 who had completed an elderly parent who needs assistance withYear 12 (excluding those who were still at core activities, are sometimes called theschool). However, among 20–24 year olds, ‘sandwich generation’. This group has becomethere was a small gap: 87% of all young carers more common because of social trends such asand 86% of young co-resident carers who were women having children at older ages andnot enrolled in secondary school had increasing life expectancy of older people. Ofcompleted Year 12 compared with 91% of all parents living in a family with childrenpeople who did not provide care. under 15, around 447,500 (13%) had also provided unpaid care to a person because of aYoung carers who were not full-time students disability, long term illness or problems relatedin secondary school were less likely to be to old age. Two thirds of these parents wereemployed (65%) than similar people who did women. It is likely that many in this groupnot provide unpaid care (79%), and young provided care to older people, considering that the majority of people who need assistance are 65 years and over.Providing care across the life cycle(a) % Cared for own child80 Cared for other child Cared for person with a disability(b) Cared for own child and person with a disability(b)604020 0 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 and over Age(a) Groups in this graph are not mutually exclusive. Therefore proportions do not sum to 100%.(b) Includes people who provided unpaid care to a person because of a disability, long term illness, or problems related toold age._______________________________________________________________________________________108 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…Caring across the life cycleBoth men and women with children under 15 Carers: relationship of person needingwho also provided unpaid care to a person assistance to carer(a)with a disability were less likely to be employed(84% of men and 55% of women) than parents 000 Partnerwho did not provide unpaid care (91% of men 80 Childand 62% of women). Those who were Other relative or person 60employed were more likely to be working part-time: 14% of fathers and 66% of mothers who 40cared for children and a person with adisability worked part-time compared with 10% 20of other fathers and 61% of other mothers. 0Around 112,600 parents with children under 15 15–24 25–44 45– 64 65 and over Agewho provided unpaid care to a person with adisability (25%) were co-resident carers. Ofthese parents, 77,700 (69%) had a child with a (a) Number of carers who lived with a child, partner orneed for assistance with core activities because other relative or person with a core activity need for assistance.of a disability or a long term health condition.This was the most common relationship ofcare for co-resident carers in the 25–44 year As people move through stages of their life,age group. A smaller group (34,900) of parents different people may need their care. The 2003who provided unpaid care lived in a household Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC)with a partner, parent or other person who showed the relationship between primaryneeded assistance because of a disability, long carers (people who provided the majority ofterm health condition or problems related to informal help to a person with a disability) andold age. main recipient of their care. Among primary carers aged 15–44, a parent or child was theMiddle aged most likely to provide main recipient of their care. In the 45–64 yearunpaid care age group, caring for a child or a partner was equally common among primary carers, whileAs people move into middle age they are more the majority of primary carers aged 65 and overlikely to have frail aged parents and relatives, cared for a partner.1or a partner who has developed healthproblems and needs assistance. While just The 2006 Census showed that there wereunder 10% of people aged 25–44 years had 115,400 co-resident carers aged 25–44,provided unpaid care to a person with a representing 23% of all carers in this agedisability, long term health illness or problems group. Over half (60,300) lived with a childrelated to old age, people aged 45–64 were the who needed assistance because of a disabilitymost likely age group to have provided such or long term health condition. Among thosecare (16%).Family composition(a) Couple family, no children Couple family, children under 15 years Couple family, children 15 years and over One parent family, children under 15 yearsOne parent family, children 15 years and over Non-family household Co-resident carer Other family All carers Did not provide unpaid care 0 10 20 30 40 %(a) Proportion of carers, co-resident carers and people who did not provide care who lived in these household types._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 109
    • Community…Caring across the life cycleaged 45–64, there were 174,300 co-resident women co-resident carers were employed thancarers (24% of all carers in this age group). Of women who did not provide care: the gap inthis group 71,600 people lived with a partner employment participation was smaller amongneeding assistance, while smaller groups lived men. These patterns were consistent acrosswith a parent or other person (56,200) or a the working age group.child (49,300) with such a need. Among employed people in the working ageAdult children may live with their parents if group, working part-time was more commoneither parent or child requires assistance for women than men, whether they hadbecause of disability. This dependency provided unpaid care to a person with arelationship may explain the higher proportion disability or had not provided care. Thisof carers who lived in couple or one parent reflects the role of part-time work in helpingfamilies with adult children than people who people, particularly women, to balance workdid not provide care (see graph on previous with care for children and other familypage). members.Employment of carers However, providing unpaid care to a person with a disability affected hours in paid work,Although most people who provided unpaid mainly for women. Employed women whocare to a person with a disability, long term provided unpaid care were more likely to workillness or problems related to old age were in part-time than employed women who did notthe working age group (85% were aged 15–64), provide unpaid care in the same age groupthey were less likely to be employed than (53% overall compared with 46%). Co-residentpeople who did not provide unpaid care (64% carers were even more likely to work part-timecompared with 73%). Co-resident carers had (58%). There was a small difference inthe lowest rate of employment (50%). part-time work for men who had providedProviding unpaid care appears to have a larger unpaid care (19%) and had not providedeffect on women’s participation in paid work unpaid care (17%).than men’s. A much lower proportion ofEmployment(a) Working part-time(a)Women Women % % Did not provide unpaid care Did not provide unpaid care100 All carers 100 All carers Co-resident carer Co-resident carer 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 15–19 30–34 45–49 60–64 15–19 30–34 45–49 60–64 Age AgeMen Men % % Did not provide unpaid care100 100 All carers Co-resident carer 80 80 60 60 40 40 Did not provide unpaid care 20 All carers 20 Co-resident carer 0 0 15–19 30–34 45–49 60–64 15–19 30–34 45–49 60–64 Age Age(a) Proportion of females or males aged 15–64 years (a) Proportion of employed females or males aged 15–who were employed. 64 years who worked less than 35 hours per week._______________________________________________________________________________________110 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Community…Caring across the life cycle Economic resources of carers Providing care for a person with a disability, long term health condition or problems related to old age can have an economic impact on individuals and families. There may be direct financial costs associated with caring for such people, like the cost of special equipment, health care and travel to health care appointments. People who spend time providing unpaid care may also experience opportunity costs, for example lost opportunities for education, paid work and social interaction. SDAC asked primary carers (that is people who are the main providers of care to a person with a disability) what the main effect of their caring role was on their financial situation: 21% of primary carers responded their income had decreased and 23% reported extra expenses.1 According to the 2006 Census, carers were over-represented in lower income households4. At each year of age in the 15–64 group, a higher proportion of people who provided unpaid care to a person with a disability lived in a lower income household than people who did not provide unpaid care. Around 33% of co-resident carers and 21% of all carers aged 15–64 lived in lower income households, compared with 14% of people who did not provide care. One contributing factor is that carers, particularly co-resident carers, may live with a person with a severe or profound disability who is unable to work and contribute to household income. Among those aged 65 and over, a high proportion of both carers and people who did not provide unpaid care lived in a lower income household (51% and 48% respectively). Unpaid carers aged 20 years and over were more likely to have low levels of personal income: higher proportions had a weekly gross personal income of under $250 (26% of all carers and 36% of co-resident carers) than people who did not provide unpaid care (20%). This pattern was consistent across age groups. Disparity in personal income reflects the higher proportions of carers who were not employed or who worked part-time (see previous page). Household income groups(a) % Lower household income 40 Medium household income Higher household income 30 20 10 0 Co-resident carer All carers Did not provide unpaid care (a) Household income is equivalised gross household income. For details of the income groups used see Glossary.Older people looking after children Caring for partner in older ageLooking after children who were not their own Older people are more likely than youngerwas most common for people aged in their people to take on primary responsibility forfifties, sixties and seventies. This is the stage of providing care to a person with a disability,life when many people become grandparents, long term illness or problems related to oldand have the opportunity to look after their age. SDAC (2003) showed that a highergrandchildren. Around 23% of women and 12% proportion of people 65 years and over wereof men aged 60–69, the peak group, had primary carers, who most commonly cared forlooked after a child who was not their own. a partner.1This was the most common form of careprovided by people aged 60–74, followed by The 2006 Census showed that of people whounpaid care for a person with a disability (see provided unpaid care, people 65 years andFamily composition graph p 109). over were more likely than younger people to_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 111
    • Community…Caring across the life cycleCarers While much care among older Australians occurs in couple relationships, a number of ‘000 % people provide care to their adult child with a disability. The 2006 Census shows that 4% of Co-resident carer(a) older carers aged 65 and over lived with an Child had need for adult child with a need for assistance. Many assistance 120.9 7.5 older carers of adult children with a disability have provided care over an extended period, Partner had need for often throughout their child’s life. Providing assistance 163.6 10.2 ongoing care to an adult child with a disability, Other relative or person along with the physical demands of such care, had need for assistance 132.2 8.2 can be increasingly hard for older parents, although they may have acquired life and Total co-resident carer 410.6 25.6 parenting skills that help them to cope.5 They Other carer 1 195.6 74.4 may feel increasing stress about what will happen to their child when they are no longer Total provided unpaid care 1 606.2 100.0 able to provide care for them. Provided unpaid care 1 606.2 11.2 Endnotes Did not provide unpaid care 12 705.2 88.8 1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003, Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia, 2003, cat. Total(b) 15 918.1 100.0 no. 4430.0, ABS, Canberra. (a) Categories do not sum to total as people may have had 2 Edwards, B., Higgins, D.J., Gray, M., Zmijewski, N. both a child and a partner who required assistance. and Kingston, M. 2008, The nature and impact of (b) People aged 15 years and over. caring for family members with a disability in Australia, Research Report No.16, Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS), Melbourne.live with a person who needed assistancebecause of a disability, long term health 3 Carers Australia 2002. Young Carers Researchcondition or problems related to old age Project—Final Report. Carers Australia, Canberra.(37% compared with 24%). Most of this group 4 Household income is equivalised gross householdof 90,600 co-resident carers lived with a income. For details of the household income groupspartner who needed assistance (71,100). used see Glossary.Reflecting this, a comparatively highproportion of carers lived in couple families 5 Cuskelly, M. 2006, ‘Parents of adults with anwithout children (see Family composition intellectual disability’ in Family Matters, No. 74,graph p 109). In 35,500 couple families both AIFS, Melbourne.partners had a need for assistance. Two thirdsof these partners were 65 years and over(66%), and a high proportion had providedunpaid care (43% of women and 35% of men)._______________________________________________________________________________________112 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Overview 114Adult education acrossthe generations 123School teachers 129
    • Education overview Students in Australia In 2006, one in four Students(a) Australians were attending Type of institution ‘000 %(b) an educational institution. Pre-school 307.8 6.7 Primary school 1,696.8 37.0Formal education in Australia is undertaken Secondary school 1,275.1 27.8through schools, Technical and Further TAFE 428.0 9.3Education institutions (TAFE), universities and University or otherother tertiary institutions, with increasing tertiary institution 745.4 16.3diversity in the range of courses offered bythese institutions. In the 2006 Census, 4.6 Other 128.0 2.8million people of all ages reported that they Total 4 581.2 100.0were attending an educational institution. (a) Excludes overseas visitors in Australia for lessIn Australia in 2006, school attendance was than one year.compulsory between the ages of 6 and 15 years (b) Excludes people who did not state whether they(16 in Tasmania and Western Australia). Some attended an educational institution or the type ofstates are moving towards increasing the institution they attended.leaving age to 17.1 Along with this, there is agrowing recognition of the role earlychildhood education plays in laying a strongfoundation for schooling outcomes and develops people’s skills and provides researchsuccessful transitions into further education opportunities, as well as being a majorand the labour market. In 2006, 72% of employer in the Australian community. In theAustralian students were children and young 2006 Census, 745,000 people (16% of allpeople at pre-school, primary and secondary students) reported that they were attendingschool. university or another tertiary institution.Vocational education provides specialisedtechnical courses with direct relevance to Pre-school educationindustry, as well as a range of self-help or self- Pre-schools provide a range of educational andimprovement classes, accessible to anyone in developmental programs (generally 2 to 3 daysthe community. Just over 400,000 people per week) to children in the year immediatelyattended a TAFE institution in 2006—9% of all before they commence full-time schooling andstudents. Participation by Indigenous also, in some jurisdictions, to youngerAustralians and people in rural and remote children.1 There is growing recognition of theareas in this sector has been increasing.2 There importance of early education for competenceis also a trend for vocational courses to be and coping skills that can affect learning,offered as part of the curriculum in secondary behaviour and health outcomes throughoutschools. life.3 The Australian Government is focussing on ensuring that all children, no matter whereThe Australian higher education sector plays a they live, have access to a quality pre-schoolvital role in Australia’s intellectual, economic, program in the year before starting school.4cultural and social development. It educates asignificant part of the future workforce,_______________________________________________________________________________________114 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…OverviewProportion of 4 year olds at pre-school Census data about Schools %100 The census measures attendance of school students rather than enrolment, which is 75 reported by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) through the National 50 Schools Statistics Collection. This, along with the fact that information in the census is self-reported, or reported by parents on 25 children’s behalf, means that the number 0 of school students measured by the census NSW Vic. Qld SA WA Tas. NT ACT Aust. is lower than that measured by the National Schools Statistics Collection. Even so, the census provides valuable information about the characteristics ofAccording to the 2006 Census, 308,000 students and their families, across all areaschildren aged 3, 4 and 5 were attending pre- of Australia.school. For Australia as a whole, the averageage at which children attend pre-school was 4: It is not possible to derive participationin 2006, 64% of 4 year olds attended rates for school students aged 6 to 14 yearspre-school. A lower proportion of Indigenous from census data.4 year olds attended pre-school (52%).In 2006 there were marked differences inparticipation in pre-school between the states: In the 2006 Census, there were 1.7 millionthis mainly relates to the history of pre-school students attending primary school and 1.3and other early pre-compulsory education in million attending secondary school. This waseach state or territory. For example, in Western an increase of less than 1% in the total numberAustralia similar proportions of 4 and 5 year of students since 1996: a 5% increase in theolds attend pre-school. In Queensland, a lower number of secondary students and a 2%proportion of 4 year olds than 5 year olds decline in the number of primary students.attend pre-school. These patterns partially This decline can be attributed to low birthrelate to the older age at which children rates in the 10 years before the 2006 Censustraditionally start school in these states. In resulting in smaller cohorts of children2006, Queensland was in a transition period entering school.when the education year previously known aspre-school was becoming the first year of In 2006 there were 72,000 Indigenous studentsprimary school known as Prep. attending primary school—a 17% increase from 1996 when there were 61,000 studentsAnother factor affecting reported participation reported. Over the same 10 year period, thein pre-school is differences in terminology number of Indigenous secondary studentsacross the states and territories. Specifically, increased by 46% from 27,000 to 40,000. Some‘kindergarten’ is a common term for pre- of this increase may relate to a higherschool education in Tasmania, Western proportion of people reporting that they wereAustralia and Victoria. In Queensland in 2006, Indigenous in the 2006 Census than in 1996.kindergarten referred to the year prior to thepre-school year. In New South Wales and the A small proportion of school students (lessAustralian Capital Territory, kindergarten than 1% overall) reported that they weredescribes the first year of school. Because of studying part-time in 2006, but the numbersthe different meanings, the term ‘kindergarten’ have been gradually increasing over time. Thecould not be used in the 2006 Census likelihood of studying part-time increased withquestion. This may have affected the response age and was more common in the later years ofrate in those states which use kindergarten to secondary school.describe the pre-school year. The location of school studentsSchool students Across the states and territories of Australia,School education aims to provide students the proportion of the population who werewith the foundational skills, knowledge, school students in 2006 ranged from 16% tounderstanding and values necessary for 17%. Like the rest of Australians, most schoolongoing learning, employment and full students (88%) live in Major Cities or Innerparticipation in society. Regional Areas of Australia (see Glossary)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 115
