• Ayurvedic system of medicine is an applied science, it gives more emphasis to the verification and validation of facts and
• The physicians of Ayurveda emphasized the necessity of scientific knowledge in every regard.
• In Ayurveda Pramana vinjaana can be considered as the scientific tools of research.
• Any knowledge which is valid and correct is termed as PRAMA and the means to acquire this knowledge is known as
• For the true and thorough scientific knowledge, ayurvedic seers adopted different methods of examination and investigations,
which they termed as Pariksha.
• The critical scientific approach of Ayurveda is evident from its pramana vinjaana
समग्रं दुःखमायत्तमविज्ञाने द्वयाश्रयम्|
सखं समग्रं विज्ञाने विमले च प्रविवििम्||८४||
इदमेिमदारार्थमज्ञानां न प्रकाशकम्|
शास्त्रं दृविप्रणिानां यर्ैिावदत्यमण्डलम्||८५|| (Cha.Su,30/84)
3. • Pramaa : valid knowledge, true knowledge
• Pramaana : instrument of valid knowledge, epistemological instrument
• Pramaata : the person who is attaining valid knowledge, knower
• Prameya : the topic for understanding or considering as valid knowledge.
4. • SYNONYMS OF THE TERM PRAMAANA
• Upalabdih The means to obtain real knowledge
• Saadhanam The thing used to get real knowledge
• Jnaanam Knowledge
• Pareeksha Examination
• Pramaana The instrument for real knowledge
• उपलब्धि साधनं ज्ञानं परीक्षा प्रमाणमममि अनर्ाान्तरं समाख्यामन वचन सामर्थ्ााि् । (च.सु.गंगाधर) ११।१७
5. • PRAMAANA
• यर्ार्थ अनभि: प्रमा,ित्सार्नं प्रमाणं। (उदयन)
• Aacharya udayana considers real experience (yathartha anubhava) as valid knowledge or pramaa and the
instrument for obtaining the real knowledge is Pramaana.
• According to Gangaadhara, the commentator of Charaka Samhita, Pramaana is that by which we measure.
Thus, pramaana is considered as an instrument.
• प्रमीयिे अनेन इवि प्रमाणं।
• प्रमाकरणं प्रमाणं
• Pramana is the means to obtain the knowledge.
• 3. According to Vaatsyaayana, commentator of Nyaaya aphorisms, instrument is that by which the object is
• येनार्ं प्रवमणोवि ित्प्रमाणं।
6. • PRAMAA
• Acharya Udayana & Tarka samgraha have defined pramaa as real experience. Charaka Samhita has used
the term yathaavat-njaanaa to indicate real experience. Tattva Chintamani explains that the knowledge of
something where it exists is real knowledge
• यर्ार्ाथनभि: प्रमा। (उदयन)
• िद्ववि ित्प्रकारकोऽनभिो यर्ार्थ:।सैि प्रमेत्यच्यिे। (ि.सं ३।२९)
• महर्थयस्ते दद्रशयथर्ािि् ञानचक्षर्ा। (च.स.१९)
• यत्र यदस्तस्त ित्र िस्यानभि: प्रमा,िद्वि् ित्प्रकारकानभिो िा। (ित्ववचन्तामवण)
7. • PRAMEYA (Subject of real knowledge)
• Subject of real knowledge is called prameya. The subject of real knowledge is verified with the instruments of
knowledge and if found valid it is considered as real knowledge.
• योऽर्ं प्रमीयिे िि् प्रमेयं । (िात्स्यायन on न्याय सूत्र)
• PRAMAATA ( The knower)
• The knower is the person whom knows. According to vaatsyayana.
• Vinjaana bhikshu, in his yoga vaartika , a commentary of yoga sutra, states that pure sentient (suddha
chetana) is the knower(pramaata),transformation(vrtti) is the instrument(pramaana),the reflection of
transformations in the form of objects in the sentient is the real knowledge(pramaa) and the subject matter of
knowledge is the subject(meya)
• ित्र यस्येप्सा विहासाप्रयक्तस्य प्रिृवत्त: स प्रमािा। (िात्स्यायन भाष्यं)
• प्रमािा चेिन: शद्ध: प्रमाणं िृवत्तरेि च। प्रमार्थकारिृत्तीनां चेिने प्रविविस्तिनम्॥
• प्रविविस्तिििृत्तीनां विर्यो मेय उच्यिे। (योग िाविथक)
8. • PRAMITI (The subject known)
• The subject known by measuring is termed as pramiti.
• यि् अर्थविञानं सा प्रवमवि:। (िात्स्यायन)
• APRAMAA (Unreal knowledge)
• The opposite of real knowledge is unreal knowledge. It is termed apramaa.
• Experience is of two types – real and unreal. When we experience a thing as a thing, for example a silver coin as silver, the
experience is real. If we experience a thing as something else, the experience is unreal. For example, when we misunderstand
a piece of tin as silver, then our experience is unreal.
• It is of 3 types:
• िदाभाििवि ित्प्राकारकानभि: अयर्ार्थ:। सैिाप्रमेत्यच्यिे।
यर्ा शक्तौ इदं रििवमवि ज्ञानं (ि.सं)
• 1. Samsaya (Doubt)
• 2. Viparyaya (Illusion)
• 3. Tarka (Supposition)
• अयर्ार्ाथनभि: वत्रविध: संशयविपयथयिक
थ भेदाि्। (ि.स.९।६)
9. • SAMSAYA
• एकस्तिन् धवमथवण विरुचद्धनानाधमथिैवशष्ट्यािगावह ज्ञानं संशय:,यर्ा स्र्ाणिाथ परुर्ो िा इवि। (ि.स.९।७)
• Doubt is an unreal experience as it is indecisive. Real knowledge should be decisive. In doubt, we associate
different contradicting knowledge in one object.
• E.g., when we see some erect thing far away, we doubt whether it is a person or a post. If we confirm that it is
a person, the idea of post is an error and vice versa. In doubt decisive knowledge is lacking.
12. • Experience is of two types – real and unreal. When we experience a thing as a thing, for example a silver coin
as silver, the experience is real. If we experience a thing as something else, the experience is unreal. For
example, when we misunderstand a piece of tin as silver, then our experience is unreal.
• 2. According to Gangaadhara, the commentator of Charaka Samhita, Pramaana is that by which we measure.
Thus, pramaana is considered as an instrument.
• प्रमीवये अनेन इवि प्रमाणं।
• प्रमाकरणं प्रमाणं
• Pramana is the means to obtain the knowledge.
