2. GENRE & TECHNIAL CODESGoodwin says ‘Music videos will contain and feature genre characteristics
particularly in terms of style and iconography. This is crucial for setting up
expectations and communicating meaning.’
Technical codes include the use of camera, lighting, editing and setting.
They are used within a music video to communicate a meaning or create
an atmosphere and mood.
For example these screenshots from Blink 182’s ‘Up All Night’ show how
lighting, setting and colours have been used to portrays the energy and
passion within their performance. For example the low key lighting with the
warmth from the fire portrays their disturbance, potential anger and energy.
3. THOUGHT BEATS
The term ‘thought beat’ refers to something that you can visually see
that reflects the sound you hear at the same time. This will mean that
the structure, tempo and beat of the music will be represented
visually in the music video through any technical element.
For example in the music video ‘Take Care’ by Drake and Rihanna,
whenever the chorus begins the editing gets a lot slower and slow
motion editing has been used on animals such as a bird and a Bull to
reflect the smooth instruments used and the slow tempo. However
when drake’s verse comes in the editing get’s a lot quicker reflecting
his energy and speed and
4. NARRATIVE &
PERFORMANCEGoodwin argues that music videos should have repeatability through
the use of narrative and performance as it makes it easier to watch
over again without losing interest. This can be enhanced when the
artist is both acting as a narrator and participant as it makes it feel more
authentic. Despite this lip synching and mimed actions remains at the
heart of music videos as the audience need to believe it is real.
For example in Childish Gambino’s ‘Telegraph Ave’ he plays the
strange half creature half human character in the narrative whilst at the
same time performing and singing the song. This is more engaging as
you are seeing the artist himself act and perform in the situation.
5. RELATION OF VISUALS TO THE SONG
Goodwin makes a point that a music video will fall in to one of these
Disjuncture – when the meaning of the song is ignored and the imagery
is not relevant to the lyrics. An example of this is ‘HYFR’ by drake. Where the
music video shows drake in a religious temple having a Bar Mitzvah which is a Jewish
ceremony which is very irrelevant and juxtaposing to his rap song but is entertaining by
Amplify – This is when the meaning is exaggerated through the visuals.
An example is J Cole's ‘She Knows’ music video which applies the meaning of ‘she
knows’ to a mum that knows her son is skipping school to cause trouble and smoke. For
example as the lyrics ‘show knows’ are sang the boy is drinking, smoking and skating.
Illustrate – This is when the meaning of the song is clearly represented
through the visuals. The most common use is when there are a set of
images that match what is being said In the lyrics. An example of this is
Mac Miller’s ‘Thoughts from a balcony’ music video which is clearly illustrated
stood on a balcony looking out for the duration of the music video.
6. STAR IMAGE & INTERTEXUALITY
Music videos are a form of promotion for an artists’ song and so therefore
thy aim to make it clear who the ‘star’ is and make them look as appealing
possible to their audiences. This is often achieved through the artist having
the most screen time. Other techniques are also used such as a lot of
flattering close up shots of the artist which are called ‘money shots’.
Intersexuality can be used within a music video to create references to
other music videos, films, TV and other popular culture texts. The audience
enjoy being familiar with these references.
An example of both of these points is clear in
the music video ‘King of the fall’ by The
Weeknd. For example most of the music
video is a medium close up focused on him
which clearly portrays he is the star. He also
is wearing two variations of a rare expensive
supreme x the north face jacket that his
audience will recognize and admire. They will
also enjoy this textual reference a they will
probably be a fan of supreme.
Voyeurism is used in many music videos in terms of signifiers of
looking. For example there might be a lot of eye’s, mirrors, glasses,
cameras and screens within screens. Voyeurism can be used to
effectively entertain and engage an audiences with on screen visuals
they know their not supposed to be seeing in the music video as if it
An example is Jhene Aiko’s ‘The Worst’ music video where this concept has
been used in a more sexual way. For example you as an audience see Jhene
walking around her home is minimal clothing, this obviously engages the
audience as she is very attractive. The audience feels as if you aren’t supposed
to be watching her in the privacy of her home but the audience still gets
enjoyment out of this use of Voyeurism through a more sexual way because of
how little she is dressed in. Mirrors are also used to create a sense of looking
8. Overall Goodwin’s theories and ideas are all very
relevant still to this day, despite how long ago his
book was written and how much music videos
have developed with new genres and technology.