    • Education…OverviewProportion of population who were Government and non-government schoolschool students: Top 10 Regions(a) attendance Other non- Beaudesert Shire Part A (Qld) Government Catholic government Tuggeranong (ACT) South Loddon (Vic) % % % Palmerston-East Arm (NT) Thuringowa City Part A (Qld) NSW 65.2 22.2 12.6 Snowy (NSW) Vic. 63.7 22.3 14.1 Outer South Western Sydney (NSW)South Eastern Outer Melbourne (Vic) Qld 67.3 17.9 14.8 Hume City (Vic) South West Goulburn (NSW) SA 64.2 18.9 17.0 18 19 20 21 22 WA 65.0 19.7 15.3 % Tas. 70.5 17.6 11.9(a) Regions are Statistical Subdivisions. NT 74.0 13.6 12.4 ACT 59.1 28.3 12.7In 2006, the highest proportions of school Aust. 65.3 20.8 14.0students tended to be in the outer regions ofthe major cities such as places like BeaudesertShire Part A (Qld) (21%) and Tuggeranong(ACT) (21%). Conversely the lowest 14% were in other non-government schools.proportions of school students tended to be in Indigenous students were more likely thaninner city areas such as Inner Brisbane and their non-Indigenous counterparts to attend aInner Melbourne (both 6%). government school (84% compared with 64%). Within each state and territory, the distributionGovernment and non- of students between government and Catholicgovernment schools schools varied. The Australian Capital Territory had the lowest proportion of students attending government schools, at 59%, whileThe Australian school system comprises the Northern Territory had the highest, at 74%.government and non-government schools. Balancing this, the Northern Territory had theGovernment schools are administered by state lowest proportion of students attendingand territory governments. Non-government Catholic schools (14%), while the Australianschools are administered by a range of Capital Territory had the highest (28%). Inreligious, community or private groups. In the contrast, all the states and territories hadcensus they are grouped into Catholic and reasonably similar proportions of studentsother non-government schools. attending other non-government schools, ranging from 12% in Tasmania to 17% in SouthThe introduction of needs-based funding by Australia.the Australian government in the 1970s5 hasled to a gradual increase in the number of non- The proportion of students attendinggovernment schools. Overall, 65% of students government schools has been declining sinceattended a government school in 2006. Of the the late 1970s, and fell by 8% between 1986rest, 21% were in Catholic schools and and 2006. The proportion of students in other non-government schools increased from 10% to 14% between 1996 and 2006. The reasonsProportion of students in government and behind these trends are complex. Strongnon-government schools 1986–2006 economic growth resulting in steady increases in employment, household incomes and % wealth may mean that a greater proportion of Government80 Non-government the population is able to choose non-70 government education.6 Other explanations that have been put forward are: the emergence60 of new independent schools, including parent-50 controlled Christian schools; the changing40 share of government resources received by30 government and non-government schools; and public concern about the ability of some20 government schools to deliver high quality 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 education.7, 8_______________________________________________________________________________________116 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…Overview 16 and 17 year olds attending schoolParticipation in non-compulsory schooling % 100 1986 1996Remaining in education beyond the 2006 80compulsory years of school can assist a youngperson’s transition into the labour force and 60broaden their opportunities later in life. A key 40measure of the level of non-compulsory schoolparticipation is the proportion of 16 year olds 20who are attending school. 0 Aged 16 Aged 17 Aged 16 Aged 17 Non-Indigenous IndigenousIn 2006, 84% of 16 year olds were attendingschool. From as early as 1971, when less thanhalf 16 year olds (48%) attended school, untilthe early 1990s, there was a gradual increase inparticipation beyond the compulsory years. school (excluding Catholic schools) thanThis tapered off in the late 1990s and early 21st Australian-born students. Conversely they werecentury. The same pattern is evident for 17 less likely to attend a Catholic school.year olds, the age at which most young peoplecomplete secondary school. Continuing educationIncreased participation in the last years of after schoolschool is associated with the growing Many Australians continue to study beyondimportance of educational qualifications for their school years at Technical and Furthersuccessful employment outcomes. Changes in Education institutions (TAFE), university orthe labour market have meant that fewer jobs other tertiary institutions. In 2006, there wereare available for people who have not 1.2 million students aged 15 and overcompleted Year 12, while more jobs require attending educational institutions other thanTAFE or university qualifications.9 schools. These students comprised 8% of Australians aged 15 and over: 5% attending aIndigenous students contributed to the trend university and 3% TAFE. Over half of theseof increasing participation in non-compulsory students were women (55%). Participation inschooling. Although participation rates were non-school education was higher in 2006 thanlower among Indigenous 16 and 17 years olds 1986 across all ages. For more information onthan their non-Indigenous counterparts in participation in non-school education overeach census year, they also increased between time, see ‘Adult education across the1986 and 2006. For example, between 1996 generations’, p. 123–127.and 2006, the proportion of Indigenous 16year olds attending school increased from 50% Over half (55%) the students who wereto 59%, compared with 81% to 85% of non- attending a non-school educational institutionIndigenous students. were young people aged 15–24. TAFE students had an older age profile than universityGirls are more likely to continue on at school students: 40% were aged 30 and overfor longer than boys. In 2006, 81% of 16 year compared with 27% of university students.old boys and 86% of 16 year old girls attendedschool. Among 17 year olds, 63% of boys and71% of girls were still attending school.However both girls and boys were more likely Age profile of TAFE and universityto stay at school than they were two decades studentsago. In 1986, 65% of boys and 68% of girls werestill at school at age 16 and by age 17 this had %dropped to 39% and 42% respectively. TAFE 12 University 10The 2006 Census showed that 26,900 8secondary school students aged 15–19 had 6arrived in Australia between 2002 and 2006. Ahigher proportion of these students attended a 4government school (63%) than Australian-born 2secondary school students (59%). They were 0also more likely to attend a non-government 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Age_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 117
    • Education…Overview Proportion of students studying part-time 16 year olds who have left % school 100 TAFE University or other tertiary institutions A range of personal, institutional, and 80 socio-economic factors influence an 60 individual’s decision to leave school early.10 The census can provide information on 40 some of these factors, such as participation 20 in other types of education, employment and location issues. 0 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55+ Age In 2006, 41,000 16 year olds (16%) reported that they were not attending school. Most of these had completed Year 10 (82%) but only 4% reported completing TAFE students of all ages were more likely to Year 12. Of those not attending school, be studying part-time than university students one third (32%) were still participating in (67% compared with 32%). Even among those education, mainly at TAFE. recently out of school, over half of TAFE students were part-time (56% of 15–24 year Of 16 year olds who were not attending an olds). In contrast, most young university educational institution, 56% (14,800) were students were studying full-time (89%). employed. Of these, 61% worked full-time. However, the proportion of students studying The most common occupations of part-time at both university and TAFE employed 16 year olds were Technicians increased with age. and Trades Workers (31%), Labourers (28%) and Sales Workers (23%). Almost The difference in full-time and part-time study one quarter of 16 year olds in the labour patterns of university and TAFE students can force were unemployed. be partly explained by their employment status. Overall, the same proportion of The vast majority of 16 year olds live in students at both TAFE and university were Major Cities and Inner and Outer Regional employed (66%). However, a much higher Areas (98%). Across these regions the proportion of employed TAFE students were proportion of 16 year olds not in education working full-time (57%) than employed ranged from 9% to15%. In contrast, 21% of university students (33%). The difference in 16 year olds in Remote Areas, and 50% in full-time and part-time employment was Very Remote Areas were not in education. greatest among 15–24 year olds, where 57% of Lack of access to educational facilities in employed TAFE students worked full-time remote parts of Australia compels children compared with 13% of employed university to move to large towns and cities to students. For more information about the complete their education. changes in work patterns of students over time, and their occupations, see ‘Adult education across the generations’, p. 123–127. Participation in education of 16 year olds by Remoteness Areas Proportion of employed students working % in education full-time 100 not in education 80 % TAFE 80 University or other Tertiary Institutions 60 60 40 20 40 0 20 Major Inner Outer Remote Very Cities Regional Regional Remote 0 15–24 25–34 35–44 45–54 55+ Age_______________________________________________________________________________________118 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…OverviewOverseas-born students Cities (71%) than university students; instead higher proportions of TAFE students lived inAustralian universities and TAFEs attract many Inner Regional Areas (20% compared withoverseas students. According to the 2006 12%) and Outer Regional Areas (8% comparedCensus there were 137,100 tertiary students with 4%). These differences reflect the varyingwho were born overseas and had recently locations of non-school educationalarrived in Australia. Of these, 72% were institutions. University campuses tend to beuniversity students and 28% were TAFE located in capital cities and regional centres,students (compared with 62% and 38% of while TAFEs and other tertiary institutions areAustralian students respectively). The largest more widely spread across the country and sogroup of these students were born in Chinese are more accessible to those living in regionalAsia (26%).11 Recently arrived tertiary students Australia.had an older age profile than Australian-bornstudents. Reflecting the high proportion of In 2006, a large proportion (46%) of 1.2 millionuniversity students among recently arrived students who were attending a non-schooltertiary students, a much higher proportion institution reported that they already had awere full-time students (85% compared with non-school qualification. Of these students,51% of Australian students). 24% had completed a qualification in the field of Management and commerce, 18% in SocietyLocation of university and TAFE and culture and 10% in each of Health andstudents Engineering and related technologies. This group undertaking further training mayBetween 7% and 8% of people in every state represent people continuing their educationwere university or TAFE students. The for career development or to extend currentAustralian Capital Territory had a higher knowledge in their profession; or peopleproportion of non-school students (13%), and making a career change.the Northern Territory had a lower proportion(6%) than the states. The majority of studentsattending non-school educational institutions Qualificationslived in Major Cities (79%). Reflecting this, theareas in Australia with the highest proportion Non-school qualifications risingof resident university or TAFE students were all In 2006, 50% of the population aged 20 andlocated in capital cities. One in five people over had a non-school qualification: 29% withliving in North Canberra were university or an Advanced Diploma, Diploma or CertificateTAFE students, the highest proportion in qualification and 19% with a Bachelor degreeAustralia. Bathurst (NSW) had the highest or above. The proportion of people with aproportion of resident students (10%) of all non-school qualification rose considerablyregions outside the capital cities. between 1991 and 2006. Over this period, the balance shifted from vocational education toWhile university students were strongly university. The proportion of the populationclustered in Major Cities (83%), this was less aged 20 years and over with a university degreethe case for TAFE students. A slightly lower almost doubled from 10% to 19%, while theproportion of TAFE students lived in Major proportion with an Advanced Diploma, Diploma or Certificate rose more slowly, from 23% to 29%.Proportion of TAFE and Universitystudents: Top 10 regions(a) Highest level of education(a) North Canberra (ACT) Inner Melbourne (Vic) % 40 Inner Brisbane (Qld)Northwest Inner Brisbane (Qld) 30 Inner Sydney (NSW) Central Metropolitan (WA) 20 Eastern Adelaide (SA) Boroondara City (Vic) 10 Eastern Suburbs (NSW) Belconnen (ACT) 0 Yr 11 Yr 12 Diploma Advanced Bachelor or below or below Diploma degree 10 13 16 19 22 or above % (a) Population aged 20 years and over.(a) Regions are Statistical Subdivisions._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 119
    • Education…OverviewPeople with qualifications(a), 1991 to 2006 Comparing qualifications over % Bachelor degree or above time30 Advanced Diploma Diploma or below In the 2001 and 2006 Censuses, level and field of highest qualification were20 categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education10 (ASCED). The 1991 and 1996 Censuses categorised level and field of highest qualification according to the Australian 0 Bureau of Statistics Classification of 1991 1996 2001 2006 Qualifications (ABSCQ). Although ABSCQ qualification categories have been broadly(a) Proportion of people with a non-school qualification aligned to ASCED categories, they do notaged 20 years and over. match exactly. For earlier census data on education,No change in rate of higher degrees differences in the classification structureamong graduates and coding process pose practicalIn 2006, 5% of people aged 20 and over had a difficulties which preclude detailedhigher degree (for example a Postgraduate comparison with more recent census data.diploma, Master’s degree, or Doctorate), morethan double the proportion in 1991 (2.4%). For further information refer to ABS, 2001,Even so, the rate at which people with a Australian Standard Classification ofBachelor degree go on to attain higher degrees Education, cat. no. 1272.0.has not changed. In 2006, 26% of all those witha Bachelor degree or above had a higherdegree. Similarly, in 1991, 25% had a higherdegree. X and Y. The smaller increase between the Baby Boomer Generation and Generation XEach generation better educated and Y reflects the fact that many of thethan the last younger members of this generation are still students at TAFE or university.The level of educational attainment in thecommunity has risen steadily with each The higher level of educational attainment forsuccessive generation. (A description of each each successive generation reached a pointgeneration can be found in the article, ‘From where more people in the Baby Boomergeneration to generation’, p. 9–14.) Two thirds Generation and Generation X and Y held a(66%) of the Oldest Generation reported their non-school qualification than those who didhighest level of schooling completed as Year not in 2006, in contrast to older generations.11 or below, an indicator of the proportion of For further information, see ‘Adult educationthe population who did not complete school. across the generations’, p 123–127.For each generation, the proportion of thepopulation who did not complete school hasbeen lower, from 53% of the Lucky Generation,to 36% of the Baby Boomer Generation and Generation’s highest level of education20% of Generation X and Y. completed(a)For the older three generation groups, there % Oldest Generationwas little difference in the proportion of 80 Lucky Generationpeople whose highest level of schooling Baby Boomers 60 Generation X and Ycompleted was Year 12: 11% of the OldestGeneration, 10% of the Lucky Generation and 4012% of the Baby Boomer Generation.However, the proportion was substantially 20higher for Generation X and Y, at 23%. 0The proportion of people reporting a non- Yr 11 Completed Has non-school or below year 12 qualificationsschool qualification was higher with eachsuccessive generation, from 23% of the OldestGeneration, to 37% of the Lucky Generation, (a) A description of each generation can be found in the article, ‘From generation to generation’, p. 9–14.53% of Baby Boomers and 57% of Generation_______________________________________________________________________________________120 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…OverviewMore women gain qualifications Age profile of qualified men and women not in the labour forceThe changing role of women in Australiansociety is reflected in a narrowing of the gap in 000 Maleeducational attainment between men and 100 Femalewomen. In 1991, 43% of men and 25% of 80women aged 20 and over reported holding anon-school qualification. In 2006, the gap was 60smaller: 56% of men and 45% of women held a 40non-school qualification. This can be attributed 20to the increasing participation in non-schooleducation of women from the Baby Boomer 0Generation and Generation X and Y. See ‘Adult 20–24 30–34 40–44 50–54 60–64education across the generations’, p 123–127, Agefor more information.Where qualified people live Women made up two thirds of qualified peopleOverall, people aged 20 and over with non- aged 20–64 who were not in the labour force.school qualifications were more likely than In contrast to qualified men not in the labourthose without non-school qualifications to live force, the highest proportion of qualifiedin the Major Cities of Australia (73% compared women were aged 30–39 (31%), and their agewith 66%). However, this differed by profile was similar to those who were in thequalification. Of people with a Bachelor degree labour force. Over half the qualified womenor above, 81% lived in Major Cities, compared (51%) who were not in the labour force werewith 68% of those with an Advanced Diploma, parents in a family with dependent childrenDiploma or Certificate. This reflects the and so are likely to have taken time off mid-different types of jobs available in different career to have children.areas and the educational requirements ofthese jobs. For more information about Qualified people have higher incomesregional differences in educational attainment,refer to ‘Education across Australia’ in Of the employed population aged 20–64, thoseAustralian Social Trends 2008.12 with non-school qualifications were more likely to have higher incomes13 than those without non-school qualifications. In 2006, 42% of theQualifications and work former group received higher incomes (that is,There is a strong relationship between more than $1000 per week) compared withqualifications, labour force status and income: 19% of the latter group. For furtherthose who are qualified are more likely to be information about the relationship betweenemployed and to have higher incomes. Of education and income, see the ‘Economicpeople aged 20–64 with a non-school resources overview’, p. 175–187.qualification, 83% were employed, comparedwith 65% of those with no qualification. Fields of highest qualificationAnother 2.9% of qualified people wereunemployed, compared with 4.5% of those In 2006, the most common fields of study forwithout a qualification. Only 14% (820,000) of people’s highest non-school qualification werequalified people aged 20–64 were not in the Engineering and related technologies andlabour force compared with 30% of those Management and commerce—with 21% andwithout a qualification. 20% of all people with non-school qualifications respectively (or 1.3 million people each). Within the former group, theQualified men and women who are not in most commonly held non-school qualificationsthe labour force were in Mechanical and industrial engineeringMen made up 36% of qualified people aged and technology (23%, or 303,000 people) and20–64 who were not in the labour force. They Electrical and electronic engineering andwere generally older than qualified men who technology (22%, or 291,000 people).were in the labour force: almost two thirdswere aged 45–64 (65%), compared with 39% of Between 1996 and 2006 the proportion ofqualified men in the labour force. Many of people reporting their highest qualification inthese men may have retired early from their the field of Management and commercejob, while some may have sustained an injury increased (from 17% to 20%) and theor disability preventing them from working. proportion of people reporting EngineeringFor more information, see ‘Skills shortages’, and related technologies decreased (from 25%p 151–157. to 21%)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 121