• 3. According to Vaatsyaayana, commentator of Nyaaya aphorisms, instrument is that by which the object is
• येनर्ं प्रममणोवि व त्प्रमाणम्।
13. • PAREEKSHA
• In Ayurveda, the term Pareeksha is used in place of pramaana. This is mostly done by Charaka Samhita.
• परीस्तक्ष्ये स्तव्यस्त्र् ास्तप्ये व स्त्व स्त्व रूपमनयेवि परीक्षा॥(Cha.Vi 8,Chakr)
• परीस्तक्ष्ये यया िद् ् या सा परीक्षा।(गंगा)
• प्रमाणैरर् ावर्धरणं परीक्षा॥(व ात्स्त्त्यायन)
• Gangaadhara explains that the instrument of knowledge examines intellectually the information and hence the
term examination is valid.
• Another commentator Chakrapani Datta explains that examination establishes the nature of the thing
examined and hence the term examination is valid for instrument of knowledge.
• Vaatsyaayana, the commentator of Nyaaya sutra explains that examination is the process of understanding
whether the defined is in accordance with the definition or not by using the instruments of knowledge.
14. • VIPARYAYA/MITHYA JNANA/BHRAMA(ILLUSION)
• ममथ्याञानं विपयर्यं।(T.S.9/8)
• Illusion is a false perception. It is false or unreal knowledge. Seeing a piece of shell as a silver coin is a
classical example of illusion. Another example is seeing a rope as a snake.
• Maarkandeya purana has detailed five types of illusions. The term bhranti and upasarga are used by the epic
to denote illusion.
• Pratibha bhranti
• Sravana bhranti
• Daiva bhranti
• Aavarta bhranti
15. • TARKA
• Supposition is also a false knowledge. When we take a pencil and suppose that it is a test tube, since the
pencil is not a test tube, the supposition is a false statement and the experience generated is unreal.
• व्याप्यारोपेण व्यापकारोपस्त्व कर्:-यदा व ष्ट्िन्स्त्यावर्् व दहर् धूमोऽिप न याददवि।(T.S.9/9)
• दृविश्रव ानभूव ानं स्मरणाव ् स्मृविरुस्तच्ये।(Cha.Sa.1/149)
• अनभूव वियाथसिप्रोर्: स्मृवि:।(Y.S.1.11)
• संस्कारमाररन्य ज्ञानं स्मृवि।(T.S)
• ज्ञाव वियथ ज्ञानं स्मृवि।(Tarka bhasha)
• According to the Yoga Sastra, memory is the persistence or lingering of the experienced object.
• Charaka Samhita defines memory as the recollection of objects which are seen, heard and otherwise
17. • THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAMAANA VINJAANA
• Pramaana vinjaana / instruments of knowledge are important both in day-to-day life and in scientific activity.
These instruments are the means for acquiring real and true knowledge. Without attaining true knowledge, we
cannot execute our activities correctly without any error. In the context of medicine, the instruments of
knowledge are especially important as the science deals with valuable human lives. A physician should be
well versed in arriving at correct decisions and without evaluation of the available information he cannot
arrive at correct judgement.
• In clinical examination, the physician depends on his perception, which is a valid means of knowledge. But
the physician should be aware of the limitations of perceptions, as everything is not perceptible, he will have
to infer many things.
• Infact many diseases are not directly perceived. What we perceive are the signs and symptoms of the diseases
and the disease as an entity is mostly inferred. Hence the physician should be an expert in making correct
inference. Infact there is possibility of wrong inference and hence the doctor should be able to avoid the
pitfalls in inference.
• It is mentioned in Charaka Samhita that only those who examine properly become adept in practice, physician
should first examine the disease and then only proceed to treat.
18. • परीक्ष्यकाररणो दह कश्ला वभष्ट्न्व ।(Cha.Su.10/5))
• ज्ञानपूव र्क
ं दह कमर्णां समारंभं प्रशंसष्ट्न्व कशला:।(Cha.Vim8/68)
• रोगमादौ परीक्षेव व दनन्व रमौधथम्।(A.Sang.Su.13/96)
• In prescribing also, examination of the drug etc., is very important. To diagnose the disease the instruments of
knowledge are very essential. In the context of the 10- fold examination, it is mentioned that only after the ten
items are thoroughly examined, the physician should start treatment. It is also said that the physicians should
examine the data using instruments of examination and then only start treatment.
• प्रत्यक्षं व खल रोगि्व ं िभत्स: वसेष्ट्न्व यै: वसार्न् इष्ट्न्व यार् ार्न् वआर शरीर वगान् परीक्षेव ान् यर रस
ज्ञानाव ् ।(Cha.Vim.8/18)
• The principles and the underlying pathology of the diseases in a rogi can be recognized by pratyaksha
pramana of the physician by using all his sensory organs enacting in contact with the object.
• In this universe everything is two-fold viz., existent and non-existent, for examining these four instruments
namely authentic reference,perception,inference and logical application are utilized. Of these, three
instruments are utilized in the examination
19. • of disease too. They are perception, inference and textual reference. First, we have to utilize authentic
reference, then perception and finally inference.
• Charaka Samhita states that the result of examination or instruments of knowledge is the exact or real
knowledge(pratipattinjaana) of the examined as to what is to be done. In treatment we examine the condition
of the patient with various criteria of examination and arrive at a decision as to the course of action to be
taken. This knowledge of course of action is called pratipatti. Without proper examination a correct course of
action cannot be arrived at.
• ् ् ररविधे ि्व ष्ट्स्मन् ् ् ररविधे ि्व ष्ट्स्मन् ज्ञान समदाये पूव र्माप्व ोपदेशाज्ञानं,व व : प्रत्यक्षानमानाभयां परीक्षोपपवद्ये।
ं ह्यनपददविं पूव ं यवत्त् प्रत्यक्षानमानाभयां परीक्षमाणो विद्याव ् ।(Cha.vi.4/5)
• व स्माव ् वद्वविधा परीक्षा ज्ञावनव ा ं प्रत्यक्षं, अनमानं च, िरविधा व ा सहोपदेशेन।(Cha.vi4/5)
• वद्वविधा खल परीक्षा ज्ञावनव ा ं - प्रत्यक्षम्, अनमानं च। वएद् चध द् व यमपदेशश्च परीक्षा, िरविधा व ा
20. • Of all the sources of knowledge one should acquire knowledge in the beginning through authoritative
instructions and thereafter proceed to examine a thing through pratyaksha and anumana, therefore a thing can
be observed in two ways: direct observation and inference or in three ways which includes authoritative
instructions in addition.
• The wise take recourse to two types of examinations perceptual and inferential. These two combined with
instructions constitute the methods of examination.
