bacterial transduction

vikas kumar
vikas kumarAttended Shoolini Institute of life-Sciences & business Management Solan. HP à Tabel tennis
1
Transduction
BY: Vikas Kumar
Contents
• Historical
• Transduction
• Mechanism
• Bacteriophages and its life cycles
• Type of transduction
• Generalized Transduction
• Specialized Transduction
• Significance 2
3
historical
Lederberg & Zinder
• Transduction was first discovered in 1952 by Joshua
Lederberg and Norton Zinder
Joshua Lederberg Norton Zinder
How transduction was
discovered
4
• Studied in Salmonella typhimurium
• Plated two auxotrophic strains (LA-2 and LA-22)
individually on minimal medium, no cells grew.
• Plated a mixture of the two auxotrophic strains on
minimal medium, cells grew into colonies.
• Thus, genetic exchange was taking place between the
two cell types.
•
Unexpected discovery
U-tube Experiment
• Performed U-tube experiment .
• Found that part of the cells on one side of the U-tube
were prototrophs (could grow in minimal medium).
5
U-tube Experiment
6
Transduction
Definition - Unlike transformation in which the
naked DNA is transferred in transduction DNA is
carried by a bacteriophage.
or
In transduction, DNA is transferred from cell to cell
through the agency of viruses
NOTE :- All phages can be transducer and not all
bacteria are transducible
7
Transduction has been found to occur in a variety
of prokaryotes, including certain species of the
Bacteria: Desulfovibrio, Escherichia,
Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Rhodobacter,
Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Xanthobacter, as
well as Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.
EXAMPLES OF
BACTERIA
8
9
Mechanism of Transduction
Bacteriphage
• Firstly Descovered in 1915 by Fredrick Twort
and two years later by Felix d’Herelle.
• Means bacteria eater.
• A virus that infects certain type of bacteria and
replicates within them
Types of bacterio-phage
Virulent: capable of causing infection and
eventually destruction and death of the bacterial
cell. These follow the lytic cycle. e.g. T4 host
E.coli.
Temperate: does not cause destruptic infection
instead phage DNA is incorporated into
bacterium DNA and is replicated with it and after
some cycle become virulent cause lysis.
• e.g. lambda phage. 10
Life cycle of
bacteriophage
11
Transduction
• There are two types of transduction:
– Generalized transduction: A DNA
fragment is transferred from one bacterium
to another by a lytic bacteriophage that is
now carrying donor bacterial DNA due to an
error in maturation during the lytic life cycle.
12
Generalised Transduction
13
1. A lytic bacteriophage adsorbs to
a susceptible bacterium.
2. The bacteriophage genome
enters the bacterium. The genome
directs the bacterium's metabolic
machinery to manufacture
bacteriophage components and
enzymes
14
3. Occasionally, a bacteriophage head
or capsid assembles around a fragment
of donor bacterium's nucleoid instead
of a phage genome by mistake.
steps in Generalised Transduction (cont’d)
4. The bacteriophages are released.
steps in Generalised Transduction (cont’d)
15
5. The bacteriophage carrying the
donor bacterium's DNA adsorbs to a
recipient bacterium
6. The bacteriophage inserts the donor
bacterium's DNA it is carrying into the
recipient bacterium .
16
steps in Generalised Transduction (contd)
7. The donor bacterium's DNA is exchanged for some of
the recipient's DNA.
• Specialized transduction:
• A DNA fragment is transferred from one
bacterium to another by a temperate
bacteriophage that is now carrying donor
bacterial DNA due to an error in spontaneous
induction during the lysogenic life cycle.
• In specialized transduction the phage inserts
its genome at the specific site.
17
Specialised Transduction
18
1. A temperate bacteriophage adsorbs
to a susceptible bacterium and injects
its genome .
2. The bacteriophage inserts its genome
into the bacterium's nucleoid to become
a prophage.
Steps in Specialised Transduction (cont’d)
19
3. Occasionally during spontaneous
induction, a small piece of the donor
bacterium's DNA is picked up as part of
the phage's genome in place of some of
the phage DNA which remains in the
bacterium's nucleoid.
4. As the bacteriophage replicates, the
segment of bacterial DNA replicates as
part of the phage's genome. Every
phage now carries that segment of
bacterial DNA.
Steps in Specialised Transduction (cont’d)
20
5. The bacteriophage adsorbs to a
recipient bacterium and injects its
genome.
6. The bacteriophage genome carrying
the donor bacterial DNA inserts into the
recipient bacterium's nucleoid.
Significance of transduction
• It transfers genetic material from one bacterial cell to
another and alter the genetic characteristics.
• For example: In specialised transduction the gal gene, a cell
lacking ability to metabolize galactose could aquire the
ability .
• It shows the evolutionary relationship between the prophage
and host bacterial cell.
• Prophage can exist in a cell for a long period suggests a
similar possible mechanism for the viral origin of cancer.
• It provides a way to study the gene linkage.
21
THANKS
22
1 sur 22