    • Education…OverviewHighest non-school qualification: top 5fields of study(a) Endnotes 1 Steering Committee for the Review of 1996 2001 2006 Government Service Provision (SCRGSP) 2008, Report on Government Services 2008, Productivity % % % Commission, Canberra. Engineering 2 National Centre for Vocational Education Research and related (NCVER) 2007, Australian vocational education technologies 25.3 23.3 20.6 and training statistics. Students and courses 2006, Management NCVER, Adelaide. and commerce 17.3 19.1 20.4 3 McCain, M. and Mustard, J.F. 1999, Reversing the Society and Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study, Final Report, culture 9.1 10.3 11.3 Ontario Children’s Secretariat, Toronto. Health 11.3 10.9 10.7 4 Department of Education, Employment and Education 9.7 9.4 9.5 Workplace Relations 2008, Universal Access to Early Childhood Education Guidelines 2007–08, (a) Proportion of persons aged 20 years and over with a <http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E6053E84- non-school qualification who reported a field of study for their highest qualification. 48A9-4F0C-A64A-DD48A09E8692/20838/ Guidelines_UAECE_March2008.pdf>. 5 Wilkinson, I.R. et al. 2007. A History of State Aid to Non-government Schools in Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, 2007. 6 Toth, J. 2007, ‘Australian childcare services and schools: participation and spending trends’, Consumer Trends, February 2007, Economics@ANZ. 7 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2006, ‘Government and non-government schooling’ in Australian Social Trends 2006, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra. 8 Buckingham, J. 2001, ‘The case for school choice and how to fund it’ in Policy, Vol. 17, No. 3, p. 18– 24. 9 ABS 2001, ‘Trend in completing school’ in Australian Social Trends 2001, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra. 10 Department of Education Training and Youth Affairs 2001, National evaluation report: Full service schools program, 1999 and 2000, <http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/ publications_resources/profiles/evaluation_report_f ull_service_schools_programme.htm>. 11 Chinese Asia includes China (excluding SARs and Taiwan Province), Hong Kong (SAR of China), Macau (SAR of China), Mongolia and Taiwan. 12 ABS 2008, ‘Education across Australia’ in Australian Social Trends 2008, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra. 13 Income is gross personal income. For details of the personal income groups used see Glossary._______________________________________________________________________________________122 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Adult education across the generationsOver the last century, there has been a marked Australians with a qualification, bychange in education, from a time when most generation(a)(b)people completed only compulsory schooling1to the present, when more than half of young % Menpeople continue their education after leaving 60 Womenschool. Whereas in the past skills were acquiredon the job, many young people today feel that 40formal education will give them the skills to getestablished in the workforce.2 As well, theproportion of students who are older is 20gradually increasing. This suggests that to gainan edge, or even to keep pace, in the labour 0market, older people see a need to upgrade Oldest Lucky Baby Gen Generation Generation Boomers X&Ytheir qualifications or skills. Fostering ‘lifelonglearning’ has become increasingly important asAustralias population ages. Governments and (a) Qualification refers to formal qualifications ofworkplaces alike have identified a need to boost Certificate I level or above, for people aged 20 years and over. See Glossary.labour force participation in order to increase (b) A description of each generation can be found in theeconomic growth, and this requires educated article, ‘From generation to generation’, p. 9–14.workers.3The census sheds light on the characteristics of educated.5 In 2006, 23% of the Oldestpeople who participate in formal education Generation (people aged 80 and over) andbeyond secondary school, people’s educational 37% of the Lucky Generation (aged 60–79) hadattainment and their qualifications. This article obtained a non-school qualification during theirexamines each generation’s experience of adult lifetime. In comparison, the majority of Babyeducation in terms of age, sex, participation and Boomers (aged 40–59) and Generation X and Yqualifications. It also explores some recent (aged 20–39) had completed a non-schooltrends in formal education: the increasing qualification (53% and 57% respectively). Lowerparticipation of women and combining study educational attainment among the Oldest andand work. Lucky Generations compared with the recent generations reflects the relatively lowWhile the census can show trends in formal requirement for formal qualifications in jobs inlearning, education is broader than this and primary manufacturing, which dominated theincludes non-formal and informal learning as economy of the early and middle period of thewell (see box on next page). The Australian 20th century.Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2006–07 Multi-Purpose Household Survey estimated that 3.6 Younger people gain higher level of skillsmillion or 44% of Australian workers hadparticipated in formal or non-formal learning in The proportion of young Australians inthe 12 months prior to being interviewed.4 Generation X and Y who had completed a non- school qualification (57%) was slightly higher than the Baby Boomer Generation (53%), evenEducational attainment across the though some younger members of Generationgenerations X and Y had not yet attained a first qualificationThe 2006 Census shows that each successive in 2006. Further, people in Generation X and Ygeneration of Australians is more educated than were more highly qualified: 24% had a bachelorthe previous one in terms of non-school degree or higher qualification compared withqualifications (see Glossary). This reflects both 20% of Baby Boomers, 10% of the Luckythe increasing demand for a more skilled labour Generation and 6% of the Oldest Generation.force and people’s desire to be better_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 123
    • Education…Adult education across the generationsIn recent times there has been an increasingrequirement for high level skills and Types of adult learningqualifications in the workforce due to the The Adult Learning topic in the Multi-changing nature of work, including Purpose Household Survey (MPHS) 2006–technological change within industries and 07 sheds light on the broader learningtheir changing structure.6 experiences of Australians. The survey collected details on participation in formal,Changes in the level of qualifications required non-formal and informal learning. Bothfor employment is particularly noticeable in the formal and non-formal learning areoccupations of teaching, nursing and farming. structured, but only formal learning leads toIn 2003, those aspiring to be teachers were a qualification. Informal learning refers torequired to undertake at least a 4 year degree in unstructured learning related to work,education to enter the public education system family, community or leisure.in most states and territories.7 Consequently,there has been a marked increase in the The MPHS showed that 1 in 8 Australiansproportion of school teachers8 from Generation (12%) aged 25 to 64 years participated inX and Y who hold a Bachelor degree or above formal learning in the 12 months prior to(92%), compared with 77% of school teachers interview. Participation in non-formalfrom the Baby Boomer Generation. Similarly, learning was higher (30%), while70% of nurses8 in Generation X and Y had participation in informal learning was theobtained a Bachelor degree or higher highest, with almost three quarters of thequalification, compared with 54% of nurses population participating.from the Baby Boomer Generation. The survey showed that while participationThere has been a steady increase in educational in formal learning was most commonattainment of farmers8 in recent generations. At among people under 30 and decreased inthe time of the 2006 Census, 15% of farmers in the older age groups, participation in otherthe Oldest Generation had obtained a formal forms of learning was high across all ages.qualification, compared with 40% of farmers in The most common types of non-formalGeneration X and Y. Farmers increasingly need learning were work-related courses (78% ofbusiness, management and technical skills as those who participated), followed by Arts,well as agricultural skills, as family farm crafts or recreational learning (12%). Thebusinesses have become on average larger and most common types of informal learningmore complex. Young farmers in Generation X were reading manuals, reference books,and Y were more likely to have a qualification in journals or other written materials (75%),Agriculture, environmental and related studies and using computers or the internet (71%).than farmers in the older generations. People with higher educational qualifications had higher participation rates in formal, non-formal and informal learning. Those employed full-time were more likely to have participated in some form ofFarmers with a qualification(a)(b) learning than those not in the labour force (84% compared with 62%). Gen X & Y Baby Boomers Participation in learning 2006–07 Lucky Generation % Formal learningOldest Generation 100 Non-formal learning Informal learning 80 0 15 30 45 60 60 % 40(a) Qualification refers to Certificate I and above. 20(b) Includes all persons aged 20 years and older. 0 25–29 35–39 45–49 55–59 30–34 40–44 50–54 60–64 Source: Adult Learning, Australia, 2006–07_______________________________________________________________________________________124 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…Adult education across the generations Proportion of people studying in 1986 andWomen and men with a Bachelor degree 2006or above, 1986 and 2006(a) % 1986 40 2006 % Women 198630 Men 1986 30 Women 2006 Men 2006 2020 1010 0 20–24 30–34 40–44 50–54 60–64 25–29 35–39 45–49 55–59 0 Age Gen Baby Lucky Oldest X&Y Boomers Generation Generation(a) Includes all persons aged 20 years and older. Occupations such as teaching and nursing attracted a high proportion of women across the generations (34% of all female graduatesWomen closing the learning divide have their highest qualification in these fields).in educational attainment The shift to a requirement for teachers andA striking trend in education is the closing gap nurses to hold a university level qualificationin educational attainment between men and has helped to close the gap between womenwomen. A higher proportion of women in each and men with a Bachelor degree or above.successive generation has obtained a non-school qualification. Of people in the Oldest Recent trends amongGeneration in 2006, men were almost threetimes more likely than women to have obtained studentsa non-school qualification during their lifetime The census showed that in 2006, people of all(39% of men compared with 14% of women). ages were undertaking study beyond the formalIn comparison, men and women in Generation school years. Undertaking study was moreX and Y were equally likely to have a common for people aged under 30: 35% ofqualification (57% of men and 56% of women). 20–24 year olds and 15% of 25–29 year oldsThe trend towards equal opportunities for men were studying. For those 30 years and over,and women has led to a rising proportion of participation was lower, ranging from 9.6% ofwomen studying and gaining qualifications. This 30–34 year olds to 1.4% of 60–64 year olds.has gone hand in hand with an increasedparticipation of women in the workforce. Across all ages, participation in formal education increased between 1986 and 2006.Along with this trend, the gender gap in However the most noticeable change was theuniversity qualifications has been closing. In increase in the proportion of 20–29 year olds2006, more women than men in Generation X participating in either full or part-time formaland Y held a Bachelor degree or above (28% education. This can be attributed to the trendcompared with 21%). Women of earlier for students to spend longer periods of time ingenerations have also contributed to a education because they are combining studynarrowing gender gap. The proportion of Baby and work, or are studying for a double degreeBoomer women with a Bachelor degree or or post-graduate qualification.above increased from 7% in 1986 (when theywere aged 20 to 39) to 20% in 2006. In 1986,fewer Baby Boomer women than men had aBachelor degree or above, but by 2006, this hadreversed. In the Lucky Generation, there was alarger gap in the proportion of men and women More women than men inwith a Bachelor degree or above in 1986, whenthey were aged 40–59 years. By 2006 this gap Generation X and Y held ahad narrowed. This meant that women in the Bachelor degree or aboveBaby Boomer and Lucky Generations had (28% compared with 21%completed degrees as mature age students inthe 20 years before the 2006 Census at a higher in 2006).rate than men._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 125
    • Education…Adult education across the generationsWorking students: maintaining the Occupations of employed students(a)(b)balanceBetween 1986 and 2006, the proportion of Managersstudents aged 20–64 years combining work and Professionals Technicians and tradesstudy increased slightly from 64% to 66%. Community and personal serviceHowever, there were notable changes in the Clerical and administrativeway students balanced study and work over this Salesperiod. In particular, the wider availability of Machinery operators and driverspart-time work provided greater flexibility for Labourersstudents to fit work in with their study. 0 5 10 15 20 25 %The greatest change was the substantialincrease in the proportion of full-time studentswho were employed—from 36% in 1986, to (a) Employed students aged 20 to 64 years.50% in 2006. All of this increase was in part-time (b) Information on occupation for 1986 is not available onemployment. The proportion of full-time a comparable basis with 2006.students working part-time doubled while theproportion working full-time declined.Increasing living costs, the introduction of Student workers: sales and serviceHECS (Higher Education Contribution Scheme)in 1989 and higher levels of student debt may Of Australians aged from 20 to 64 years whoalso have contributed to a higher proportion of were both working and studying, approximatelyfull-time students taking up employment.9 25% were employed as Professionals, 17% as Community and personal service workersPart-time students were less likely to take up (including hospitality workers), and 14% asfull-time work in 2006 than in 1986, and more Clerical and administrative workers. Almost halflikely to take up part-time work. In this period, of working students who were studying full-the proportion of part-time students who were time were Sales workers or Community andemployed full-time decreased from 66% to 56%. personal service workers. Many full-timeMatching this decrease was an increase in the students are young: two thirds of all working-proportion of part-time students who were age students (20–64 years) were aged 20–24.employed part-time, up from 15% to 24%. Work in retail or hospitality may be attractive to students because of the availability of part-timeIt is increasingly common for employers to offer and casual work and the flexibility of hours. Inflexible working arrangements which allow contrast, employed part-time students mostemployees to achieve a balance between work commonly worked as Professionals (31%),and other life commitments, including study. reflecting their older age profile compared withAllowing workers to study is important full-time students.considering the demand for employees to behighly educated specialists in their field. Forinformation on students’ income, see the‘Economic resources overview’, p 175–187. Increase in qualified Indigenous AustraliansWork and study balance of students(a), Between 1986 and 2006, the proportion of1986 and 2006 Indigenous Australians aged 20 years and over who were qualified at Certificate level % Employed part-time or above more than doubled, from 12% to80 28% (see Glossary). Over the same period, Employed full-time the proportion of non-Indigenous60 Australians aged 20 years and over who40 held a Certificate level qualification or above rose from 36% to 50%.20 A relatively small proportion of Indigenous 0 Australians have university qualifications. 1986 2006 1986 2006 In 2006, 5% of Indigenous Australians aged Full-time student Part-time student 20 and over held a Bachelor degree or above compared with 20% of non-(a) Students aged 20 to 64 years Indigenous Australians in this age group._______________________________________________________________________________________126 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…Adult education across the generationsEndnotes1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2001, YearBook Australia 2001, cat. no. 1301.0, ABS, Canberra.2 ABS 2000, ‘Beyond compulsory schooling’ inAustralian Social Trends 2000, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS,Canberra.3 ABS 2008, ‘Adult learning’ in Australian SocialTrends 2008, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra.4 ABS 2007, Adult Learning, Australia, 2006–07, cat.no. 4229.0, ABS, Canberra.5 The Treasury 2007, Intergenerational Report 2007,Commonwealth of Australia,<http://www.treasury.gov.au/documents/1239/PDF/IGR_2007_final_report.pdf>.6 De Laine, C., Laplagne, P., Stone, S. 2000 TheIncreasing Demand for Skilled Workers inAustralia: The Role of Technical Change,Productivity Commission Staff Research Paper,AusInfo, Canberra, September.7 Department of Education, Science and Training2003, Australias teachers, Australias future:advancing innovation, science, technology andmathematics,<http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/school_education/publications_resources/profiles/australias_future_advancing_innovation.htm >.8 School teachers are ‘School Teachers’, nurses are‘Midwifery and Nursing Professionals’ and farmersare ‘Farmers and Farm Managers’ according to theAustralian and New Zealand Standard Classification ofOccupations, 2006.9 Australian Centre for Educational Research (ACER)2003, Student workers in high school and beyond:The effects of part-time employment onparticipation in education, training and work,Research Report No. 30, ACER, Melbourne._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 127