22. • PRAMANAS ACCEPTED BY AYURVEDA
• SUSRUTASAMHITA:4 (PRATYAKSHA,AGAMA,ANUMANAUPAMANA)
• CHARAKASAMHITA:4 (APTOPADESHA,PRATYAKSHA,ANUMANA,YUKTI)
• In the context of examination of patient Charaka samhita considers only 3 instruments of knowledge viz.,
Aaptopadesha, Pratyaksha and Anumana, which are to be used in sequence.
• व याविरमाद्यं आगमप्रत्यक्षानमानोपमानैरविरुद्धमच्यमानमपधारय॥(Su.soo.1.16)
• वद्वविधमेव म् खल वसं स््चासच। व य वचविर्धा परीक्षा। आप्व ोपदेश: प्रत्यक्ष अनमान यष्क
् व श्चेवि।(Cha.soo.11/17)
• िरविधं खल रोगविशेविथज्ञानं वभवि,व द्यर् ा आप्व ोपदेशप्रत्यक्षमनमानश्चेवि।(Cha.soo.11.17)
• िरविधेि्व ष्ट्स्मन् ज्ञानसमदाये पूव र्माप्व ोपदेशाज्ञानं,व व : प्र््सक्षानमानाभयां परीक्षोपपवद्ये,कक
ं ह्यनपददविं पूव ं
यत्त्ि् प्रत्यक्षानमानाभयां परीक्षमाणो विद्याव ् ।(Cha.vi.4.5)
• व स्माद् वद्वविधा परीक्षा ज्ञावनव ा ं प्रत्यक्षमनमानश्च, िरविधा व ा सहोपदेशेन।(Cha.vi.4.5)
24. Ayurveda epistemology----- influenced by broader Indian philosophy,
concerns itself with four forms of validity
The concept of pramana plays a significant role in the field of epistemological
analysis in Indian philosophy.
Concept of pramana
Epistemology- Study of means of scientific enquiry
25. • It is the main tool for the knowledge mentioned in classical
texts of Ayurveda .
• It is the ancient method for the validation and
standardization of facts .
In Ayurveda Pareeksha word is used for Pramana (investigation &examination ).
Acharya Shushrut used term Vigyanopaya for Pramanas
Darshan Shashtra used Pramana for realism knowledge.
26. Theory of epistemology in Ayurveda ---- similar to Nyaya school of
• defined as means of investigation of the objects-‘Pramanair Artha
Parikshanam Nyayah’ Vatsyayana Bhashya, Nyaya Darshana (1:1:1),
• Pramana has been kept first in the list of sixteen Padarthas (elements)
Nyaya Darshana (1:1:1]
• प्रमेयवसद्धी प्रमाणाद्धी | सां. का.
Philosophical roots of pramana
Pramana as per Charak ch su 11/17
Pramana as per Sushrut
Pramana as per Nyaya darshan
Vagbhata also accepted the same as Sushruta except
29. Sutrasthana -- to prove the existence of satt and asatt padartha –
Anumaan --included Yukti under Anumaan.
Vimaansthana-- on the basis of significant knowledge of disease---
Two means of knowledge—
i.e Pratyaksha and Anumaan for intellectuals.
Whereas Acharya Shushrut - 4 types
1. Aagam (aaptopdesha)
4. Upmaan .
Charaka - परीक्षा in different contexts according to the need of the subject.
30. Ayurveda- being a science of life --utmost importance to method of examination &
serves as a base for verification and validation of knowledge.
Pariksha- an important tool for every field of science
Successful accomplishment of action --- require full knowledge about it.
31. Methods of examination and investigation - termed as Pariksha.
Because examination (Pareeksha) is required to formulate a theory and that laid the foundation of
fundamentals principles Examination and investigation methodology mentioned in Ayurveda is
Different methods have been adopted in different contexts as per the need of the subject.
32. Rationalization of pramana
परीक्षायास्तु खलु प्रयोजनं प्रमिपमिज्ञानम्|
प्रमिपमिनााम यो मवकारो यर्ा प्रमिपिव्यस्तस्य िर्ाऽनुष्ठानज्ञानम् | ca. vi. 8 / 132
Purpose of this examination is to obtain knowledge regarding the line of
treatment that should be adopted with a view to correcting the morbidity .
So the ultimate rationale of pramana /parikshya is two fold –
1- Knowledge of disease[Vikara]रोग रोगीपरीक्षा
2-Planing of line of t/t according to that [correction of morbidity ]
33. ििो दू िवनवमत्तशकनमिलानलोम्येनािरगृहमवभगम्य, उपविश्य, आिरमवभपश्येि् स्पृशेि् पृच्छे च |
वत्रवभरेिैविथज्ञानोपायै रोगाुः प्रायशो िेवदिव्या इत्येक
े ; ित्त न सम्यक
् , र्ड्विधो वह रोगाणां विज्ञानोपायुः,
िद्यर्ा- पञ्चवभुः श्रोत्रावदवभुः प्रश्नेन चेवि ||४|| su .su 10
वनिन्धसङ्ग् ग्रह व्याख्या (डल्हण क
Sushrut advised six fold examination –
By five sense organs & interrogation
34. • prI(yte VyvS4aPyte vStuSv=p. Anya [it prI9a p/ma`ain, AaPtopdexady: .......... c su
• p/mIyte™nen [it p/ma`m | prI9te yya bu@dya sa prI9a|
• p/imyte™nen [it kr`a4aRiw2an: p/ma` xBd:| g.ga2r
• Through which mean the valid and proper knowledge
occurs that mean is called as pramana/pariksha .
• Upalabdhi ,Sadhana ,Gyanam ,Pariksha are
35. • Synonyms of Pramanas are-
• 1. Uplabdhi (availability/Attainment ] –attaining true knowledge through Pramanas.
• 2. Sadhana (resource/Mean) – are source of realistic knowledge,
• 3. Ggyan (knowledge) - purpose of Pramanas to gain knowledge
• 4. Pareeksha (Investigation &examination)-knowledge of nature of the object
Gangadhara stated following as a synonyms of pramana -
37. Here the pariksha term is used as a mean for the
establishment of asiddha ,aparikshita, anupdishta or
ahetuk subject .
अनयोगो नाम स यि् िवद्वद्यानां िवद्वद्यैरेि साधं िन्त्रे िन्त्रैकदेशे िा
प्रश्नुःप्रश्नैकदेशोिाज्ञानविज्ञानिचनप्रवििचनपरीक्षार्थमावदश्यिे ca. vi. 8 / 52
Anuyoga is one of the vadamargapada . pariksha term is used in
the context of mean or tool for the determination of the
proficiency of opponent scholar.
