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# Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

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A presentation on how to prepare the fourth chapter of a thesis.

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### Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

1. 1. Chapter IV
2. 2. 1. Presentation 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation
3. 3. Is the process of organizing data into logical, sequential and meaningful categories and classifications to make them amenable to study and interpretation.
4. 4. 1. Textual - (statements with numerals or numbers that serve as supplements to tabular presentation)
5. 5. 2. Tabular - (a systematic arrangement of related idea in which classes of numerical facts or data are given each row and their subclasses are given each a column in order to present the relationships of the sets or numerical facts or data in a definite, compact and understandable form)
6. 6. 1. The table should be so constructed that it enables the reader to comprehend the data presented without referring to the text; 2. The text should be so written that it allows the reader to understand the argument presented without referring to the table. (Campbell, Ballou and Slade, 1990)
7. 7. 3. Graphical – (a chart representing the quantitative variations or changes of variables in pictorial or diagrammatic form)
8. 8. 1. Bar graphs 2. Linear graphs 3. Pie graphs 4. Pictograms 5. Statistical maps 6. Ratio charts
9. 9. A separation of a whole into its constituent parts (Merriam-Webster, 2012) The process of breaking up the whole study into its constituent parts of categories according to the specific questions under the statement of the problem. (Calderon, 1993)
10. 10. 1. Qualitative Analysis – is not based on precise measurement and quantitative claims. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
11. 11. 1.Social analysis; 2.From the biggest to the smallest class; 3.Most important to the least important; 4.Ranking of students according to brightness;
12. 12. 2. Quantitative Analysis – is employed on data that have been assigned some numerical value. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
13. 13. It can range from the examination of simple frequencies to the description of events or phenomenon using descriptive statistics, and to the investigation of correlation and causal hypothesis using various statistical tests. (PSSC: 2001: 51)
14. 14. This section answers the question, “So what?” in relation to the results of the study. What do the results of the study mean? This part is, perhaps, the most critical aspect of the research report.
15. 15. It is often the most difficult to write because it is the least structured. This section demands perceptiveness and creativity from the researcher.
16. 16. How do we interpret the result(s) of our study?
17. 17. 1. Tie up the results of the study in both theory and application by pulling together the: a. conceptual/theoretical framework; b. the review of literature; and c. the study’s potential significance for application.
18. 18. 2. Examine, summarize, interpret and justify the results; then, draw inferences. Consider the following:
19. 19. a. Conclude or summarize  This technique enables the reader to get the total picture of the findings in summarized form, and helps orient the reader to the discussion that follows.
20. 20. b. Interpret  Questions on the meaning of the findings, the methodology, the unexpected results and the limitations and shortcomings of the study should be answered and interpreted
21. 21. c. Integrate  This is an attempt to put the pieces together.  Often, the results of a study are disparate and do not seem to “hang together.” In the discussion, attempt to bring the findings together to extract meaning and principles.
22. 22. d. Theorize  When the study includes a number of related findings, it occasionally becomes possible to theorize.
23. 23. 1. Integrate your findings into a principle; 2. Integrate a theory into your findings; and 3. Use these findings to formulate an original theory
24. 24. e. Recommend or apply alternatives
25. 25. 1. Table _____ presents the… 2. Table _____ indicates the… 3. As reflected in the table, there was… 4. As observed, there was indeed… 5. Delving deeper into the figures…
26. 26. 6. The illustrative graph above/below shows that… 7. In explaining this result, it can be stated that… 8. Is significantly related to… 9. Is found to be determinant of… 10. Registered positive correlation with…
27. 27. 11. Is revealed to influence… 12. Has significant relationship with… 13. Is discovered to be a factor of… 14. In relation with the result of __________, it may be constructed that…
28. 28. 15. And in viewing in this sense, it can be stated that… 16. The result establishes the fact that… 17. This finding suggests that… 18. With this result, the researcher developed an impression that…
29. 29. 19. This finding also validates the findings of… 20. This improvement in _________ could be understood in the context of… 21. These findings also accept the framework of the study…
30. 30. 22. The interpretation marked as __________ reveals that… 23. Nevertheless, this finding could be attributed to the fact that… 24. Probably, this was also influenced… 25. In the rational sense, the juxtaposition of…
31. 31. 1. The chapter is organized and divided into several main components or topics, each of which is titled according to the sub-problem or hypothesis statement.
32. 32. 2. Present only relevant data. 3. In reporting data, choose the medium that will present them effectively. 4. Presenting tables that can be presented as well in a few sentences in the text must be avoided.
33. 33. 5. The textual presentation should supplement or expand the contents of tables and charts, rather than duplicate them. 6. Only objective data embodied in tables are made the bases of discussion.
34. 34. 7. The analysis of the data should be objective and logical. 8. In analyzing and interpreting data, point out those that are consistent or inconsistent with the theory presented in the study’s theoretical framework.
35. 35. 9. In reporting statistical tests of significance, include information concerning the value of the test, the degree of freedom, the probability level and the direction of the effect.
36. 36. 10. The findings are compared and contrasted with that of other previous studies and interpretations are made thereof.