    • School teachersSchool teachers play a crucial role in developing In 2006 there were 2.6 female teachers to everythe skills and capabilities of children, while also male teacher—driven by the higher proportioncaring for their social and emotional needs. of female primary teachers. Past census dataSchool teachers influence the overall reveal that the ratio of female to male teachersdevelopment of individual children as well as has gradually increased over time. In 1996 theretheir future employability, and ultimately affect were 2.2 females to every male and in 2001 thethe wellbeing of society as a whole.1 ratio had increased to 2.5 to 1. This trend is likely to continue. Applications by women forThere are increasing demands on education teaching degrees in 2003 for instance, wereproviders to deliver the best outcomes for almost 3 times higher than for men.4children’s education. Universities andgovernment departments face the challengeof supplying enough appropriately trainedteachers to meet these expectations. Anunderstanding of the characteristics of the In this article, unless otherwise specified,current teacher workforce underpins effective teachers is a collective term that comprisesplanning to meet the future demand for people aged 20 years and over whoteachers. reported being employed as Primary school teachers, Secondary school teachers, School principals or other teachersAn ageing profession, (comprising School teachers not furthermostly women defined, Early childhood, including pre- school, Middle school, and SpecialCompared with the Australian workforce, education teachers). In this article, theseteachers are generally older, more likely to be four groups are referred to as primarywomen, Australian-born and living in couple teachers, secondary teachers, principals andfamilies. These characteristics have been other teachers.consistent over time, with only gradual changesin the last 10 years. When comparisons are made with people in other occupations, teachers (other thanFrom 1996 to 2006 there was an increase in the School principals) are compared with all ofmedian age of all teachers from 41 to 44 years. the remaining occupations in theThe median age of comparable occupation ‘Professionals’ category. School principalsgroups—all other Professionals and Specialist are compared with the remainingmanagers—was lower at 41 years in 2006, occupations in the ‘Specialist managers’although it too had increased from 39 years in category. These occupation groups are1996. Ageing in the teaching profession is not considered to have comparable levels ofjust an issue in Australia: it is a global concern. skills and qualifications. For moreIn Australia in 2006, a little over 60% of teachers information on occupations see Glossary.were aged 40 and over. Similarly, in manyEuropean Union countries over half the School teacher qualified refers to peopleteaching force is 40 years and over.2 As many of whose highest completed non-schoolthis large group of teachers begin to approach qualification was in the following ‘Teachertraditional retirement ages over the next 5 to 10 Education’ fields: Early childhood, Primary,years, losses are expected to have a major Secondary, Teacher-Librarianship andimpact on teaching workforces in Australia and Special education. For more information onoverseas.3 qualifications see Glossary._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 129
    • Education…School teachersSelected personal characteristics of teachers, aged 20 years and over Aged 40 Median years and Born Females/ age over overseas males Total years % % ratio 000 % Primary school teachers 43 57.6 14.1 5.5 125.8 41.1 Secondary school teachers 44 61.5 19.7 1.4 118.4 38.7 School principals 50 84.8 12.7 1.0 18.0 5.9 Total(a) 44 61.1 17.0 2.6 305.9 100.0 (a) Total includes 43,580 other teachers, see box on previous page.In 2006, 83% of teachers were Australian-born Age and sex of primary teacherscompared with 73% of the Australian workforce.Secondary teachers were more likely to have 000 Malebeen born overseas (20%) than primary 20 Femaleteachers (14%) and principals (13%). These 15were much lower levels than for occupationssuch as Social professionals (53%) and 10Generalist medical practitioners (51%).Teachers were also less likely to be recent 5arrivals (see Glossary) to Australia than the totalworkforce (1.4% and 3.2% respectively). 0 20–24 35–39 50–54 65 and overMost teachers live in couple families. Around75% of the teaching workforce lived in couplefamilies, slightly higher than the workingpopulation (71%). As a result, teachers weremore likely than the total working population Secondary teachers—greaterto live in families with school-aged children, gender balanceaged 5–14 (22% compared with 19%). Teachingmay be more suitable than other professions for Secondary teachers had a slightly higherparents of school-aged children because median age but less gender imbalance thanteachers’ formal working hours and leave primary teachers. Secondary teachers had alargely align with their children’s school hours median age of 44, an increase of three yearsand holidays. from 1996 to 2006. In comparison, the median age for all other Professionals increased by one year, from 39 to 40 years. Similar to primaryPrimary teachers—younger and school teachers, the ratio of women to men hasmostly women also increased, from 1.2 to 1 in 1996 to 1.4 to 1Primary teachers had a lower median age and a in 2006.substantially higher ratio of women to men,compared with principals or secondaryteachers. The median age for primary teacherswas 43 in 2006, an increase of three years from Age and sex of secondary teachers40 in 1996. Female primary teachers 000outnumbered males, and this disparity widened Male 12 Femalebetween 1996 and 2006, from 4.6 to 1, to5.5 to 1. Many reasons for the predominance of 9women in primary teaching have been put 6forward, including the perception that primaryschool teaching includes a nurturing role that is 3more suited to women; negative social 0perceptions about male teachers; and the 20–24 35–39 50–54 65isolation and loneliness experienced by male and overteachers.5 Age_______________________________________________________________________________________130 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…School teachersAge and sex of principals Teachers and selected occupation groups with higher incomes(a)(b)000 Male3 Female Primary teachers2 Secondary teachers School principals1 Other Professionals0 Other Specialist managers 20–24 35–39 50–54 65 Total all occupations and over Age 40 60 80 100 % (a) Full-time employed persons aged 20 and over.Principals—older men and women (b) Gross personal income of $1,000 or more per week.Compared with other members of the teachingprofession, principals were the oldest group.The higher median age is strongly associated The personal incomes of full-time teacherswith most principals being teachers with many were slightly higher than those of comparableyears experience. That said, from 1996 to 2006, full-time professionals. Almost three quartersprincipals showed the greatest increase in (73%) of full-time teachers had higher incomesmedian age, with a 4 year increase from 46 to (that is, gross personal income of $1,000 or50. In comparison, the median age for all other more per week) compared with 70% of all otherSpecialist managers increased from 41 to 43 Professionals and Specialist managers (seeacross the same time period. higher income graph on this page). In addition, full-time teachers were slightly less likely toPrincipals were also the sector of the teaching have middle incomes ($400–$999 per week)profession with the most gender equity. In than other Professionals and Specialist1996, male principals outnumbered females managers (26% compared with 28%).(1.5 to 1). However, by 2006, female principalsvery slightly outnumbered males. This was in However, there were differences in income forcontrast to the gender imbalance of primary full-time workers with very high personaland secondary teachers. incomes ($2,000 or more per week). Teachers were less likely to have very high incomes thanTeachers’ incomes and other Professionals and Specialist managers (2% compared with 19%).hours workedThe census provides information on teachers’ Primary teachers—more part-time,working conditions, in terms of hours worked reflecting high proportion ofand gross weekly income. Hours worked was womenmeasured for the week before the 2006 Census,which was held during the school term. Primary teachers were more likely to workAlthough a relatively high proportion of part-time (35% in 2006) than secondaryteachers worked part-time compared with other teachers (24%) or other Professionals (26%).Professionals and Specialist managers (30% Female primary teachers were more likelycompared with 22%), only people who worked than male primary teachers to work part-timefull-time are considered in this section when (38% compared with 22%).making comparisons between occupations. Just over one quarter of both male and femaleIn 2006, 31% of full-time teachers worked long full-time primary teachers worked long hourshours (50 hours or more per week), this was (50 hours or more per week): 27% of men andsimilar to other full-time Professionals and 26% of women. However working long hoursSpecialist managers at 32% (see table next was less common for male primary teacherspage). Teachers are able to make use of stand- than for male Professionals (33%). On the otherdown time in school holidays to compensate for hand, female primary teachers were more likelyworking longer hours during the terms. to work long hours than other female Professionals (26% compared with 19%). A lower proportion of primary teachers worked long hours (26%) than secondary teachers (30%) or principals (67%)._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 131
    • Education…School teachersThe personal incomes of full-time primary teachers. When compared with otherteachers were comparable with other Professionals working full-time, secondaryProfessionals working full-time. However, full- teachers were more likely to have highertime primary teachers were more likely to have incomes and less likely to have middlemiddle incomes (31%) and less likely to have incomes.higher incomes (68%) than full-time secondaryteachers (see table, p. 134). Principals—long hours and higher incomes the normSecondary teachers—higher Principals were less likely to work part-timeincomes more common than other Specialist managers (4% comparedFull-time female and male secondary teachers with 10%). For those working full-time,were more likely to work long hours (both principals were more likely to work long hours30%) than full-time primary teachers. than primary and secondary teachers or otherCompared with other full-time Professionals, Specialist managers. Over two thirds of full-timefemale secondary teachers were more likely to principals worked long hours (67%) comparedwork long hours than other female with less than half other Specialist managersProfessionals. On the other hand, male (43%).secondary teachers were less likely than othermale Professionals to work long hours. Consistent with their experience and the responsibilities related to their position, 98% ofA teacher’s salary level increases according to full-time principals had higher incomes. Inyears of experience and also increases for comparison, 74% of other Specialist managersteachers with additional responsibilities, such as who worked full-time had higher incomes.year or subject co-ordinators. Associated with However, 17% of full-time principals had verytheir older age profile and greater opportunities high incomes ($2,000 or more per week),for additional responsibilities, full-time somewhat lower than other full-time Specialistsecondary teachers were more likely to have managers (25%).higher incomes (76%) than full-time primaryTeachers, Principals and other occupations, hours worked(a)(b) Long hours Part-time Full-time Total (50 hours or more) % % % % of FT workers Primary school teachers 35.4 64.6 100.0 26.3 Secondary school teachers 23.7 76.3 100.0 30.1 School principals 3.7 96.3 100.0 66.9 Total teachers/principals(c) 30.0 70.0 100.0 30.6 Professionals(d) 25.7 74.3 100.0 27.4 Specialist managers(e) 10.2 89.8 100.0 42.5 Total Professionals and Specialist managers 21.9 78.1 100.0 31.7 (a) Employed persons aged 20 and over. (b) Part-time: 1–34 hours, full-time: 35 hours or more. (c) Includes ‘other teachers’, see definition p. 129. (d) Excludes school teachers. (e) Excludes school principals._______________________________________________________________________________________132 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…School teachersTeachers not teaching— Census misses some withwhat are they doing? teaching qualificationsHaving an adequate number of teachers to The number of people holding a teachermeet requirements of schools is affected by the qualification and not working in thesubstantial number of people who leave the profession is likely to be higher thanprofession. In addition to retirement, indicated by the census figures. Apart frominternational studies have shown that a high issues related to census collectionproportion of teachers leave in the early stages methods, the census measures only theof their careers, a trend commonly accepted to highest qualification a person has attained,be present among Australian teachers.6 not all their qualifications. People could hold a teaching qualification and aReflecting this, many people whose highest graduate or postgraduate qualificationqualification was teaching do not work as which is not related to education. In thisschool teachers. In 2006, 513,800 people aged case, the teaching qualification would not20 and over were school teacher qualified (had be recorded in the census results.school teaching qualifications). Of these,almost three quarters were employed (73%),and slightly over a quarter were not in thelabour force (26%). In 2006, of those school teacher qualifiedOf those not in the labour force, 43% were people who were employed (373,200), 64%aged 65 years and over and were most likely were employed as a teacher or principal. Afterretired. Of those aged 20–64 who were not in teaching, those who were working were mostthe labour force, a large group were women likely to be employed as other Education(63,500)—the largest single group of people professionals (6% or 21,600 people), such aswho were school teacher qualified, but not Vocational education teachers or Private tutorsteaching. These women were more likely to and teachers. For men, the most common non-live in a family with children under 5 than all education related occupations for those withwomen not in the labour force (28% compared teacher qualifications were Business, humanwith 23%). In addition, there were 11,800 resources and marketing professionals (2,600)school teacher qualified men aged 20–64 who and Hospitality, retail and service managerswere not in the labour force (see occupation (2,100). For school teacher qualified womengraph below). About one third of these men these occupations were Carers and aideslived in older couple families with no children, (11,900) and Business, human resources andcompared with one fifth of all men not in the marketing professionals (5,100).labour force.Most common occupations of people qualified(a) as school teachers Teachers/Principals Other Education professionals Other Specialist managers Carers and aides Business, HR & marketing prof Hospitality, retail, service managers UnemployedNot in the labour force (aged 20–64) Not in the labour force (aged 65+) Male Female 0 50 100 150 200 000(a) People whose highest qualification was teaching._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 133
    • Education…School teachersPay better for full-time teachers Principals who worked full-time generally earned more than other full-time SpecialistThe personal income levels of school teacher managers with teacher qualifications, with aqualified workers in other fields were generally much higher proportion with higher incomeslower than for those who remained in (98% compared with 71%). Likewise, theteaching. The incomes of full-time teachers in proportion of full-time principals who had very2006 indicated that they fare as well, if not high incomes was higher than that of otherbetter, than people with school teacher Specialist managers with teacher qualificationsqualifications who worked full-time in other (17% and 14 % respectively).comparable occupations. While the incomes of those in the teachingIn 2006, the proportion of full-time primary profession were generally higher than forteachers with middle and higher incomes was those with teacher qualifications who workedsimilar to that of people who were school in other fields, there appeared to be littleteacher qualified but who worked full-time in opportunity to earn very high incomes, unlessother Professional occupations. Full-time as a principal. In 2006, less than 1% of primarysecondary teachers were more likely to earn and secondary teachers earned $2,000 or morehigher incomes than other Professionals with per week, well below the proportion in otherschool teacher qualifications who worked full- common occupations of school teachertime—76% and 67% respectively had higher qualified full-time workers. For example, theincomes. proportion of teacher-trained Business, human resources and marketing professionals with very high incomes was 14% for men and 7% for women.Gross personal weekly incomes: full-time teachers and school teacher qualified persons(a) Middle Higher Very high Lower income income income income ($400– ($1 000 ($2 000 or ($1–$399) $999) or more) more) Total % % % % % ’000 All employed teachers Primary school teachers 0.9 31.0 68.1 0.4 100.0 76.4 Secondary school teachers 0.5 23.1 76.3 0.9 100.0 85.6 School principals 0.1 1.7 98.1 16.8 100.0 16.4 Total teachers/principals(b) 0.8 26.2 73.0 2.0 100.0 201.8 Teacher qualified—non- teaching occupations Professionals(c) 3.7 29.5 66.7 5.3 100.0 21.4 Specialist managers(d) 2.0 27.4 70.7 14.3 100.0 8.3 Other occupations 8.8 58.6 32.6 4.6 100.0 40.4 Total non-teaching occupations 6.4 45.9 47.6 6.0 100.0 70.0 (a) People aged 20 years and over whose highest completed non-school qualification was in the following ‘Teacher Education’ fields: Early childhood, Primary, Secondary, Teacher-Librarianship and Special education. (b) Includes other teachers, see definition p. 129. (c) Excludes school teachers. (d) Excludes school principals._______________________________________________________________________________________134 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Education…School teachersDemand for teachers Further, many new teachers do not expect to remain in teaching for their whole workingThe number of teachers employed at any one lives.9 The loss of teaching staff has beentime is dependent upon a variety of factors somewhat offset by increases in teacherlinked to both supply and demand. Population migration to Australia. The proportion ofgrowth, student retention rates and changes in employed teachers who were recent arrivalsteacher/student ratios all affect the demand for increased from 0.9% to 1.4% between 1996 andteachers. From 1996 to 2006, the number of 2006, increasing from 2,300 to 4,300. This wasschool-aged children (5–14 years) increased by low compared with the increase in Professionalover 127,200 (or 5%).7 The Australian Bureau and Specialist managers who were recentof Statistics (ABS) Schools collection shows arrivals over the same period, with thethat over the same period apparent retention proportion of people in these occupationsrates increased from 72% in 1997 to 75% in who were recent arrivals increasing from 2.5%2006, further increasing the total number of to 4.3%.children attending school. In addition, theratio of students to teachers also changed.Between 1997 and 2006, the ratio for primary Endnotesstudents decreased from 17.9 to 16.0 students 1 Skillbeck, M. and Connell, H. 2004, Teachers for(full-time equivalent) per teacher, and that for the future: The changing nature of society andsecondary students from12.8 to 12.2.8 All of related issues for the teaching workforce, Report tothese changes increased the demand for the Teacher Quality and Educational Leadership Taskforce of the Ministerial Council on Educationteachers and resulted in a 22% increase in the Employment Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA).number of employed teachers between 1996and 2006 (55,100 additional teachers). 2 European Commission 2000, Key data on education in Europe, p. xviii, EuropeanA regular supply of new and returning teachers Commission, Luxembourg.is needed to satisfy demand. The pool ofavailable teachers increases as graduates enter 3 MCEETYA 2003, Demand and supply of primarythe profession, people return from leave and and secondary school teachers in Australia (Mainteachers migrate to Australia. Supply is report) Part A, MCEETYA, Melbourne.reduced through declining graduate numbersand the loss of teaching staff, temporarily, for 4 Department of Education, Employment andexample, to take maternity leave, or Workplace Relations (DEEWR) 2003, Students 2003permanently, through resignation or Tables: Selected Higher Education Statistics, 3.1 Commencing Students, Table 3, DEEWR, Canberra.retirement. Retirement currently has thepotential to have the greatest impact on 5 Mulholland, J. 2001, Meeting the demand for maleteacher numbers, because the teaching primary teachers?, paper presented at theworkforce is rapidly ageing. Between 1996 and Australian Teacher Education Association2003, losses of teaching staff to retirement Conference, September 2001, Melbourne.accounted for around 1% of the teachingworkforce each year, with slightly higher 6 MCEETYA 2003, Demand and supply of primaryproportions of teachers leaving the and secondary school teachers in Australia: Partgovernment sector. 3 With one third of teachers G, literature review, MCEETYA, Melbourne.aged 50 and over in 2006, it is anticipated thatin coming years the proportion of teachers 7 Counts based on estimated resident population.retiring will be much higher.3 ABS 2007, Regional Population Growth, Australia, 1996 to 2006, unpublished data, cat. no. 3218.0, ABS, Canberra.Over recent years, the teaching profession hasexperienced a decrease in teacher graduate 8 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2008, Schools,numbers. Census data show that between 1996 Australia, 2007, cat. no. 4221.0, ABS, Canberra.and 2006, the number of young people (20–24years) with a teaching degree decreased by just 9 Australian Education Union (AEU) 2007,under 3%. This is despite a 30% increase in the Beginning teacher survey 2007: results and report,number of young people with a Bachelor AEU, Melbourne.degree over the same period._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 135