39. ca. vi. 8 / 79
Thorough examination prior to initiating action –
Here the term pariksha/pramana is in context of mean or a prior tool for
examining the patient and disease and as tool to initiate the action .
40. Here chakrapani commented on word –gyan samuday
ज्ञानसमुिायेनेमि ज्ञानसमुिायैः प्रमाणसङ्घािैः; िेन समुिायेन ‘अयमेवं रोगैः’ इत्येवम्भूिमनश्चयोऽध्यवसानम्|
मिमवधे ब्धित्यामि| ज्ञायिेऽनेनेमि ज्ञानं प्रमाणम्|
वत्रविधेन खल्वनेन ज्ञानसमदायेन पूिं परीक्ष्य रोगं सिथर्ा सिथमर्ोत्तरकालमध्यिसानमदोर्ं  भिवि, न वह ज्ञानाियिेन क
ृ त्स्ने ज्ञेये
वत्रविधे त्वस्तिन् ज्ञानसमदये पूिथमाप्तोपदेशाज्ज्ञानं, ििुः प्रत्यक्षानमानाभ्ां परीक्षोपपद्यिे|
ं ह्यनपवदिं पूिं यत्ति् प्रत्यक्षानमानाभ्ां परीक्षमाणो विद्याि्|
् विविधा परीक्षा ज्ञानििां प्रत्यक्षम्, अनमानं च; वत्रविधा िा सहोपदेशेन||५||
Here the word parikshya is used in the context of source of
knowledge of the disease.
41. ch su 10/21
Importance of thorough examination –
Here the word prak parikshya or beforehand examine suggest
that examination of diseases is mandatory before treatment .
् परीक्ष्यैिं विकाराणां स्वलक्षणम्|
पश्चाकमथसमारम्भुः कायथुः साध्येर् धीमिा||२१||
42. ca. vi. 8 / 46
Here the word pariksha is used in the sense to examining
a thing . For ex. If somebody enquire about the drug one
has to examine it .
विज्ञासा नाम परीक्षा; यर्ा भेर्िपरीक्षोत्तरकालमपदेक्ष्यिे||४६||
43. Siddhanta [Demonstrated truth]
Here for the establishment of siddhanta , pariksha is mandatory .Word pariksha is in
the context of meaning examination .
This category clearly reflects that research and development were considered at the
fundamental level in Ayurveda.
44. Ch chi 25/22,23
Here all threefold pariksha are mentioned here in context
of inspection /INTROSPECTION of the disease and the
47. SIGNIFICANCE OF
All actions expect intellect[Buddhi]
Intellect depends on knowledge gained by senses
Knowledge gained may be invalid
Systematic and logical methodology is necessary
Knowledge to be be valid
Knowledge gained may be valid
PRAMANA-for valid and categorical knowledge
48. वद्वविधमेि खल सिं सचासच; िस्य चिविथधा परीक्षा-
आप्तोपदेशुः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनमानं, यस्तक्तश्चेवि||१७||
• Charaka used the word Pariksha for methods of investigation --
known as Pramana in Philosophical sciences.
• ‘Pariksha or Pramana are the methods by which objects are rightly
• परीक्ष्यिे व्यवस्र्ाप्यिे वस्तुस्वरूपमनयेमि परीक्षा प्रमाणामन,
49. CS.Vi. 4/11)
Significance of Parikshya/Pramana
आप्तिश्चोपिेर्ेन प्रत्यक्षकरणेन च|
अनुमानेन च व्याधीन् सम्यब्धिद्यामिचक्षणैः||९||
सवार्ा सवामालोच्य यर्ासम्भवमर्ामवि्|
अर्ाध्यवस्येित्त्वे च काये च ििनन्तरम्||१०||
कायाित्त्वमवर्ेषज्ञैः प्रमिपिौ न मुह्यमि|
अमूढैः फलमाप्नोमि यिमोहमनममिजम्||११||
ज्ञानबुब्धिप्रिीपेन यो नामवर्मि ित्त्वमवि्  |
आिुरस्यान्तरात्मानं न स रोगांमश्चमकत्समि||१२||
50. रोगमादौ परीक्षेि ििोऽनन्तरमौर्धम्|
ििुः कमथ वभर्क
् पश्चाज्ज्ञानपूिं समाचरेि्||२०||
यस्त रोगमविज्ञाय कमाथण्यारभिे वभर्क
यस्त रोगविशेर्ज्ञुः सिथभैर्ज्यकोविदुः|
• More emphasis has been given on the process of investigation and validation.
• For the successful treatment of any disease thorough and careful examination is
Significance --Chikitsa cannot be done without Pariksha
That is why Roga pariksa (Diagnosis) is given first place and
principles of treatment and drugs are given next place in order of importance.
53. प्रागेि च िल्पाज्जल्पान्तरं  परािरान्तरं पररर्वद्वशेर्ांश्च सम्यक
सम्यक्परीक्षा वह िस्तद्धमिां कायथप्रिृवत्तवनिृवत्तकालौ शंसवि, ििाि् परीक्षामवभप्रशंसस्तन्त कशलाुः| ch
54. कारणं परुर्ुः सिवुः प्रमाणैरुपलभ्िे|
येभ्ुः प्रमेयं सिेभ् आगमेभ्ुः प्रमीयिे||४५||च. र्ा. १/४५
SIGNIFICANCE OF PRAMANA FOR CAUSALITY OF PURUSHA
To establish causality of purusha ,all the sources of knowledge serves as
Pramana which are useful for the knowledge of pramey –
All those pramana are useful for proving causality of soul .
55. सिथरोगविशेर्ाणां वत्रविधं ज्ञानसङ्ग् ग्रहम्|
यर्ा चोपवदशन्त्याप्ताुः प्रत्यक्षं गृह्यिे यर्ा||१३||
ये यर्ा चानमानेन ज्ञेयास्तांश्चाप्यदारधीुः|
भािांस्तस्त्ररोगविज्ञाने विमाने मवनरुक्तिान्||१४|| ch vi. 4
SIGNIFICANCE OF PRAMANA
57. Al the four fold examinations mentioned here should be
used by the physician to enter into the heart of the
patient by virtue of light of his knowledge.
then only he will able to treat the disease successfully .
Here all four fold examinations are necessary for the
attainment of therapeutic success.