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bacterial transduction

  • 2. Contents • Historical • Transduction • Mechanism • Bacteriophages and its life cycles • Type of transduction • Generalized Transduction • Specialized Transduction • Significance 2
  • 3. 3 historical Lederberg & Zinder • Transduction was first discovered in 1952 by Joshua Lederberg and Norton Zinder Joshua Lederberg Norton Zinder
  • 4. How transduction was discovered 4 • Studied in Salmonella typhimurium • Plated two auxotrophic strains (LA-2 and LA-22) individually on minimal medium, no cells grew. • Plated a mixture of the two auxotrophic strains on minimal medium, cells grew into colonies. • Thus, genetic exchange was taking place between the two cell types. •
  • 5. Unexpected discovery U-tube Experiment • Performed U-tube experiment . • Found that part of the cells on one side of the U-tube were prototrophs (could grow in minimal medium). 5
  • 7. Transduction Definition - Unlike transformation in which the naked DNA is transferred in transduction DNA is carried by a bacteriophage. or In transduction, DNA is transferred from cell to cell through the agency of viruses NOTE :- All phages can be transducer and not all bacteria are transducible 7
  • 8. Transduction has been found to occur in a variety of prokaryotes, including certain species of the Bacteria: Desulfovibrio, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Rhodobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Xanthobacter, as well as Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. EXAMPLES OF BACTERIA 8
  • 9. 9 Mechanism of Transduction Bacteriphage • Firstly Descovered in 1915 by Fredrick Twort and two years later by Felix d’Herelle. • Means bacteria eater. • A virus that infects certain type of bacteria and replicates within them
  • 10. Types of bacterio-phage Virulent: capable of causing infection and eventually destruction and death of the bacterial cell. These follow the lytic cycle. e.g. T4 host E.coli. Temperate: does not cause destruptic infection instead phage DNA is incorporated into bacterium DNA and is replicated with it and after some cycle become virulent cause lysis. • e.g. lambda phage. 10
  • 12. Transduction • There are two types of transduction: – Generalized transduction: A DNA fragment is transferred from one bacterium to another by a lytic bacteriophage that is now carrying donor bacterial DNA due to an error in maturation during the lytic life cycle. 12
  • 13. Generalised Transduction 13 1. A lytic bacteriophage adsorbs to a susceptible bacterium. 2. The bacteriophage genome enters the bacterium. The genome directs the bacterium's metabolic machinery to manufacture bacteriophage components and enzymes
  • 14. 14 3. Occasionally, a bacteriophage head or capsid assembles around a fragment of donor bacterium's nucleoid instead of a phage genome by mistake. steps in Generalised Transduction (cont’d) 4. The bacteriophages are released.
  • 15. steps in Generalised Transduction (cont’d) 15 5. The bacteriophage carrying the donor bacterium's DNA adsorbs to a recipient bacterium 6. The bacteriophage inserts the donor bacterium's DNA it is carrying into the recipient bacterium .
  • 16. 16 steps in Generalised Transduction (contd) 7. The donor bacterium's DNA is exchanged for some of the recipient's DNA.
  • 17. • Specialized transduction: • A DNA fragment is transferred from one bacterium to another by a temperate bacteriophage that is now carrying donor bacterial DNA due to an error in spontaneous induction during the lysogenic life cycle. • In specialized transduction the phage inserts its genome at the specific site. 17
  • 18. Specialised Transduction 18 1. A temperate bacteriophage adsorbs to a susceptible bacterium and injects its genome . 2. The bacteriophage inserts its genome into the bacterium's nucleoid to become a prophage.
  • 19. Steps in Specialised Transduction (cont’d) 19 3. Occasionally during spontaneous induction, a small piece of the donor bacterium's DNA is picked up as part of the phage's genome in place of some of the phage DNA which remains in the bacterium's nucleoid. 4. As the bacteriophage replicates, the segment of bacterial DNA replicates as part of the phage's genome. Every phage now carries that segment of bacterial DNA.
  • 20. Steps in Specialised Transduction (cont’d) 20 5. The bacteriophage adsorbs to a recipient bacterium and injects its genome. 6. The bacteriophage genome carrying the donor bacterial DNA inserts into the recipient bacterium's nucleoid.
  • 21. Significance of transduction • It transfers genetic material from one bacterial cell to another and alter the genetic characteristics. • For example: In specialised transduction the gal gene, a cell lacking ability to metabolize galactose could aquire the ability . • It shows the evolutionary relationship between the prophage and host bacterial cell. • Prophage can exist in a cell for a long period suggests a similar possible mechanism for the viral origin of cancer. • It provides a way to study the gene linkage. 21