    • Overview 138Skill shortages 151Generations of employment 159Driving to work 167
    • Work overviewFor many people, work is their most importantsource of income, as well as an avenue forengaging with the economy and society.1 Lack From 1986 to 2006of work can contribute to disadvantage and participation in the labourisolation for individuals and families.2 force increased inIn the 20 years from 1986 to 2006, the numbers Australia, particularly forand proportions of people working and women, and more peoplelooking for work have changed, although thesechanges have varied in different parts of the worked part-time.country. By 2006, many more people wereworking and the unemployment rate waslower. Women had joined the work force inlarge numbers, and working arrangementsincluded more part-time work.3 In addition, living, prompting more people to enter thethe type of work has changed, with growth and labour force; the increased availability of jobs;decline in particular occupations and changes in the rules governing access toindustries. In this overview, the impact of these government benefits; or an increase in thechanges on regional areas is examined by number of people not in the labour force duelooking at Statistical Subdivisions (SSDs) in to ageing.different parts of Australia (see map, p. 149). More people participatingAustralia’s employment grewfaster than the population in the labour forceAccording to the 2006 Census, the labour force The labour force participation rate was higherparticipation rate for Australia was 65%, up in 2006 than in 1986 but this change variedfrom 61% in 1986. Growth in the participation across Australia. Some areas had increases inrate and declining unemployment, along with participation rates higher than Australia as apopulation growth, resulted in employment whole, associated with working people andgrowth of 40%, from 6.5 million employed people looking for work moving into thesepeople in June 1986 to 9.1 million in August areas. In some areas, such as Southeast Inner2006. This was faster growth than that of the Brisbane (from 60% in 1986 to 72% in 2006),population, which grew by 28% over the same large rises in the participation rate were from aperiod. Employment growth was particularly low base. Bathurst-Melville increased from 47%strong for women: the number of women to 59%, partly as a result of tourism and miningemployed increased by 64%, from 2.6 million operations starting up in the area. Anotherto 4.2 million. Associated with this, part-time example is Vasse, in coastal southern Westernemployment more than doubled (from Australia, which increased from 57% to 68%,1.2 million to 2.7 million). At the same time, along with a large growth in population overthe proportion of people in the labour force the period. Vasse includes Margaret River andlooking for work declined—the Busselton, both of which have received manyunemployment rate was 5.2% in 2006, down new ‘sea change’ residents, and an increase infrom 9.2% in 1986, although it was 11.6% in1991.Changes in participation in the labour force Labour force participation rate: thecan come about in a number of ways. The number of people who are eitherparticipation rate may increase due to changes employed or unemployed, as a proportionin working conditions that make it easier to of all people aged 15 years and over.join the labour force; increases in the cost of_______________________________________________________________________________________138 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewLabour Force participation rateTop 10 Statistical Subdivisions, 1986 Tuggeranong ACT Lakes rural WA Darwin City NT Weston Creek-Stromlo ACT Fortescue rural WA Belconnen ACT De Grey rural WA Queanbeyan NSW Woden Valley ACT Pallinup rural WA Australia 60 65 70 75 80 85 %Top 10 Statistical Subdivisions, 2006 De Grey rural WA Lakes rural WA Tuggeranong ACTKalgoorlie/Boulder City Part A rural WA Fortescue rural WA Palmerston-East Arm urban NT Queanbeyan NSW Darwin City urban NT Snowy rural NSW Pine Rivers Shire urban Qld Australia 60 65 70 75 80 85 %employment in tourism4, construction4, grape Younger people aged 15–24 had a lowergrowing and winemaking5. New industries may participation rate (67%), as many youngerincrease labour force participation by people are engaged in full-time study. Foremploying people already living in an area, and people aged 65 years and over, theby attracting employed people to move into an participation rate was much lower (9%), asarea. many people in this age group had retired, or in the case of women in this age group, manyIn 2006, the areas with the highest had never been in paid employment6.participation rates differed from those in 1986.In 1986, half of the top 10 SSDs were in and Although the participation rate was similar fornear the Australian Capital Territory (including 15–24 year olds in 1986 (68%) and 2006 (67%),Queanbeyan), a region attracting many people it increased for full-time students in this ageto work in Public administration and defence, group, from 23% to 45%. This was offset byand with a young age structure. In 2006, four declines in the rates for part-time students andof the top 5 SSDS were located in rural non-students. Several factors may beWestern Australia, reflecting growth in Mining contributing to increased labour forceand related industries. participation among full-time students: these include the increasing availability of casual andYounger people and older people part-time work, the increased cost of living forparticipate less students and a desire for financial independence. For more information onInvolvement in the labour force differs student employment, see ‘Adult educationdepending on people’s age. In 2006, the labour across the generations’, p. 123–127.force participation rate for those aged 15–64years (the main working ages) was 75%._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 139
    • Work…overviewLabour force participation rate and a very high proportion of farming workers, aneducation status of people aged 15–24 industry with a high representation in that age group (see Ageing industries box, p. 145). The % Community Development Employment Project 1986100 in East Arnhem involved a large proportion of 2006 80 employed Indigenous peoples aged 65 and over.7 These areas also had very low levels of 60 unemployment overall. 40 20 Women’s participation increased, men’s decreased 0 Part-time Full-time Not studying All 15–24 One of the most pronounced changes in the students students year olds composition of the labour force between 1986 and 2006 was the increasing participation of women—from 48% to 58%—much of which comprised women working part-time orMany of the areas in Australia with the highest looking for part-time work. Over the samelabour force participation rates for young period the participation rate for men fell, frompeople were in central and western 75% to 72%. In particular, the proportion ofQueensland, including Central West (with a the men in the labour force who were workinglabour force participation rate for 15–24 year full-time or looking for full-time work declined,olds of 80%), South West, and Mackay City from 91% in 1986 to 81% in 2006.Part A (both 79%). Many young peopleworking in these areas had moved from other Most of the increase in women’s participationparts of Queensland in the previous year, was among 25–64 year olds, which rose frompossibly to find seasonal work, and were 54% to 69%. Rates increased at every age asworking in Grain, sheep and beef cattle more women entered or re-entered the labourfarming, Other crop growing (which includes force, and remained in it for longer. ReflectingSugar cane growing and Cotton growing), and these trends, the highest increases wereServices to agriculture (which includes Cotton among those aged 45 years and over. Forginning and Shearing services). younger women (particularly those aged 20–24 years), the participation rate changed littleAs the population ages and concerns are raised over the 20 years, partly because it was alreadyabout the prospect of a contracting labour relatively high (76%) in 1986.force, participation of older people in thelabour force is of growing interest. In 2006, the In 1986, labour force participation peaked forparticipation rate for people aged 65 and over women in their late teens and early 20s beforewas 9.4%, up from 5.9% in 1996. declining for women in their early 30s. This decline started at older ages in 2006, consistentSome areas had much higher participation with the older ages at which women startedrates for people aged 65 and over in 2006; families. Further, the decline was lessthese were all located outside capital cities. pronounced, as fewer women were havingThey included Lakes in rural Western Australia children, women were having fewer childrenand East Arnhem in the Northern Territory on average and more women were working(37% and 27% respectively). In 2006, Lakes had through their children’s early years.Labour force participation rates of men and women, 1986 to 2006Men Women % % 1986 1986100 100 2006 2006 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 and over and over Age Age_______________________________________________________________________________________140 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewLabour force participation was very low for While those areas with the highest femaleolder women. However, among older women participation rates in 2006 were generally theaged 65 and over, participation rose from 3% in same as in 1986, regional patterns of labour1986 to 6% in 2006. It also increased for men in force participation for men changed over thethat age group (from 9% to 14%). See period. Areas with the largest declines for men‘Generations of employment’, p. 159–165. included rural areas such as Barkly in the central region of the Northern Territory (fromIn some areas, women’s 79% to 60%) and Lyell in south-westernparticipation was very high Tasmania (from 90% to 72%). Cattle farming has been the most common industryIn 2006, 58% of women aged 15 and over were employing men in Barkly, and the number ofparticipating in the labour force, although this people working in this industry across Australiavaried across the country. Areas with the halved from 1996 to 2006.9 In Lyell, populationhighest participation rates for women in ageing has resulted in a 22% decline in theAustralia included Tuggeranong and number of men aged 15–64 from 1996 to 2006.Belconnen in the Australian Capital Territory,and Queanbeyan, adjacent to the Australian On the other hand, many inner-urban areasCapital Territory (73%, 69% and 69% had increases in male participation betweenrespectively). These areas have high levels of 1986 and 2006. These included Southeastemployment in Government administration, Inner Brisbane (from 73% to 78%) and Centralwhich has a higher than average level of female Metropolitan in Perth (from 69% to 73%). Thisemployment, possibly due to relatively family- was associated with an increase in the numberfriendly workplace conditions.8 Lakes, a of men employed in rapidly growing industriesfarming area in rural Western Australia, also in inner metropolitan areas. These includedhad a high female participation rate in 2006 Services to road transport (which includes(70%). Many women in Lakes worked on family Parking services), Services to finance andproperties with their partners. investment, and Building construction. The Labour Force Survey and the census The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) conducts the monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS), which measures employment, unemployment and the participation rate in Australia. There are a number of definitional and methodological differences between information collected in the LFS on these topics and information collected on work in the census. Even so, census data were generally comparable with the Labour Force Survey. For a more detailed comparison, see the article ‘Census and the Labour Force Survey’ in Australian Labour Market Statistics, October 2007 (ABS cat. no. 6105.0). The LFS provides regular, up-to-date information, whereas the census is only conducted every five years and it takes longer to release results. The LFS provides official estimates of employment and unemployment, the unemployment rate and the labour force participation rate. On the other hand, the census provides information for small geographic areas across the whole of Australia, and can show characteristics of individuals and households that are not available in the LFS. (This overview presents census information.) Labour Force Survey comparison with 2006 Census Participation Unemployment Employed rate rate part-time % % % June 1986(a) LFS 62.0 7.8 19.0 Census 61.4 9.2 20.1 August 2006 LFS 64.7 4.7 28.6 Census 64.6 5.2 31.5 (a) In 1986, the census was held on 30 June._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 141
    • Work…overviewHours worked, 1986 and 2006 week. This means that some people who usually worked full-time would have been 1986 counted as part-time workers. % of employed 200630 persons Part-time work has been taken up by parents (especially mothers) combining work and20 raising young children10, students combining work and study, and people approaching10 retirement reducing their hours, either in their current job or in a new job6. 0 1–15 16–24 25–34 35–39 40 41–48 49 or Coastal areas located outside capital cities more commonly had very high proportions of ___________________ _________________________ Part-time Full-time part-time workers. Areas with the highest proportions were in coastal New South Wales, Hours worked in week before census including the Lower South Coast (42%), and in the north, Clarence (excluding Coffs Harbour) and Richmond-Tweed SD Balance (both 41%). These areas were characterised by highChanges in part-time and proportions of older part-time workers who had moved to these areas in the previous 5full-time employment years, possibly in transition to retirement.In addition to changes in labour force Women more likely to work part-participation, the prevalence of part-timeemployment is another aspect of working life timethat has changed in recent decades. Levels of Of the total employment growth from 1986 topart-time employment may vary due to the 2006 where hours were stated (2,438,000availability of jobs with reduced hours; a additional people), two fifths was due tochange in the availability of full-time jobs; additional female part-time employmentincreased demand for part-time jobs due to the (971,000). The rapid growth in part-time workdesire to combine work with child-rearing, has occurred alongside increases in thestudy or a transition to retirement; or increases number of women in the labour force. Womenin earnings from employment making were more likely than men to work part-time.part-time work more viable. On the other In 2006, nearly half of all female workers werehand, people may work long hours because of part-time, compared with one fifth of maleshift work arrangements; the requirement of workers.the job; increases in or availability of paidovertime; or changes in people’s lifestyle and At the national level, the number of womenexpectations. working part-time more than doubled between 1986 and 2006. In many areas, growth wasIn the 2006 Census, 2.7 million people even higher. In particular, the number ofreported that they worked part-time hours women working part-time in many coastal(between 1 and 34 hours per week in all jobs) areas of Queensland increased by 5 times orin the week prior to the census, more than more, including Gold Coast West, anddouble the 1.2 million in 1986. Beaudesert Shire Part A in Brisbane. These areas experienced strong population growthOver the same period, the number of people over the period, particularly of youngerworking full-time grew by only one fifth (from families. For more on population growth4.9 million to 5.8 million). As a result, the across Australia, see ‘Where do Australiansproportion of part-time workers increased live?’, p. 16–23.from 20% in 1986 to 32% of all employedpeople in 2006. However, changes in theproportion of part-time and full-time workershave been affected to a small extent bychanges in shift work arrangements. For People who were away from work in theinstance, many mining workers work to a shift week prior to the census: There wereor roster system, which may result in varying 591,600 employed people away from worknumbers of hours worked from one week to during the week prior to the 2006 Censusthe next, whereas the census only measured so their full-time/part-time status was notthe number of hours worked in the previous recorded._______________________________________________________________________________________142 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewHours worked by men and women Why do people work long Men hours? % of employed Women30 persons Working very long hours (that is, more than 49 hours per week) has become more20 prevalent in Australia over the last 20 years. This is partly due to a desire for higher pay: in the Survey of Employment10 Arrangements and Superannuation in 2000, 16% of employees working 41 to 50 0 hours per week and 10% of employees 1–15 16–24 25–34 35–39 40 41–48 49 or working 51 to 60 hours stated that they more wanted to work more hours for more ___________________ _________________________ Part-time Full-time pay.11 However, other reasons, such as the requirement of the job, are also important: Hours worked in week before census in the 2006 Survey of Working Time Arrangements, 48% of people who worked 49 hours or more stated that they worked unpaid overtime on a regular basis.10More people worked very longhours, especially menThe number of hours people work has becomemore diverse, and the traditional 40 hour week Many young people worked shortless common. In 1986, 24% of people in the hoursweek leading up to the census reported havingworked 40 hours in the previous week: by Working few hours per week is prevalent2006, this had fallen to 20%. among women, young people and older workers. In 2006, 12% of all employed peopleIn 2006, more people worked very long hours worked between 1 and 15 hours per week.than in 1986: 19% reported that they worked However, a quarter or more of young workers49 hours or more per week, compared with aged 15–24 and older workers aged 65 and15% of all employed people in 1986. In 2006, over worked few hours (27% and 25%over half the people working very long hours respectively). As well, 17% of all femalewere aged 35–54 years (55%), slightly higher workers worked few hours, compared with 7%than in 1986 (51%). Most people working very of all male workers.long hours were men—in 2006, mencomprised 77% of all people who worked Across Australia, young workers working few49 hours or more per week, although this had hours comprised 4.5% of all employed people.decreased from 81% in 1986. Managers, This group includes many students who haveparticularly General managers andadministrators, Farmers and farm managersand Sales and marketing managers were mostlikely to work 49 hours or more per week Hours worked by age(56%, 56% and 43% respectively in 2006). 15–24 years % of employed 25–64 yearsIn most areas in Australia, a similar proportion 30 persons 65 years and overof people worked very long hours (19%).However, in some areas this proportion wasmuch higher. Areas with 30% or more of their 20employed people working very long hoursincluded regional areas of Western Australia, 10such as Lakes (45%) and Johnston (40%).These areas have large numbers of people 0employed in Mining and related industries and 1–15 16–24 25–34 35–39 40 41–48 49 ora high proportion of employed men. more ___________________ _________________________ Part-time Full-time Hours worked in week before census_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 143