ज्ञानिस्तद्धप्रदीपेन यो नाविशवि ित्त्वविि्  |
आिरस्यान्तरामानं न स रोगांवश्चवकत्सवि||१२|| ch vi 4
Significance of pariksha/ pramana
58. • Sushruta gives direction towards linking of Aptopadesha
with Pratyaksha Pramana for advancement of knowledge
ििावन्नुःसंशयं ज्ञानं  हत्राथ शल्यस्य िाञ्छिा |
शोधवयत्वा मृिं सम्यग्द्द्रिव्योऽिविवनश्चयुः  ||४७||
प्रत्यक्षिो वह यद् दृिं शास्त्रदृिं च यििेि् |
समासिस्तदभयं  भूयो ज्ञानवििधथनम् ||४८||su sha.5/48
59. Utmost importance to maintenance of health of a healthy individual and cure of diseases in a patient.
For this various Parikshas have been advocated in the classics.
Roga Pariksha (examination of disease)
Rogi Pariksha (examination of patient)
Aushadha Pariksha (examination of medicines) are some of them.
Similarly to assess Chatuspada & many more
SIGNIFICANCE OF PRAMANA
60. Why research is needed
With growing globalization need to bring Ayurveda into the mainstream
progressive sciences undergo continuous rectification and modification in nature and lifestyles.
The research in Ayurveda become essential as the classical texts, the guiding principles were written
the modification and renewal of the same on scientific parameters.
Even the Ayurveda classics approve of such changes in accordance with the changing times---kalanurupa
61. Need of research
For global acceptance
Use of modern technologies for it ---ekam shastra adhiyanam
Authentication basic principles and drugs
New drugs for new challenges –covid
To create evidence base
Answer for life style disorders
Emergency management of diseases
62. • With increasing resistance to antibiotics, it is mandatory to
search for the alternate therapies
• Basic principles of Ayurveda like the dosha, agni, dushya
remain unaltered and should be utilized for the search for the
• Biggest challenge being the preservation of the Ayurveda
principles of treatment while searching for the new treatment .
63. Nyaya is known for its deliberations on the means of valid examination
known as Pramaana
Nyaya therefore called as the School of Logic, Discussion and Inference.
The first verse of Nyaya system speaks the utility of the system as it
defines Nyaya as the validation of the subjects through the valid means
प्रमाणे: अर्ा परीक्षणं न्याय:| ny.su.Bh.1/1/1
CONCEPT OF PRAMAN IN RESEARCH-PHILOSOPHICAL CONTEXT
64. • Pramana explained in Nyaya - probably the first ever
tools for scientific enquiry
• Pramana vidnyana proves that Ayurveda, based on
logical reasoning, accepts the only scientific method in
search of truth.
Ayurveda system of medicine approves of the research process under the umbrella of
Concept of praman in research
65. Useful in today's era also for the accomplishment of knowledge of existent &
very much applicable in all types of researches.
66. Concept of pramana in research was known in ancient time --Evidences
• Definition of siddhant
• Vadamarga pada
• Sambhasha parishad
• Parallel terminology for hetu ,sadhya
• Panch Avayavi vakya
• Hetwabhasa .
• Trividha roga vishesh vigyaniya adhyaya
• Ekal dravya chikitsa
67. Means and Methods of Research in Ayurveda
• Envisioned in the philosophical system of Nyaya termed as– Epistemology
• Means and methods of research in Ayurveda are the Pramana
• The means are the five senses, mind and the intellect
• the methods are four fold tools of investigation .
• Pramana vidnyana can be considered as scientific tools of research.
68. Principles of research
• To find out relation ship between cause and effect is the only
one principle of research common to science as a whole
69. • The most widely approved method of validation is the direct perception
as it is directly perceived by the research scholar .
• Role of inference (Anumana) in Research
• The inference is an indirect method of validation valid for all the stages
of time. It is based on the pragmatic logic and reasoning .
• The fivefold statement (Pancavayava Vakya) for the inference is an
excellent model of research in Ayurveda and the contemporary sciences.
Role of praman in Research
70. • Aptopadesha, Pratyaksha, Anumana & Yukti Pramana are required at
all steps of research like for planning, operation & reporting.
• To gain clear & entire knowledge of science of Ayurveda, it is
necessary to search for scientific devices or methods of approach
• Due to this necessity Charaka has adopted Pramanas.
71. Role of Authoritative testimony (Shabda) in Research
The principles and concepts mentioned in the classics are questioned and revalidated in modern light
Established and accepted facts mostly mentioned in the Ayurveda classics.
Guiding principles for the initiation of research activity..
Innovative search for the newer knowledge is based on the established theories
72. Role of Yukti
Charaka has proposed the other means of examination in the form of logical plan (Yukti) which is a unique
methodology based on the multiplicity of the factors
The unique research design according to the needs is based on this means of examination.
िस्तद्धुः पश्यवि या भािान् िहुकारणयोगिान्|
यस्तक्तस्तस्त्रकाला सा ज्ञेया वत्रिगथुः साध्यिे यया||२५||
iv•aate™4eR kar`oppiTtdxRnat Aiv•aate™ip tdv2ar`. yuiKt:|
Yukti mentioned in the context of attainment of
anonymous factors with the help of known factors.
The analogy is therefore a tool to validate and incorporate new knowledge like the
understanding of the diseases previously unknown
Identification of the drugs and herbs
74. Evidences of literary research
Evidences of research---documentation of knowledge
methods of documentation
Making of samhita –Guru ,Shishya ,Pratisanskarta , Ekiya
Adhyay ,sthana style like chatushka etc.
75. Evidences of Literary research
• Types of vata –charaka
• Types of pitta -
• Types of kapha –
• New diseases included by madhav nidan –Amlapitta ,Amavata
• Charak samhita
• Upadeshta –Expounder –Acharya Punarvasu
• Tantrakarta /praneta –composer –Agnivesha
• Pratisanskarta –Redactor –Charak
• Sampurak –Reconstructor - Dridhbala
76. Evidences of drug research
Description of all dravya drug based on rasa-virya –vipak –prabhav –guna etc.
Medhya rasayana in Charaka
Chopchini for venereal diseases –Bhavaprakash
Panch vidha kashay kalpana
Shelf life of various formulations
Mode of storage ,preservation ,processing and posology
Identification of new drug
Method of collection of drug
Time and mode of collection of drug
Drug diet interaction etc
77. Evidences of clinical research
Sanshamana & sanshodhana therapies
All types of pariksha
All types of treatment procedures
Personalized medicines – purusham purusham viksham
Janapadodhwansa –epidemiological research
78. Evidences of basic/ fundamental research
Formation of siddhanta
Lok purusha samya
Tridosha etc .
79. Aaptopdesha in research
Proper knowledge of disease
Panch nidana for the knowledge of diseases
decay and growth
In Research for formulation of hypothesis.
