Aucune remarque pour cette diapositive
Suite d'actions conduisant à un but défini. Suite d'états ou de phases de l'organisation d'une opération ou d'une transformation
(Informatique) Tâche en train de s’exécuter.
(Gestion de la qualité) Système d'activités qui utilise des ressources (personnel, équipement, matériels, informations) pour transformer des éléments entrants en éléments de sortie dont le résultat final attendu est un produit ou un service.
Schéma tiré de ISO 9001
The concept of PDCA comes out of the Scientific Method, as developed from the work of Francis Bacon (Novum Organum, 1620). The scientific method can be written as "hypothesis" - "experiment" - "evaluation" or Plan, Do, and Check. Shewhartdescribed manufacture under "control" - under statistical control - as a three step process of specification, production, and inspection. He also specifically related this to the Scientific Method of hypothesis, experiment and evaluation. Shewhartsays that the statistician "must help to change the demand [for goods] by showing...how to close up the tolerance range and to improve the quality of goods." Clearly, Shewhart intended the analyst to take action based on the conclusions of the evaluation. According to Deming during his lectures in Japan in the early 1950's the Japanese participants shortened the steps to the now traditional Plan, Do, Check, Act. Deming preferred Plan, Do, Study, Act because 'Study' has connotations in English closer to Shewhart's intent than "Check."
r. Deming's teachings and philosophy can be seen through the results they produced when they were adopted by the Japanese, as the following example shows: Ford Motor Company was simultaneously manufacturing a car model with transmissions made in Japan and the United States. Soon after the car model was on the market, Ford customers were requesting the model with Japanese transmission over the USA-made transmission, and they were willing to wait for the Japanese model. As both transmissions were made to the same specifications, Ford engineers could not understand the customer preference for the model with Japanese transmission. It delivered smoother performance with a lower defect rate. Finally, Ford engineers decided to take apart the two different transmissions. The American-made car parts were all within specified tolerance levels. On the other hand, the Japanese car parts had much closer tolerances than the USA-made parts - i.e. if a part was supposed to be one foot long, plus or minus 1/8 of an inch - then the Japanese parts were within 1/16 of an inch. This made the Japanese cars run more smoothly and customers experienced fewer problems. .
Envoie les noms des printers sur le canal spool : liste de disponible
Use case: enchainement pas clair
Swim lane: trop d’acteurs
Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a workflow. BPMN was developed by Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and is currently maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005. The current version of BPMN is 1.1, and a major revision process for BPMN 2.0 is in progress.
Sequence Flow: A Sequence Flow is represented with a solid line and arrowhead and shows in which order the activities will be performed. A diagonal slash across the line close to the origin indicates a default choice of a decision.
Message Flow: A Message Flow is represented with a dashed line and an open arrowhead. It tells us what messages flow between two process participants.
Association: An Association is represented with a dotted line and a line arrowhead. It is used to associate an Artifact, data or text to a Flow Object.
WS-BPEL provides a language for the specification of Executable and Abstract business processes. By doing so, it extends the Web Services interaction model and enables it to support business transactions. WS-BPEL defines an interoperable integration model that should facilitate the expansion of automated process integration in both the intra-corporate and the business-to-business spaces.
The origins of BPEL can be traced to WSFL and XLANG. It is serialized in XML and aims to enable programming in the large. The concepts of programming in the large andprogramming in the small distinguish between two aspects of writing the type of long-running asynchronous processes that one typically sees in business processes.
Web Services Flow Language (WSFL) is an XML language proposed by IBM to describe the composition of Web services. WSFL has been superseded by BPEL.
IBM and Microsoft had each defined their own, fairly similar, 'programming in the large' languages, WSFL and XLANG, respectively. With the popularity and advent of BPML, and the growing success of BPMI.org and the open BPMS movement led by JBoss and Intalio Inc., IBM and Microsoft decided to combine these languages into a new language, BPEL4WS. In April 2003, BEA Systems, IBM, Microsoft, SAP and Siebel Systems submitted BPEL4WS 1.1 to OASIS for standardization via the Web Services BPEL Technical Committee. Although BPEL4WS appeared as both a 1.0 and 1.1 version, the OASIS WS-BPEL technical committee voted on 14 September 2004 to name their spec WS-BPEL 2.0. This change in name was done to align BPEL with other Web Service standard naming conventions which start with WS- and accounts for the significant enhancements between BPEL4WS 1.1 and WS-BPEL 2.0. If you are not discussing a specific version, the moniker BPEL is commonly used.
In June 2007, Active Endpoints, Adobe, BEA, IBM, Oracle and SAP published the BPEL4People and WS-HumanTask specifications, which describe how human interaction in BPEL processes can be implemented.
Attention au catalogue
Figure p. 182
Cf. P. Haren – garbage in – garbage out
Burlton, R.T., Business Process Management. Sams, Indianapolis, 2001.
Galbraith J., Designing Organizations. Jossey-Bass, Wiley, 1998.
Chaque point mérite un exposé à lui tout seul
Il ne sert à rien de pousser l’approche processus si l’on ne comprend pas les bénéfices concrets
Cette compréhension n’est ni simple ni intuitive
CMMI et ITIL