    • Work…overviewlimited time for work or continue to be Property and business services, and Health andsupported by their parents. In some areas, community services (both 11.0%). Miningyoung workers working few hours comprised a employed only 1.2%, despite strong economiclarge proportion of all employed people. These growth in this industry: in 2006–07, itareas were typically in urban areas, either in contributed 7.0% to Gross Domestic Product.12capital cities or other major centres, nearuniversity campuses. Examples are North Between 1986 and 2006, the overall picture ofCanberra (7.4% of all employed people), which employment in industries in Australia changedincludes the Australian National University, and in several respects. Manufacturing, the largestBallarat City in Victoria (6.9%) with the employer in 1986 (15.6%) dropped to 11.3% inUniversity of Ballarat. Bathurst, west of Sydney, 2006. This made it second in size after Retailis a smaller centre, but had the highest trade. Agriculture, forestry and fishing declinedproportion (8.1%). A campus of Charles Sturt as well, from 5.8% to 3.2% of all employedUniversity is located in Bathurst, and 8% of its people. On the other hand, Property andpopulation were tertiary students in 2006. business services, and Health and community services both increased their share ofRetail trade still the employment (from 6.6% to 11.0% and from 8.4% to 11.0% respectively), to approachlargest employer Manufacturing in their share of employed people. Retail trade also increased slightly,In understanding the way work has changed in from 13.8% to 14.7%.Australia it is useful to consider the industrieswhich have grown and declined. The censusprovides a unique level of detail about the More workers in School educationindustries in which workers are employed, as At a more detailed level, School education13,well as being a source of the characteristics of Government administration, and Hospitals andemployed people in different industries. nursing homes were the three industries which employed the largest numbers of employedIn 2006, Retail trade was the industry division people in 2006 (413,600 or 4.6% of allwhich employed the largest proportion of employed people, 410,200 or 4.6% and 360,200people in Australia—14.7% of all employed or 4.0% respectively). Since 1996, the numberpeople, followed by Manufacturing (11.3%), of people employed in these industriesEmployment by industry division, 1986 and 2006 Retail trade Manufacturing Property and business services Health and community services Construction EducationGovernment administration and defence Wholesale tradeAccommodation, cafes and restaurants Transport and storage Finance and insurance Personal and other services Agriculture, forestry and fishing Cultural and recreational services Communication services Mining Electricity, gas and water supply 1986 2006 0 4 8 12 16 20 % of employed persons_______________________________________________________________________________________144 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewIndustries with largest growth, employment in 1996(a) and 2006 Government administration Building construction School education Road freight transport Other business services Community care servicesFurniture houseware appliance retail Specialised food retail Supermarket & grocery 1996 Hospitals & nursing homes 2006 0 100 200 300 400 500 000(a) Comparable detailed information on employment by industry is not available for 1986.increased by 104,900, 130,000, and 48,800 2006 despite overall employment growth ofrespectively. Building construction (increased only 27%. This coincided with the building andby 128,500) and Road freight transport extension of hospitals and nursing homes in(increased by 87,000) were the other industries Albany from 2001 to 2006.that recorded substantial increases inemployed people.8Despite Agriculture, forestry and fishing, andManufacturing industry divisions both Ageing industriesexperiencing large declines, there was growth As Australia’s population ages, so itsin some specific industries within these workforce is also ageing and somedivisions. Grain, sheep and beef cattle farming industries are affected more than others bygrew by 44% (adding 40,300 employed this trend.people), and Aquaculture grew by 19% (600).In Manufacturing, the number of people In 2006, the median age of all employedemployed in Non-ferrous basic metal product people was 40 years. Farming industriesmanufacturing (added 5,200) and Recorded had the oldest workforces: Grain, sheep,media manufacturing and publishing (added and beef cattle farming had a median age1,500) both doubled. of 51 years, Other crop growing, 48 years and Horticulture and fruit growing, 46Areas with high overall employment growth years. Road passenger transport (51 years),figured among areas with the fastest Religious organisations and Knitting millsemployment growth in the main growth manufacturing (both 48 years) also hadindustries identified above. For instance, in older workforces.Melton-Wyndham, in outer Melbourne, thenumber of people employed in School Many employed people in these industrieseducation more than doubled, from 1996 to were aged 65 and over: 18% of Grain,2006 (to 3,000), as well as a doubling in sheep and beef cattle farming workers andHospitals and nursing homes employment (to 13% of Other crop growing workers were2,700). This is indicative of the general rapid in this age group compared with only 2%development in that area. of Australia’s employed people. Very few younger workers were engaged in theseOn the other hand, some areas with large industries: while 21% of Australia’sgrowth in specific industries were not areas of employed people were aged 25–34 inhigh overall employment growth. One example 2006, between 11% and 16% of employedis King in Western Australia, which includes people in the above industries were in thisAlbany. Employment in Hospitals and nursing age group.homes grew in King by 150% from 1996 to_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 145
    • Work…overviewMajor occupation groups, proportion of all employed, 1996 and 2006(a) Managers & administrators Professionals Associate professionals Tradespersons & related Advanced clerical & service Intermediate clerical sales and service Intermediate production & transport Elementary clerical, Sales & service Labourers and related 1996 2006 0 5 10 15 20 %(a) Comparable information on employment by occupation is not available for 1986.Professionals the largest Changes in the distribution of occupation groups have been accompanied by theoccupation group14 increasing prevalence of non-school qualifications in the community (see theAnother aspect of the changing face of ‘Education overview’, p. 114–122). As well,employment in Australia is the occupations of changes in the demand for new and existingAustralian workers. In 2006, Professionals were products and services have resulted in changesthe largest occupation group (1.7 million or to the skills needed to provide them.20% of all employed people), followed byIntermediate clerical, sales and service workers More sales assistants, carers and(1.5 million or 17%) and Tradespersons andrelated workers, and Associate professionals aides, and school teachers(both 1.1 million or 12%). Professionals At a more detailed level, Sales assistants wasrecorded the fastest growth in employment the most common occupation in 2006 (5.8% ofsince 1996 for any occupation group (34% all employed people), followed by Schoolgrowth), followed by Associate professionals, teachers, and Carers and aides (both 3.2%).Elementary clerical, sales and service workers These occupations also grew the most(both 27%) and Intermediate clerical, sales between 1996 and 2006: the number of Salesand service workers (26%). In contrast, assistants increased by 132,700 to 517,500 inAdvanced clerical and service workers declined 2006, School teachers increased by 53,200 to(down 12%). 288,700 and Carers and aides increased by 99,600 to 284,000. Much of the growth in theseGrowth occupations, 1996 to 2006Largest numerical growth Fastest growth Sales assistants Int Mining & construction wkrs Carers & aides Welfare associate profs School teachers Computing professionals Computing professionals Finance associate profsStructural construction trades Carers & aides Nursing professionals Nat & physical science profs Accountants etc.(a) Social welfare professionals Road & rail transport drivers Mining, constn & rel lbrers Elementary service workers Elementary service workers Hospitality workers General mgrs & administrators 25 50 75 100 125 150 40 50 60 70 000 %(a) Accountants, Auditors and Corporate Treasurers._______________________________________________________________________________________146 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewthree occupations was in part-time Changes in level of unemploymentemployment, which contributed 87%, 46% and70% respectively. % Men 12.5 WomenReflecting growing shares of employment in 10.0the broad Professional and Associateprofessional groups, many of the specific 7.5occupations with the greatest increases were 5.0from these groups. They included Welfareassociate professionals, which grew by 69% 2.5from 1996 to 2006—the second highest growthover the period—and Computing professionals 0 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006(57%).In contrast, within the slower-growingIntermediate production and transport Unemployment rates may decline due toworkers group, trends varied. Intermediate greater job availability; discouraged job seekersmining and construction workers recorded the no longer looking for work; unemployedequal fastest growth of any occupation (69%) people leaving a region; an increase in thefrom 1996 to 2006, whereas Intermediate availability or attractiveness of other activitiestextile, clothing and related machine operators such as study or child-rearing; or changes indeclined by 41%. people’s retirement patterns.Some occupations grew faster in The unemployment rate at the 2006 Censusinner cities and outer suburbs (5.2%) was the lowest it had been since 1986 (9.2%). The high level of unemployment inOccupations did not grow uniformly across the 1991 (11.6%), followed by consistent decreasescountry. The number of Carers and aides and at each subsequent census, can be largelyElementary service workers increased in outer attributed to the economic downturn of thesuburban areas and in centres adjacent to early 1990s followed by consistent economiccapital cities. The largest growth in the number improvement since then.15of Carers and aides was in North MetropolitanPerth and South Eastern Outer Melbourne,with 2,900 and 2,600 respectively. Elementary At any point in time, the unemployment rateservice workers increased the most in Western can vary for different groups and regions. ForMelbourne, and Newcastle in New South example, unemployment is typically higher forWales—1,100 each. The number of Computing younger people and men reaching retirementprofessionals increased most in inner urban ages than for those in other age groups.areas such as Central Northern Sydney (adding According to the Survey of Job Search2,300) and Inner Melbourne (adding 2,200), Experience in 2007, young people may haveclose to places of work but with higher difficulty finding work as they often lack thehousing costs, reflecting higher incomes of required skills or experience required for manypeople working in this occupation. jobs. Older people looking for work reported that they were considered too old by potential employers for the jobs they applied for, or hadUnemployment declined difficulty finding work due to illness or disability.16Despite declining rates of unemployment, thisissue remains an ongoing concern for bothAustralian governments and the community.Unemployment is affected by a number of Unemployment rate by age, 2006factors, including the strength of the economyand the extent to which skills match the labour %market. Men 20 Women 15 10 Unemployment rate: the number of 5 people who are unemployed as a proportion of all those employed or 0 unemployed. 15 25 35 45 55 65+ Age_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 147
    • Work…overview…younger people over. In 2006 the unemployment rate increased gradually up to 64 years, from 3.5%Of all people aged 15–24 years in the labour to 5.1%. From 65 years and over, theforce (that is, either working or looking for unemployment rate dropped to 1.9%: at olderwork), 10.2% were unemployed in 2006. In ages most men who are not working arecontrast, the unemployment rate was below retired rather than unemployed.65% for all ages of people aged 25 and over. …geographic areasYoung people’s unemployment levels declinedsharply for each year of age, with the exception Areas with the highest levels of unemploymentof 18 year olds, where the rate was 13.3%, overall were also areas with high youthhigher than that for 17 year olds (12.1%). This unemployment and high unemployment formay be due partly to young people completing older men.Year 12 at age 18, and partly to the fact thatgovernment benefits are more easily accessible All areas with the highest youthto people aged 18 and over, resulting in extra unemployment were in regional areas. The 4incentive both to look for work and to report highest levels were all in northern New Southhaving been unsuccessful in finding work.17 Wales: Clarence (excluding Coffs Harbour), with an unemployment rate for 15–24 year olds…older men of 19.2% in 2006, Hastings (excluding Port Macquarie) with 17.9%, Northern TablelandsFor the most part, unemployment is lower for (17.5%), and Lismore (17.0%). Pirie (16.6%)people the older they are. However, this and Whyalla (16.5%) in South Australia alsopattern reversed for men aged 50 years and had high youth unemployment.Selected Statistical Subdivisions with high unemploymentUnemployment rate, 1986 and 2006 Clarence (excl. Coffs Harbour) northern coastal NSW Hastings (excl. Port Macquarie) northern coastal NSW Greater Dandenong City outer urban Vic. Lismore northern coastal NSW Fairfield-Liverpool outer urban NSW Nowra-Bomaderry southern coastal NSW Far West rural NSW Pirie coastal SA Whyalla coastal SA Coffs Harbour northern coastal NSW 1986 Australia 2006 0 5 10 15 20 25 %Unemployment rate of high risk groups: all 15–24 year olds, men aged 45–64, 2006 Clarence (excl. Coffs Harbour) northern coastal NSWHastings (excl. Port Macquarie) northern coastal NSW Greater Dandenong City outer urban Vic. Lismore northern coastal NSW Fairfield-Liverpool outer urban NSW Nowra-Bomaderry southern coastal NSW Far West rural NSW Pirie coastal SA Whyalla coastal SA Coffs Harbour northern coastal NSW 15–24 year olds Australia Men 45–64 0 5 10 15 20 25 %_______________________________________________________________________________________148 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…overviewStatistical Subdivisions in rural and regional Australia featured in this overview Bathurst-Melville Darwin Barkly QUEENSLAND Mackay City Part A De Grey NORTHERN Fortescue TERRITORY Central West WESTERN AUSTRALIA South West Gold Coast West SOUTH Brisbane Richmond- Kalgoorlie/ AUSTRALIA Tweed SD Bal Campion Boulder Northern Lismore City Part A Tablelands Far Clarence (excl. NEW Coffs Harbour) West Pirie SOUTH Coffs Harbour Perth Whyalla WALES Lakes Johnston Hastings (excl. Adelaide Bathurst Sydney Port Macquarie) Pallinup Vasse Newcastle Ballarat Canberra Nowra-Bomaderry King City VICTORIA Queanbeyan Melbourne Lower South Coast 0 1000 Kilometres TASMANIA Lyell HobartMany major centres also had pockets of high the north coast of New South Wales. This areayouth unemployment, including Wollongong had unemployment at 18.0% in 1986, dropping(14.9%), Newcastle (14.0%), Greater to 8.6% in 2006. The rate for young peopleDandenong City in outer Melbourne (14.6%), aged 15–24 was 14.9% in 2006, while the rateand Fairfield-Liverpool in Sydney (13.7%). for men aged 45–64 was 7.5%.High unemployment among older men wasfound in the same areas. For example, EndnotesClarence (excluding Coffs Harbour) had the 1 International Labour Organization 2008, ILO’shighest rate in 2006 (10.4% of men aged 45–64 Vision of Decent Work, data extracted on 25in the labour force). Some outer suburban February 2008,areas of capital cities also recorded high <http://www.ilo.org/global/About_the_ILO/lang--unemployment of older men, including en/index.htm>.Fairfield-Liverpool in Sydney and Greater 2 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2001,Dandenong City in Melbourne (both 7.3%). Measuring Wellbeing: Frameworks for AustralianThese areas have experienced declines in social statistics, 2001, cat. no. 4160.0, ABS,manufacturing activity over the last 20 years. Canberra.Many of these areas with high unemployment 3 ABS 2007, Forms of Employment, November 2006,for certain groups have had persistently high cat. no. 6359.0, ABS, Canberra.overall unemployment since 1986, although inmost of these cases unemployment declined. 4 ABS 2008, Western Australian StatisticalAgain, areas in rural New South Wales featured Indicators, December 2007, cat. no. 1367.5, ABS,prominently. An example is Coffs Harbour, on Canberra._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 149