In Drug Research-for
identification of the drug & appearance
physical examinations and its action based on Rasa, Guna,Veerya, Vipaaka
The Research activity in the form of Review of Literature etc.
80. Pratyaksha in research
For first line of examination
First level for any research design.
Without Pratyaksha , the other methods of investigation would be invalid and futile
a. Collection of data related to hypothesis.
b. Formation of observation, interview and questionnaire format.
c. Used in experiments and survey.
d. Drug identification and authentication process
e. Pharmaceutical preparation –
clinical research etc. are completed through Pratyaksha Pramana like blood pressure examination,
thermometer examination, centrifuge etc.
81. Useful for------
forming the problem of research (Pratigya -proclamation-hypothesis).
Then further hypothesis is done for above pledge through Hetu ( Cause)
Final step of Paraarthaanumana (telling the inference to others) is Nigamana(Conclusion).
Anumana in research
82. Through Tarka and Yukti---there is definite knowledge of the subject by completely resolving doubt.
Doubt, probability, argument, planning plays an important role in research. Comparative study,
discussion, drawing of conclusion all these research steps
. The deductive and inductive methods in research involve the application of logical reasoning.
Anumana in research
The concept of Pancha-avyava-vakya --- journey from to Partigya i.e. hypothesis (formulation of an
idea/ research problem) to Nigmana i.e. thesis (valid conclusions) finally.
83. Traditional terminology & Modern tools and technique
1 Pratigya -Hypothesis or title of thesis
2 Hetu -Research method, technique, lab tools, protocol
3 Udaharan -Previous research works, Thesis on Same Topic
4 Upanay -The conclusion,discussion part of a research work.
5 Nigaman --Revalidation of The Hypothesis.
84. Panch avayavi vakya
in 44 vaadmarga ---tools for conquer a hostile discussion
as a method of proving one owns theory in front of a scientific committee.
• Formulation of Hypothesis (Pratijna)-proposition of the research problem. The
hypothesis is framed which is to be studied systematically in due course of research
• Materials and Methods (Hetu) –The research plan that describes the materials and
methods that would suffice the research activity. According to the hypothesis, the
appropriate materials and methods are selected.
• Experimentation and demonstration (Udaharana) –The demonstrations and
experimental study are undertaken at this stage that gives us the scientific data which
is utilized at the later stage of the research activity.
85. Discussion (Upanaya)-- important stage which includes the interpretation of the data
collected through the experimentation and demonstrations.
The possible relation between the cause and effect is drawn logically.
The discussion of the possible relation between the cause and effect should be free from the fallacies of
Conclusion (Nigamana) – The final word deals with the approval or the rejection of the hypothesis
and concretes the way for planning the future actions.
Modern tools and Technique Practical aspects
Pratigya Hypothesis or title of thesis Loha Bhasma is effective in iron deficiency anemia
Hetu Research method,
lab tools, protocol
We will get the information about Loha Bhasma qualities through literatures,
Aptopadesha, Pratyaksha, Anumana, Yukti.
Udaharan Previous research work,
on same topic
Food products rich in Iron content will increase haemoglobin
and corrects anemia.
Upanay The conclusion, discussion
of a research work
Similarly, Loha Bhasmaacts in our body to fight anemia.
Nigaman Revalidation of the
So, it is concluded that Loha Bhasma is Effective in Iron Deficiency Anemia.
87. Similarity between the ancient parameters of the Ayurveda shastra and the modern
tools and techniques of research in Anumaan
Swarthanumana ---Learning methodology
Pararthanumana ---teaching methodology
Vyapti --Law of association
Yatra yatra shulah ,tatra tatra vayu …….
Sadhetu –valid causative factors for particular dosha
Eg. Sannikrushta –viprakrushta etc.
Asadhetu- Invalid causative factors
Any bacteria –for Aids
88. Savyabhichari --
Masa dhatu vriddhi –Distention of abdomen
All diseases are psychological ---dukha swarupatvat
Anup sanhari---ragah sarvepi mandeagnau …..
Viruddha –daha in kapha vriddhi
Prameh –haridra mutratva
Sarakta mutratva –no prameh
Asiddha –Difficulty in passing urine in females –Prostatitis
Swarupasiddha –vata vriddhi chakshusha pratyakshat
Vyaptatvasiddha – Madhu +ghrit [harmful only in equal quantity]
No anga gaurav in niram jwara .
Badhit---diabetes mellitus –Polyuria
89. Yukti in research - nearer to experimental method.
• Hypothesis assumed for a research work ------based on yukti
• Drug trial, drug research, drug standardization, pharmaceutical research, observational method, pathological
research etc.-------done with the help of Anumaan and Yukti.
• Uddeshya (aim) - the subject to be proved is selected on the basis of Yukti.
• literature review – In this detailed discussion & previous research work related to investigation and this outline
of present research.
• Without Yukti the entire research process is impossible.
• Observation, Discussion, Conclusion -All these three levels are carried out with the help of Yukti Pramana.
90. Yukti in research
Drug Research -sanskar will enhance the efficacy of the drug
Alpasyapi maharthatvam --- better results by a less amount of drug also.
To prepare any newer formulate--- previous knowledge is not necessary for yukti .
All the experimental knowledge of Ayurveda -- through yukti praman only---hence stands as experimental
For The knowledge of the pathogenesis
useful as experimental evidence.
useful as an instrument for knowledge of non existent matters.
Experiments of the new drugs
useful as a scientific method in getting inferential knowledge.
91. Considered as the diagnostic method of disease.
Charaka --- Upamana as one of the Vaada Marga
Shushruta --as an independent Pramana for attaining valid knowledge of disease.
In context of Research
Upmana is used in determination of dravyas
deliberation of Nyaya
in placebo treatment
in double blind method
unknown disease known with the help of Upmana Pramana on the basis of similarity with other
92. Steps &
• Building hypothesis – by using Aptopdesha
• Collection of data ----- by using pratyaksha pramana.
• Experiments and to some extent surveys--- by direct perception.
• Interpretation of data after an experimental study & results-- Anumana (inference)
• While writing the report of research, panchavayavi vakya is used: Pratigya (hypothesis),
hetu (reason), udaharan (example), upanaya (justification) and nigamana (conclusion)
• To establish cause and effect relationship-- the logical reasoning is given by yukti.