    • Work…overview5 ABS 2008, Western Australian StatisticalIndicators, September 2003, cat. no. 1367.5, ABS,Canberra.6 ABS 2008, Retirement and Retirement Intentions,Australia, July 2006 to June 2007, cat. no. 6238.0,ABS, Canberra.7 For more information on CDEP, see the entry inABS 2006, Census Dictionary, Australia, 2006(reissue), cat. no. 2901.0, ABS, Canberra.8 Department of Family and Community Servicesand Department of Employment and WorkplaceRelations 2002, OECD Review of Family FriendlyPolicies: The Reconciliation of Work and FamilyLife. Australia’s Background Report.9 Information on industry is not available at adetailed level for 1986.10 ABS 2007, Working Time Arrangements,Australia, November 2006, cat. no. 6342.0, ABS,Canberra.11 ABS 2001, Employment Arrangements andSuperannuation, Australia, April to June 2000, cat.no. 6361.0, ABS, Canberra.12 ABS 2007, Australian System of NationalAccounts, Australia, 2006–07, cat. no. 5204.0, ABS,Canberra.13 For more on workers in school education, seethe article ‘School teachers’, p. 129–135.14 Information on occupation for 1986 is notavailable on a comparable basis with 2006.15 ABS 2008, Year Book, Australia, 2008, cat. no.1301.0, ABS, Canberra.16 ABS 2007, Job Search Experience, Australia, July2007, cat. no. 6222.0, ABS, Canberra.17 Centrelink 2007, How do I Qualify for a YouthAllowance?, viewed on 27 March 2008,<http://www.centrelink.gov.au/internet/internet.nsf/payments/qual_how_yal.htm>._______________________________________________________________________________________150 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Skill shortagesIn recent years, concern has grown at the Skill shortages may increase as an increasingdifficulty experienced by some Australian proportion of the population retire, unlessemployers in finding enough appropriately measures introduced to address theseskilled staff. shortages are successful.3 The proportion of Australia’s population who are of traditionalSkill shortages can occur when there is either a working age (15–64 years) is projected toreduction in the availability of skilled labour, an decline over the next fifty years, from 67% inincreased demand for skilled labour, or both. June 2004 to between 57% and 59% in 2051.4Causes of an inadequate supply include low While the participation rate for older peopleunemployment; a reduction in the number of may increase over this time, this is unlikely bypotential workers entering or completing itself to raise overall labour force participationtraining; workers leaving due to relatively to a level which meets expected demands.unattractive pay or other working conditions;and increases in the number of workers Skill shortages can be more severe in regionalretiring as the population ages. Demand for areas, as can be seen with recent difficulties inskilled labour may arise due to new goods and recruiting and retaining health professionals inservices being produced, and new technology these areas.5 As demand rises, incomes offeredand techniques being introduced.1 A major to people with skills in demand may risedriver of skill shortages in Australia in recent accordingly. This can adversely affect individualyears has been sustained economic growth2, businesses, but it can also contribute towhich has resulted in increased demand for meeting demand for people with these skills.6skilled staff in high-growth industries. Skill shortages can have a significant impact onEven though skill shortages have become more business productivity. For instance, in thepronounced in Australia, some people are Building and construction industry, there hasunable to find employment, while others wish been a shift in recent years toward greaterto work longer hours. However, these people ownership and management of publicdo not necessarily have the skills required for infrastructure by large constructionparticular jobs.Age profiles of selected occupations % Accountants, auditors25 & corporate treasurers Computing professionals20 Nurses Automotive tradespersons All workers1510 5 0 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 75+_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 151
    • Work…Skill shortagescontractors. This has resulted in greatly The Department of Employment, Educationincreased demand for project managers: and Workplace Relations conducts the Surveydifficulties in recruitment and retention of staff of Labour Demand (SOLD) to gain anwith project management skills has affected indication of hard-to-fill jobs.13the cost and timeliness of projects.7 The SOLD measures the level of vacancies for aA number of ways of addressing skill shortages range of occupations. Four occupations whichhave been proposed or are already being the SOLD Vacancy Reports identify as hard toimplemented. The Skilled Stream of Australia’s fill are Accountants, auditors and corporateImmigration program has been used to draw treasurers; Automotive tradespersons;workers from overseas who are skilled in Computing professionals; and Nurses. Thisin-demand occupations.8 Within Australia, article uses Census data to look at thechanges in education and training have been characteristics of people who in 2006 weremade or are being considered, such as the working in these 4 occupations. The articleintroduction of the New Apprentice system also looks at the characteristics of people whoand other aspects of the Vocational Education are qualified to work in one of theseand Training System.9 Other measures include occupations.taking steps to remove barriers to work forolder Australians10 and people withdisabilities11; and offering incentives for people Accountants, auditorsto relocate to areas where skill shortages are and corporate treasurersbeing experienced.12 In the 2006 Census, 135,300 persons reported their occupation as Accountants, auditors andHow skill shortages are identified corporate treasurers. This was an increase ofThere are a range of indicators of possible skill 17% since 2001. The highest concentrations ofshortages including measures of people working in this occupation group livedunemployment, job vacancy advertisements, in the inner and middle suburbs of majorwage and salary growth, and employer surveys. capital cities.Proportion of men(a) working in selected occupationsAccountants, auditors and corporate treasurers Computing professionals Nurses Automotive tradespersons All employed persons 0 20 40 60 80 100 % MenProportion of men(a) with selected highest non-school qualifications Accounting qualifications Information Technology qualifications Nursing qualificationsAutomotive engineering and technology qualifications 0 20 40 60 80 100 % Men(a) Aged 15 years and over._______________________________________________________________________________________152 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Skill shortagesAccounting qualifications These included Government administration (6%), Finance (5%), Services to finance andMost people working as Accountants, auditors insurance (4%) and Personal and householdand corporate treasurers recorded Bachelor good wholesaling (2%).Degree as their highest level of qualification(60%). For a further 16%, their highest In 2006, this occupation group had a youngerqualification was at Advanced Diploma, age profile than all employed people, with aDiploma, or Certificate Level. Of workers in median age of 37 years, compared withthis profession with non-school qualifications, 40 years for all employed people. As well, theless than three quarters (70%) stated that number of men and women were more evenlyAccounting was their field of highest balanced than other in-demand occupationsqualification. featured in this article (54% men).People with Accounting as their field of highest According to the 2006 Census, a highernon-school qualification (at any level) were by proportion of people working in thisno means restricted to this occupation group. occupation group were born overseas (36%) than for all employed people (25%), and manyWhile 31% of people with this qualification of these overseas-born people had arrived inworked as Accountants, auditors and corporate Australia between 2002 and 2006 (6% of alltreasurers, some worked as Resource Accountants, auditors and corporatemanagers (6%), Intermediate numerical clerks treasurers, compared with 3% of all employed(5%) and Advanced numerical clerks (4%)— people). This reflects overseas recruitment thatoccupations similar to accounting but in has been undertaken to help relieve skilldifferent broad occupation groups. shortages in this occupation.8A further 20% of people with Accounting as Full-time work is the norm for people in thistheir highest qualification were not in the occupation group. In the week prior to thelabour force, and 3% were unemployed. Of Census, the proportion of people workingthose not in the labour force, 41% were aged part-time (16%) was half that of the employed65 and over, 16% had children aged 0–4 and population generally (32%). Likewise, few9% were studying full-time. people in this occupation group worked very few hours (4% working 1–15 hours, comparedA younger group with a balance of men with 12% of all employed people).and womenWhile 47% of all people working as Most working women with pre-school agedAccountants, auditors and corporate treasurers children work part-time: 70% in 2006.were employed in the Business services However, of this group working asindustry in 2006, this occupation was Accountants, auditors and corporaterepresented across many other industries. treasurers, only 61% worked part-time.Hours worked in week(a) prior to the Census % 100 80 49 hours or more 60 35–48 hours 16–34 hours 40 1–15 hours 20 0 Accountants, Automotive Computing Nurses All employed auditors and tradespersons professionals persons corporate treasurers(a) Hours worked by employed people aged 15 years and over._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 153
    • Work…Skill shortagesAutomotive Health and safety issues may be adding to the skill shortages in this occupation. Of the 15,600tradespersons people aged 15–64 not in the labour force with Automotive engineering and technology asThere were 116,400 people in the 2006 Census their field of highest qualification, 16% had awho identified their occupation as Automotive need for assistance due to disability, health ortradespersons, a 0.7% increase on 2001. Of old age (see core activity need for assistancethese, 68% were Motor mechanics, with most in Glossary). Of those aged 45–64, 18% had aof the rest working as Panel beaters (11%) and need for assistance, compared with 12% of allVehicle painters (8%). A smaller proportion people in that age group not in the labourwas born overseas (19%) than all employed force. Of those aged 15–44, 11% had a need forpeople (25%). assistance, compared with 5% of all people in that age group not in the labour force.Automotive engineering and technology According to the Australian Safety andqualifications Compensation Council, this occupationMany people employed as Automotive experiences higher than average rates oftradespersons had a Certificate, Diploma or workplace injuries and illnesses.14Advanced Diploma in Automotive engineeringand technology as their highest non-school Almost two thirds of Automotive tradespersonsqualification (45%), while 28% had a were working in the Motor vehicle retailingqualification at that level but in a different and services industry (65%) in 2006. However,field, and a further 25% had no non-school some were in Machinery and equipmentqualification. manufacturing (7%), Machinery and motor vehicle wholesaling (5%) and Road transportPeople with Automotive engineering and (4%).technology as their highest qualification weredistributed across a wide range of occupations: Nearly all employed people in thisonly 29% were Automotive tradespersons; occupation were men6% were Road and rail transport drivers; 4% In 2006, nearly all Automotive tradespersonswere Mechanical engineering tradespersons; were men (99%). However, the proportion ofand 3% were Intermediate sales and related women in this trade has increased by 18%workers. This suggests that a shortage of since 2001, albeit from a very low base. Of theAutomotive tradespersons could be partially 1,500 female Automotive tradespersons inaddressed by drawing from other occupations. 2006, 76% were working full-time compared with 53% of all employed women. ConsistentAs with Accounting, about one fifth of people with the high proportion of men in thiswith Automotive engineering and technology occupation, only 8% of all Automotiveas their highest field of qualification were not tradespersons worked part-time.in the labour force (19%). However, over halfof these were aged 65 and over (53%).Highest non-school qualification attained(a) % 100 Graduate and Postgraduate 80 Bachelor Degree 60 Certificate, Diploma and 40 Advanced Diploma 20 No non-school qualification 0 Accountants, Automotive Computing Nurses All employed auditors and tradespersons professionals persons corporate treasurers(a) By employed people aged 15 years and over._______________________________________________________________________________________154 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Skill shortagesThis occupation had a young age profile Information Technology qualificationscompared with all workers in 2006: the largest Just over a quarter (26%) of people with theirnumber of Automotive tradespersons were highest non-school qualification in Informationaged 19 years (4,300), which reflects the entry technology, were working as Computinginto this occupation via apprenticeship. This professionals, with many in this professionwas similar to 2001, when this was also the working as Miscellaneous business andmost common age for this occupation. In both administration associate professionals (9%),censuses there were decreasing numbers at Engineering, distribution and processeach age until the late 20s. This supports managers (5%), Sales assistants, and Electricalconcerns expressed by government and other and electronics tradespersons (both 3%).bodies about the need for measures such asimproved career pathways to increase theproportion of apprentices who complete their Of the groups whose qualifications were in theapprenticeship and stay on in the trade.9 fields associated with the 4 occupations featured in this article, people who had Information technology as their highestComputing professionals qualification, had the highest proportion of people in the labour force (88%). This may beIn 2006, there were 127,400 people working as associated with the relatively recentComputing professionals, a slight increase emergence of this field, resulting in fewerfrom 2001 (0.7%). People in this occupation people of retirement age with thesewere clustered in the ACT (4.5% of all qualifications.employed people in the ACT), as well as ininner areas of the major capital cities (at However, this group also had the highest levelaround 3%). Overseas-born Australians of unemployment (5.7% of the labour forcecomprised a large proportion of Computing with this field of highest qualification) of the 4professionals (43%, compared with 25% of all selected groups—the next highest was 3.4%employed people). A higher than average for people with Accounting qualifications.proportion of these came to Australia in 2002or thereafter (8% of all people working in this More than half of people qualified inprofession compared with 3% of all employed Information technology who werepeople), partly in response to a targeted unemployed had Certificate, Diploma ormigration program.8 Advanced Diploma level qualifications (55%). It is possible that further training for these people could help to address the skill shortage in the Information technology profession.Selected highest non-school qualifications(a), by occupation and labour force status % 100 80 Matching occupation Other employed 60 Unemployed 40 Not in the labour force 20 0 Accounting Automotive Information Nursing engineering and Technology technology(a) People aged 15 to 64 years._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 155
    • Work…Skill shortagesComputing professionals worked in many Of Nursing-qualified people not in the labourdifferent industries force, 52% were aged 20–64 years, a lower proportion than all qualified people not in theAs with Accountants, auditors and corporate labour force (59% aged 20–64 years). In thistreasurers, Computing professionals were age group, 19% of Nursing-qualified people notdistributed across a wide range of industries in in the labour force had children under 5 years,2006. While 43% of these people were similar to all qualified people not in the labouremployed in the Business services industry force (23%).(which includes Computer services), 8%worked in Government administration, 5% Nurses were more likely to be recruitedworked in Finance and a further 5% worked in from overseasEducation. In 2006, Nurses were most likely to be workingSimilar to Automotive tradespersons, in the Health and community servicesComputing professionals was a young, male- industries (94%), with small numbersdominated occupation (80% in 2006). The employed in Government administration, andmedian age was 36 years, compared with Business services (both 2%).40 years for all employed people. Despite thesmall overall increase in the number of people The vast majority of the nursing workforce isin this group between 2001 and 2006, the female—they comprised 91% of all Nurses innumber of women working as Computing 2006, the same as in 2001. Of all peopleprofessionals declined by 9%, from 27,800 to working as Nurses in 2006, 4.4% had arrived in25,200. Just 11% of people working in this Australia from overseas since 2002, comparedoccupation worked part-time. with 3.2% of all employed people, reflecting overseas recruitment which has beenNurses undertaken to address these skill shortages.8The number of people working as Nurses has Part-time work is very common in the Nursinggrown rapidly since 2001, having increased by profession. Half of all people working in this15% to 219,800 in 2006. While Nurses are fairly profession worked part-time in 2006 (50%)evenly distributed across Australia, there was a compared with 32% of all employed people.higher proportion in parts of regional Victoria Part-time work was more prevalent amongsuch as North Wimmera (4.5% of the census women Nurses than all employed women (53%count of employed people), Ballarat City compared with 47%).(4.1%), Warrnambool City and GreaterBendigo City Part A (each 4.0%), compared The Nursing profession in 2006 had an olderwith 2.4% across Australia. age structure than in 2001. In 2006, nearly half of all Nurses were aged 45 and over (49%),Nursing qualifications compared with 40% in 2001. As well, only 13% of Nurses were aged under 30 in 2006,Just over half the people with Nursing as their compared with 15% in 2001. The challenge tohighest non-school qualification were address skill shortages in this profession willemployed as Nursing professionals (46% of all increase as older nurses retire, if they are notemployed people with this non-school replaced by others entering the profession,qualification), Carers and aides (5%) or particularly as demand is likely to increase asEnrolled nurses (4%). The remainder worked the population ages.in other occupations (16%), were not in thelabour force (28%) or were unemployed(1.2%). Endnotes 1 Bureau of Transport and Regional EconomicsCompared with the people in the other three (BTRE) 2006, Skill Shortages in Australia’s Regions,fields discussed in this article, people with Working Paper No. 68, BTRE, Canberra.Nursing as their highest non-schoolqualification were the least likely to be in the 2 Richardson, S. 2007, What is a Skills Shortage?,labour force (employed or unemployed). That National Centre for Vocational Education Research,said, those qualified in Nursing were more Adelaide.likely to be in the labour force than Australiansoverall (72%, compared with 65% of all 3 Shah, C. and Burke, G. 2003, Skills shortages:Australians aged 15 and over). There were concepts, measurement and implications, Workingproportionally fewer men with Nursing Paper No. 52, November 2003, Monash University-qualifications who were not in the labour force ACER Centre for the Economics of Education and Training, Melbourne.(14% compared with 28% of all men)._______________________________________________________________________________________156 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Skill shortages4 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2008,Australian Economic Indicators, July 2008, cat. no.1350.0, ABS, Canberra.5 The Treasury 2007, Intergenerational Report2007, Commonwealth of Australia, viewed on 30May 2008,<http://www.treasury.gov.au/documents/1239/PDF/IGR_2007_final_report.pdf>.6 ABS 2006, Population Projections, Australia, 2004to 2101, cat. no. 3222.0, ABS, Canberra.7 Building and Construction Industry WorkingGroup 2001, Building Brighter Futures: Presentand Future Skill Needs in the Building andConstruction Industry, National Industry SkillsInitiative.8 Department of Immigration and Citizenship(DIAC) 2008, Population Flows: ImmigrationAspects 2006–2007 Edition, DIAC, Canberra.9 Department of Education, Science and Training2002, Nature and Causes of Skill Shortages:Reflections from the Commonwealth NationalIndustry Skills Initiative Working Groups, viewed27 May 2008,<http://www.getatrade.gov.au/documents/Nature_CausesSkillShortages.rtf>.10 Productivity Commission (PC) 2005, EconomicImplications of an Ageing Australia, PC, Canberra.11 The Treasury 2005, Budget Paper 2: BudgetMeasures 2005–06.12 Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry(ACCI) 2006, Addressing skill shortages: AnIndustry-Government partnership, ACCI IssuesPaper, April 2006.13 Department of Education, Employment andWorkplace Relations (DEEWR) 2008, VacancyReport, April 2008, DEEWR, Canberra.14 Australian Safety and Compensation Council,National On-line Statistical Database, data extractedon 20 June 2008, <http://nosi.ascc.gov.au>._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 157