• Sheshvat anumana can be compared to retrospective cohort study
• poorvavat----prospective cohort study
• samanyatodrshta ---- cross-sectional study
93. • Vagbhata says since information described in the text is approved by the ancient
scriptures & since benefits are perceptible, these should be administered
without discussions .A.H.U.40/81
• Derived from Veda
• (1) Ayurveda is time-tested; there is no scope for any new research (2) Ayurveda
needs to be subjected to the acid test of scientific scrutiny and only what survives
can be accepted
Authenticity of pariksha -- why no research is needful
इिं आगम मसित्त्वाि प्रत्यक्ष फल िर्ानाि |
मन्त्रवि सम्प्रयोक्त्व्व्यमं न मममांस्य कर्ंचन ||
94. There is epistemological difference between two systems of medicine.
Research done now-a-days in Ayurveda are more helpful to modern medical science rather than to
Ayurveda. So, there is certainly a need to develop some protocols of research which will benefit Ayurveda.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria for any clinical research can include Ayurveda protocols viz. prakriti, desha,
kala, etc. along with modern aspects
95. Use of modern research method in Ayurveda is not advisable because of----
• Basic differences between Ayurveda and modern science
• classical approach of Ayurveda is totally different
• Design of Research protocols as per the basic concepts of Ayurveda,
i.e. koshtha ,Prakriti, Agni, Dosha etc.
• Collaborative researches with the help of modern researchers
• Holistic approach should be there
• Concept of personalized medicine should be
96. Prof Vaidya K.S.Dhiman sir
Director general CCRAS Ayush
Need to adopt an interdisciplinary approach for validation of Ayurveda drugs and
therapies without loosing core fundamentals of Ayurveda
97. Pramana and the Present Era
All the pramanas will bring to light the fact that they all fit in very well in today’s
They stand a testimony to prove that true knowledge never changes with the
In fact all experiments being done today, are based on Pratyaksha, Anumaana,
Upamaana, Shabda and other pramanas.
98. • Aptopadesha, Pratyaksha, Anumana & Yukti Pramana are very
much useful at all steps of research
• Pramana vidnyana proves that Ayurveda accepts the scientific
method in search of truth (based on logical reasoning) & not
the coincidental or unscientific method such as planning,
operation & reporting.
Pramanas -as ancient methods of research
99. • One who conducts proper pariksha gets success. C.Su 10/5
• An able & skillful physician who proceeds after thorough examination ----with all
necessary accessories will never commits a mistake & treat pt. successfully.
परीक्ष्यकाररणो वह कशला भिस्तन्त,
The pramanas proved to be excellent tools of knowledge as well
research to the early Ayurveda physicians, and continue to do so
100. • परीक्ष्यिे व्यिस्र्ाप्यिे िस्तस्वरूपमनयेव ि परीक्षा प्रमाणाव न । (च पा च सू11)
• अर् व ि% ासा- व ि% ासा नाम पर,- ा;
• यर्ा भेर्िपर,- ो3रकालमपदे8यिे||४६||
• परीक्षायास्त खल प्रयोिनंवप्रिवपत्तज्ञानम् |
• पयिथदािश्रिंवपरदृिकमाणंदक्षं वदक्षणं शव चंव ििहस्तमपकरणिन्तं-
• सिेर्व ियोपपन्नंप्रक
ृ व िज्ञंवप्रिवपत्तज्ञमनपस्क
• क्लेशक्षमंव शष्यित्सलमध्यापक
ं ज्ञापनसमर्र्ंचेव ि| एिङ्ग् गणो ह्याचायर्ुः ..............| (च व ि 8/4)
• पयिथदािश्रििा वपरदृिकमिाथ दाक्ष्यं शौचं व ििहस्तिा उपकरणित्ता
• सिेर्व ियोपपन्निा प्रक
ृ व िज्ञिा वप्रिवपत्तज्ञािा चेव ि | (च व ि 8/86)
• वप्रिवपत्तुः उत्पन्नायामावपद विविि किव्यथकरणम् | (च व ि 8/86 च पा)
101. • आप्तोपदेशप्रज्ञानंवप्रिवपत्तश्चकारणम्|
• व िकाराणामनत्पत्ताित्पन्नानांच शान्तये| (च सू 7/55)
• वप्रिवपत्तरुवपदिार्स्यथ सम्यगििोधुः (च सू 7/55 च पा )
• वप्रिवपत्तनामथ यो व िकारो यर्ा वप्रिपत्तव्यस्तस्यिर्ाऽनिानज्ञानम्| (च व ि 8/132)
• • वप्रिवपत्तरुवपदिार्स्यथ सम्यगििोधुः (च सू 7/55 च पा )
• • वप्रिवपत्तुः उत्पन्नायामावपद विविि किव्यथकरणम् | (च व ि 8/86 च पा)
• व वद्विधमेि खल सिर्ं सचासच;
• िस्य चिव िर् धा परीक्षा
• आप्तोपदेशुः प्रत्यक्षम्अनमानं यव क्तश्चेव ि । (च सू 11/17)
102. • व वत्रिधंखल रोवगिशेवर्िज्ञानंभविि;
• िद्यर्ाआप्तोपदेशुः प्रत्यक्षम्अनमानंचेव ि । (च व ि 4/3)
् व वििधा परीक्षा ज्ञानििांप्रत्यक्षम् अनमानंच
• व वत्रिधा िा सहोपदेशेन । (च व ि 4/5)
• व वद्विधा िखल परीक्षा ज्ञानििां- प्रत्यक्षम्, अनमानंच ।
• एविद्ध द्वयमपदेशश्चपरीक्षा स्याि् ।
• एिमेर्ा व वद्विधा परीक्षा, व वत्रिधा िा सहोपदेशेन ।। (च व ि 8/83)
• ित्र याव न परुर्मनाव श्रिाव न िान्यपदेशिो यव क्तिश्च परीक्षेि । (च इ 1/4)
• आमेव ियमनोर्ानांवसन्नकर्ात्प्रथिििे ।
• व्यक्ता िदात्वे या िव द्धुः प्रत्यक्षं स व नरुच्यिे ।। (च सू 11/20)
• प्रत्यक्षं िखल िद्यत्स्ववयवमियैमनथसा चोपलभ्िे । (च व ि 4/4)
103. • प्रत्यक्षं िखल िद्यत्स्ववयवमियैमनथसा चोपलभ्िे । (च व ि 4/4)
• 2. प्रत्यक्षं नाम िद्यदामना चेव ियैश्चस्वयमपलभ्िे
• ित्रामप्रत्यक्षाुः सखदुःखेच्छाद्वेर्ादयुः,
• शब्दादवयस्तिियप्रत्यक्षाुः । (च व ि 8/39)
• ित्राप्तोपदेशो नामाप्तिचनम् । (च व ि 4/4)
• आप्तोपदेशशब्दस्तव वद्विधुः-परमाप्तब्रह्माव दप्रणीिुः िर्ा लौव ककाप्तप्रणीिश्च;
• रिस्तमोभ्ां व नमक्ताथस्तपोज्ञानिलेन ये ।
• येर्ांव त्रकालममलंज्ञानमव्याहिंसदा ।।
• आप्ताुः व शिा व ििद्धास्तेिेर्ांिाक्यमसंशयम् ।
• सत्यं िस्तक्ष्यन्त िेकिादसत्यं नीरिस्तमाुः ।। (च सू 11)
• 2 आप्तावह्यििकिृथव वििभावगिदो व नष्प्रीत्यपिापवदशनथश्च । (च व ि 4/4)
104. • आप्ती रिस्तमोरूपदोर्क्षयुः, िद् यक्ताआप्ताुः
ृ त्स्नंकायाकाथयप्रथिृव वत्तनिृत्त्यपदेशेनेव ि व शिाुः
• िोद्धव्यंव िशेर्ेण िद्धमेिैव ररि व ििद्धाुः
आप्तावह्यििकिृथव वििभावगिदो व नष्प्रीत्यपिापवदशनथश्च । (च व ि 4/4)
• एविद्वपययाथव न्नश्चयेनानभिेन च कात्स्त्न्येनथ च येभािान्स्त्िानिेिेऽव ििकिृथव वििभावगिदुः । (च व ि 4/4 च पा )
• अ + व ििकर् = व नश्चयेन
• अ + िृव ि = अनभिेन
• अ + व िभाग = काश्न्न्येनथ
• व िद्या व ििकोर् व िज्ञानंिृव िस्तत्परिा व क्रया ।
• यस्यैिेर्ड्गणास्तस्यन साध्यवमििििे ।। (च सू 6/55)
• व ििकर् ुः शास्त्रमूल ऊहापोहुः । (च
105. • लक्षणार्र्ं प्रमाणं व ह व िस्तरस्यन व िद्यिे ।
• न चालवमिसङ्क्ष
े पुः सामथ्यायोपकल्पिे ।
• अल्पिद्धेरयंििान्नाव िसङ्क्ष
े वपिस्तरुः ।।
• मन्दानांव्यिहाराय िधानांिव द्धिृद्धये । (च सू 4)
• आप्तोपदेशशब्दस्त व वद्विधुः-परमाप्तब्रह्माव दप्रणीिुः िर्ा लौव ककाप्तप्रणीिश्च;
• वििह्यशब्देन परमाप्तप्रणीिोऽिरुद्धुः,
• वििह्यंनामाप्तोपदेशो िेदाव दुः||४१||।
• लौव ककानांिपरुर्ाणामाप्तत्वंवप्रवििर्यसम्यग्द्ज्ञानसम्भिेन विद्वर्यरागद्वेर्ासम्भिेन च िोद्धव्यम् ।(च सू 11/19 च पा )
106. • व वद्विधा िखल परीक्षा ज्ञानििां- प्रत्यक्षम्, अनमानंच ।
• एविद्ध द्वयमपदेशश्चपरीक्षा स्याि् ।
• एिमेर्ा व वद्विधा परीक्षा, व वत्रिधा िा सहोपदेशेन ।। (च व ि 4/83)
• व्याव धपरीक्षासमये ह्याप्तोपदेशोऽव पव्याव प्रयिे ग्रहणीमादिथस्वप्नदशनाथव दवप्रिपत्तौ,
• िर्ा दररधगमस्र्ानसंश्रयाव दवप्रिपत्तौ,
• िर्ा कोिमृददारुणत्वाव दपरीक्षायांचािरिचनरूपाप्तोपदेशोऽव प व्याव प्रयि वइि दशवयथि । (च व ि 5/5 च पा)
• अनमानंखल िकोर् यक्त्यपेक्षुः । (च व ि 4/4)
• िकोर्ऽत्राप्रत्यक्षं ज्ञानम्। यव क्तुः सिन्धोऽव िनाभाि इत्यर्र्ुः (च व ि 4/4 च पा)
• यव क्तुः सिन्धोऽव िनाभाि इत्यर्र्ुः । (च सू 4/4 च पा)
• िव द्धुः पस्तश्यि या भािान्स्त्िहुकारणयोगिान् ।
• यव स्तक्तस्त्रकाला सा ज्ञेया व त्रिगर्ुः साध्यिेयया ।। (च सू 11/25)
• PERCEPTION AS A TOOL OF RESEARCH
• Perception is the most valid and strongest tool for any scientific research. For proving hypothesis perception is
necessary. Research experiments use perception, in experiments we make observations with perception, the
information and confirmation of theory is made on the basis of these observations. When we revalidate old theories, we
collect data and observe whether the theory is valid according to the new data collected. Here also observation or
perception is the key. Thus, perception is the basis of any research.
• The Sanskrit term for research, gavekshana includes the word element eshana which means to look for or seeking.
• There are two methods for gathering data for any research study.
• Sometimes information required is already available and need only to be extracted or sometimes information need to
be collected afresh.
• Depending upon these two approaches, data are classified as:
• Primary data
• Secondary data
• Primary sources of collecting data are mainly by observation, interviewing and by questionnaire. These methods of
data collection depends more or less on Pratyaksha pramana, mainlyby observation .
109. • LITERARY RESEARCH
• • Study of manuscripts
• • Old scriptures and classical literature and collection of relevant date in the field of study
• • Main branch of literary research i.e.,
• • Documentation
• • Publication
• • Collection
• Study of medical information from other sources
• • This type of research can be done only by pratyaksha.
110. • CLINICAL RESEARCH
• • All the laboratory investigations, instruments are the means for clinical research which has its basis on Pratyaksha.
• • Etiology,Pathologic signs & symptamatology laid on Pratyaksha.
• • Effects of therapy & immunology can be stated through Pratyaksha.
• FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
• • To prove any principle with modern tools & technology.
• • Interactions, assimilation, metabolism, growth, decay and death
• DRUG RESEARCH
• • Pharmacognosy
• • Taxonomy and Classification
• • Phytochemistry
• • Histology
• • Pharmacology
• • Toxicology
• • Agronomy & Ecology
• • Cultivation and Farming
• • Effect of drugs on any research
111. • IN EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
• • In Vitro research : observation of chemical changes, interactions, etc., in test tubes in laboratory and under
• • In Vivo research: observation of actions and effects of drugs in living lower animals.
• • Application and observations of drug effects in human beings for toxic effects and idiosyncrsy etc.,