    • Generations of employmentEach generation of Australians has had Men’s employment participationdifferent employment experiences, which havebeen shaped by the economic and social 1947 15–19 yearsconditions of the day. At the economic level, 30–39 yearsover recent decades there has been growth 1954and decline across the major industry sectors, 1966as well as deregulation in a number of 1976industries. Parallel to this have been changes in 1986labour force regulation and industrial relations, 1996including an increase in availability of part-time 2006work. At a social level, substantial changes haveoccurred in women’s participation in 0 25 50 75 100employment, brought about by broader %changes in how society views women’s rolesand the choices available to them. In addition,jobs have become more technical andcomplex, requiring a more highly educatedworkforce. As a result, young people are Men’s employmentincreasingly likely to stay in education forlonger and older people are more likely to participation declinesreturn to education. For men, the age pattern of participation in employment (that is, the proportion of peopleThis article examines how these factors have employed) has remained broadly similar forchanged the employment experience of each generation (see graph below). In eachdifferent generations of Australians— generation, the proportion of men employedhighlighting the changing nature of increased between the 15–19 and 20–29 yearemployment in Australia between 1947 and age groups, remained generally stable until2006. For more information on the generations ages 50–59, and declined thereafter.used in this article see the box on the nextpage.Men’s employment participation: selected generational groups %100 80 60 40 Late Oldest Generation 20 Late Lucky Generation Late Baby Boomers Late Generation X & Y 0 15–19 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 When men of each generation were aged..._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 159
    • Work…Generations of employmentTracking employment …broadly comparable informationcharacteristics across generations Across these censuses, changes to theIn order to track the employment questions asked on the census form andcharacteristics for each generational group changes to the classifications used toacross time, this article uses Census of produce census statistics mean that thePopulation and Housing data from 1947 to characteristics examined may not be2006. Ten year age cohorts have been completely comparable. That said, theselected, with data obtained from every general level of comparability has beensecond census since 1966 (that is, 1976, 1986 assessed to be suitable for theand so on). For the 1947 and 1954 Censuses, comparisons made in this article.which were not at 10 year intervals, the agegroups used do not perfectly align with birth The treatment of overseas visitors is oneyears for the generations. This affects the example of these differences. In thecomparison of the three oldest generational published results of the 1947, 1954 andgroups. For example, at the time of the 1966 Censuses, overseas visitors were not1954 Census, people in the later half of the separately identified. In censuses after thisOldest Generation were aged between 28 they were separately identified, but due toand 37 years, but data from this census are increasing numbers of these visitors, foronly available in 10 year age groups (for the 1996 and 2006 Censuses the labourexample, 20–29 years, 30–39 years). In this force status and industry of occupation ofcase, the 30–39 years age group is used to overseas visitors was not recorded. As arepresent this generation. It is expected that result, in this article, overseas visitors havethe effects of these differences are relatively been included in the calculation ofminor and do not affect the broad statistics for all census years except 1996comparisons made in the article. and 2006.As 10 year age groups are used eachgeneration—spanning 20 years of age each—has been split into two: an early and a later The greatest change in employmentgenerational group (see table below). For participation for men has occurred amongmore details about the generations used, see 15–19 year olds, where employment‘From generation to generation’, p. 9–14. participation has generally declined with each successive generation—a pattern also evident in women’s employment participation at this Age at age. In 1947, just over 79% of 15–19 year oldGenerational groups 2006 Birth cohort men from the early Lucky Generation were employed. By 1976, half of the late Baby Boomer men in this age group were employed.Early Oldest Generation 90–99 1906–1916 The lowest level of employment participationLate Oldest Generation 80–89 1916–1926 for men aged 15–19 was at the 1996 Census: 39% for those in late Generation X and Y.Early Lucky Generation 70–79 1926–1936 Following a period of strong economicLate Lucky Generation 60–69 1936–1946 conditions and labour demand, this proportion was higher for the early iGeneration: 44% inEarly Baby Boomers 50–59 1946–1956 2006.Late Baby Boomers 40–49 1956–1966 These changes were associated with increasedEarly Generation X and Y 30–39 1966–1976 participation in education for each generation.Late Generation X and Y 20–29 1976–1986 In the 50 years after 1947, increasing proportions of young people remained at highEarly iGeneration 10–19 1986–1996 school through to Years 11 and 12. ForLate iGeneration 0–9 1996–2006 example, high school retention rates peaked in 1992 at 77%, rising from 23% in 1966.1 Over this period, opportunities for participation in further education also increased. In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a substantial increase in the number of_______________________________________________________________________________________160 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Generations of employmentuniversities and enrolments in higher proportion employed in each age groupeducation.2 In the 1970s, upfront university exceeded that of the previous generationalfees were abolished and student income group at the same age. For example, in 2006,support programs were introduced (for the early Generation X and Y group were agedexample, AUSTUDY).3 This was then followed 30–39 and 88% of this group were employed—by substantial increases in funding in the 4 percentage points higher than the late Baby1980s, which occurred in line with the Boomers when they were the same age inintroduction of the Higher Education 1996.Contribution Scheme (HECS).4 Since the early1990s, there has also been a re-emergence and Another more recent change in employmentformalisation of vocational and trades participation occurred in the 60–69 year ageeducation.4 group. In 2006, 42% of men from the late Lucky Generation were participating inMany of these increased opportunities in employment at this age, substantially higherfurther education have been taken up by than the two groups from the Olderpeople in the 20–29 year age group, and to a Generation, whose employment participationlesser extent by those in older age groups. As was slightly below 30% when they were in thiswith 15–19 year olds, this increased age group. The favourable job market in theparticipation in education has reduced previous decade would have contributed toemployment participation for successive the higher level of employment participationgenerations of 20–29 year olds. Similarly, in this age group. However, the introduction ofincreased participation in education will have a range of government policies directed at thealso contributed to the general decline in older workforce may have encouraged olderemployment participation in subsequent age people to return to or remain longer in thegroups. For more information on changes in workforce.participation in education, see ‘Adulteducation across the generations’ p. 123–127. Women’s employmentEmployment participation turns around increasingin 2006 Women’s generational experiences ofChanging economic conditions over the employment participation have been diversesecond half of the 20th century resulted in and quite different to men’s, with large scalerelatively high rates of unemployment from the changes occurring over the last 60 years. Themid-1970s through to the end of the century. only trend that is similar to men’s participationThis, combined with increasing participation is the declining employment participationby women in the workforce and an increased among the 15–19 year olds in each successivepropensity to undertake further study, was generation, associated with increasedassociated with declines in male employment participation in education.participation across the generational groupsover this period. In contrast, declining Aside from these changes for young people,unemployment from around the end of the women’s employment participation since 19471990s, was associated with a recovery in has generally increased in each age group,employment participation for men across all across successive generations. For example, inage groups. The article ‘From generation to 1947, 18% of women from the early Oldestgeneration’, p. 9–14, provides an overview of Generation, then aged 30–39, were employed.the unemployment experience of the differentgenerations.Up until the 2006 Census, employment Women’s employment participationparticipation for men in the age groupsbetween 20 and 59 years was generally slightlylower with each successive generational group. 1947For example, at age 30–39, 97% of men in the 1954late Oldest Generation were employed in 1954, 196694% of the late Lucky Generation in 1976 and 15–19 years 1976 30–39 years84% of the late Baby Boomers in 1996. 1986 1996At the 2006 Census, the trend of declining 2006employment participation was reversed.Reflecting the stronger economic conditions 0 25 50 75 100over the previous decade, in 2006 the %_______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 161
    • Work…Generations of employmentWomen’s employment participation: selected generational groups % Late Oldest Generation80 Late Lucky Generation Late Baby Boomers Late Generation X & Y604020 0 15–19 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79 When women of each generation were aged...By 1976, a little over half (52%) of late Lucky 1970s gave women—particularly those whoGeneration women at the same age were were married or had children—a greaterparticipating in employment. By 2006, 68% of opportunity to participate in employment5;women, from the early half of Generation X most commonly through part-timeand Y, aged 30–39, were participating in employment (see box below).employment. The age profile of women’s employmentThis trend of increasing employment participation has also changed acrossparticipation for women in each successive generations. The employment participationgeneration is largely associated with changing experience of women in the late Luckyattitudes to the roles of women in society, and Generation is similar to the broad patternwomen, on average, having fewer children and experienced by those in previous generationalhaving them later in life. Parallel to this, a groups, although the levels for these groupsrange of legislative changes in the 1960s and were lower (see graph, this page). Women of Part-time employment Much of the growth in women’s employment over the 30 years to 2006 has 1971 Men Women occurred through the take-up of part-time 1976 work. Part-time employment is seen as an 1981 effective way for women, and to a lesser 1986 extent men, to participate in employment 1991 while also having time to care for children 1996 or to undertake study or other activities.6 2001 That said, some part-time workers report a 2006 desire to work more hours if the work was 0 10 20 30 40 50 available.7 % employed In 1971, 25% of employed women were working part-time. This had increased to Significant changes have occurred to the 47% by 2006. The proportion of men composition of the workforce over the employed part-time also increased over second half of the 20th century and early this period, but from lower initial levels. In 21st century. Changes to labour force 1971, only 5% of men were employed part- regulation and industrial relations, as well time compared with 18% in 2006—still as increased demand by employers and lower than the level for women in 1971. employees, resulted in increased provision and take-up of part-time employment._______________________________________________________________________________________162 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Generations of employmentthe late Lucky Generation had relatively high age (39% and 44% respectively). That said,employment participation (67%) when aged when the late Generation X and Y women15–19. Once these women moved into the 20– reached 20–29 years of age in 2006, their39 year age group—the main child-bearing participation was 72%, which was lower thanages for that generation—employment the 80% for their male peers. Like theparticipation dropped to around 50%. generations before them, many womenParticipation then rose as women entered or continue to leave employment to bear andre-entered the workforce as their children raise children, and this is reflected in lowerbecome older: peaking at 60% at age 40–49. levels of employment participation comparedAfter this age participation declined as these to men of the same generation.women entered retirement ages. Industry of employmentIn contrast, younger generations of womenhave begun to follow a pattern of participation As Australia has continued to develop as ain employment very different to that of their nation, the composition of its industries hasmothers and grandmothers. Moreover, this changed. There has been a fundamental shiftpattern is aligning with that of their male peers in the industries providing the greatest sharein the same generation. This change began to of employment for each generational group,emerge with the late Baby Boomer Generation from a long term decline in primaryand has continued with each subsequent production industries to the growinggeneration. dominance of service provision industries. The following analysis looks at each generationalAs a result of these changes, the employment group when its members were aged 30–39 toparticipation of women aged 15–19 years in show the changes in the composition oflate Generation X and Y (41% in 1996) and the employment by broad industry type. PeopleiGeneration (48% in 2006) was actually higher aged 30–39 are assumed to be employed inthan for men in these generations at the same their industry of choice. Working mothers with young children Over the second half of the 20th century and the early part of the 21st century, the opportunities for women in the labour force have increased. Census data on employment from 1971 to 2006 show that mothers in each successive generation have been more likely to combine caring for their children with participation in employment. The availability and uptake of part-time work has been central to this change. In 1971, 20% of mothers with young children (at least one child aged under 5 Mothers with young children(a) years in single family households) were % employed, with about equal proportions 60 Working part-time working part-time and full-time. Between Working full-time 1971 and 1976, the proportions employed full-time and part-time both grew by 40 approximately 5 percentage points to be just over 15% each. In contrast, between 20 1976 and 2006, almost all of the employment growth for this group has been in part-time employment. As a result, 0 the proportion employed full-time 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 remained at around 15% over this period, while the proportion employed part-time (a) Mothers with at least one child aged under 5. grew to 35% in 2006. Only includes single family households; this is due to limited relationship information in the censuses prior to 1986._______________________________________________________________________________________ ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006 163
    • Work…Generations of employment Industry Categories In order to compare changes in employment in Australian industries over time, industry data from the census have been grouped into three broad categories, which include the following general categories of industries: • Primary production: agriculture, fishing and mining • Secondary production: manufacturing, construction, and electricity, gas and water supply • Service industries: wholesale trade, retail trade, finance and insurance, property and business services, transport and storage, communication services, government administration and defence, education, health and community services, and cultural and recreational services Changes to the classifications of industries of employment used in each census mean that these three groups are only broadly comparable, providing only a general indication of change in employment by industry. In the 2006 Census, industry data were dual coded to the 1993 and 2006 versions of ANZSIC. To facilitate comparability to previous censuses, the 1993 version has been used in this article.The move away from primary production and Primary production: employed personsmanufacturing industries to service provision aged 30–39 yearsindustries has been a progressivetransformation rather than a sudden shift. Foreach generational group at age 30–39, there Early Oldest (in 1947)has been a gradual decline in the share of Late Oldest (in 1954)employment in primary production and Early Lucky (in 1966)manufacturing industries and a corresponding Late Lucky (in 1976)increase in the share of service industry Early Baby Boomers (in 1986) Late Baby Boomers (in 1996) Menemployment. This trend was apparent in Womenalmost all age groups. Early Gen. X & Y (in 2006) Persons 0 6 12 18 24Primary production % employedPrimary production industries include theagricultural, fishing and mining sectors. Sincethe middle of the last century, these industrieshave gradually declined as a source of Men employed in Agriculture: selectedemployment. generational groups(a)Men moving away from farming % employed men Late OldestFor men, the declining share of employment in 40 Late Luckyprimary production industries with each Late Baby Boomers 30 Late Gen. X & Ysuccessive generation has been much morepronounced than for women (see Primary 20production graph, this page). For men this isprimarily associated with the overall decline in 10the share of employment in Agriculture thathas occurred over the second half of the 20th 0century. For women, these declines have been 15–19 20–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–69 70–79less pronounced, as they have generally been When men of each generation were aged...less likely than men to be employed inAgriculture. In addition, it is likely that not all (a) Separate 1966 data are not available for thewomen of earlier generations who worked on Agricultural industry, therefore data for Oldestfamily farms reported in the census that they Generation aged 40–49 and Lucky Generation aged 20–worked in agriculture. 29 are based on estimates._______________________________________________________________________________________164 ABS · A Picture of the Nation · 2070.0 · 2006
    • Work…Generations of employmentIn addition to men’s share of employment in Secondary production: employedAgriculture declining with successive persons aged 30–39generations, it has also declined as the men ineach generational group have moved throughtheir working lives. For example, when the Early Oldest (in 1947)men from the early Oldest Generation were Late Oldest (in 1954)aged 20–29, in 1947, 16% of those employed Early Lucky (in 1966)were working in Agriculture. By the time they Late Lucky (in 1976)were 50–59, in 1976, this proportion had Early Baby Boomers (in 1986)dropped to 8%. Late Baby Boomers (in 1996) Men Women Early Gen. X & Y (in 2006) PersonsIn the age groups normally associated withretirement, 60 and over, the proportion of 0 20 40 60emplo