India is an agriculturally
2/3rds(63%) of the
population is engaged in
Agriculture is a primary
activity, which produces
food and other raw
materials for industries.
Primitive subsistence farming
Use primitive tools-hoe, digging-sticks.
2) Depends on monsoon and natural
3) Low productivity
4) Do not use modern inputs
5) Practiced in small patches of land
eg, jhumming in north-east.
Intensive subsistence farming
Depends on irrigation and biochemical inputs
Use modern inputs.
Practiced in areas of high population
Importance of Agriculture
Source of employment
Food supply to the people
Raw material for industry
earns foreign exchange
contributes 26% of GDP
traditional agricultural system
over dependency on rain
inadequate storage facility
small land holdings
inadequate means of transport
Kharif crops: sown with the onset of monsoon
June) and harvested in oct.ex-rice,maize,
Rabi crops: sown in winter from oct-dec and
harvested in summer (apr-june)- ex-wheat
Zaid crops :it is a short season during the
summer months .ex-watermelon,
A unique gift of nature, Jute, the Golden Fiber, is truly one of the
most versatile fibers, known to man. Used to make bags, rugs and
other aesthetically beautiful jute handicrafts, the 100% bio-
degradable fiber has found great usage in industries.
USES OF JUTE
Jute is a rainy season crop
sown from March to May
according to rainfall and type of
harvested from June to
September depending on whether the
sowings are early or late.
Climatic conditions required for cultivation of Jute
SOIL - well drained fertile soil in the flood plains
TEMPERATURE 25 0 - 30 0 C
RAINFALL 150- 200 CM ANNUALLY
Grows well in Hot and humid climate
Takes 8 to 10 months to mature
India was the largest producer m
in the world before partition
West Bengal is the largest
producer contributing about 70%
of the jute of India.
Other producers are Bihar,
Assam,Orissa and UP
Major Growing Areas
Jute thrives best in damp heat, and the climatic conditions
prevalent in West Bengal in India are well suited for its cultivation.
Indian states ideally suitable for the cultivation of jute are:
West Bengal Bihar
Mesta, or Kenif, botanically known as Hibiscus Cannabinus, is
also grown in these areas as a textile fiber. Mesta is a coarser,
more brittle fiber, and is used by the jute mills in admixture with
jute to obtain certain desired properties.
CHALLENGES FACED BY THE INDUSTRY
Decline in the demand for jute carpets & packing
High production cost
Stiff competition in international market
Availability of synthetic substitutes
Low productivity using outdated machinery
Artificial or synthetic fibers are cheaper & readily
SUGGESTIONS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS
OF JUTE INDUSTRY
Urgent need for replacement of the outdated machinery
Use of modern technology
Modernisation of its products
Improve the quality of goods as well as develop new
Tropical and sub-tropical crop
Shrub- grows upto 1 – 1.5 mts
high, produces big yellow flowers
which develop into seed called
‘bolls’.The seed inside is
surrounded by cotton fibre.
Climatic conditions required for cultivation
Soil - drier parts of black soil of the Deccan Plateau
Temperature High temperature between 20 0 to 30 0 C
Rainfall Light rainfall about 100 cm ,210 frost
free days and bright sunshine
Requires 6- 8 months to mature
India is the third largest producer in the
world after the USA and China.
India was the first country to develop
hybrid variety of Cotton .This led to
spectacular increase in the production.
Varieties of Cotton
On the basis of Length of the Fibre and
the Quality of the yarn there are Three
‘MCU -5’ & ‘Hybrid - 4 ‘ are the Long
Staple Hybrid varieties.
Maharashtra and Gujarat are the
Traditional producers of cotton
Other producers are Punjab,
Haryana,Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka and
Native to India
2nd Largest producer of
sugarcane in the world
next to Brazil.
Cane sugar is used to
make three types of
Sugar – Gur ,
Khandsari and sugar.
and Cash Crop
Climatic conditions required for
cultivation of Sugarcane
Soil - Deep, loamy and well drained
fertile soil (Alluvial and Black soil)
Temperature Between 21 0 to 27 0 C
Rainfall Light rainfall about 75 cm
Long frost free days at the time of
Sub Tropical varieties of sugarcane are
grown mainly in UP, Bihar, Punjab,
Tropical varieties of sugarcane are
grown mainly in Maharashtra, AP,
Tamilnadu and Karnataka.
UP and Maharashtra are the leading
producers followed by Punjab,AP,Bihar
Technical and Institutional Reforms
holdings,cooperation and abolition of
Technical Reforms/Agrl Reforms:
1. Green Revolution-new methods and better
inputs in production
2. White Revolution-increase in milk prod and
3. 1980’s&90’s-Comprehensive land devlopment
programme was initiated which include both
institutional and technical refprms.
4. Kisan credit cards (KCC) and Personal
Contribution of Agriculture to National
economy, employment and output.
1. Agrl to growth of GDP-1992-2001- 3.3%.
2. To Employment: Still 63% of population
dependent on agriculture as the mainstay
Food security in India is ensured through
Public Distribution system(PDS).
The objective is to ensure availability of
foodgrains to comon people at affordable
For this the Food Corporation of India
procures foodgrains and the govt ensures
that the farmers receive the minimum suppor
Impact of Globalisation
After globalisation in 1990 farmers
have been exposed to new
Aims to improve the conditions of
New gene revolution is replacing
Gives scope for organic farming.
Agriculture, food security, poverty, hunger,
starvation…. All these are inter related in
one way or the other. Its everybody's
responsibility to ensure food safety and food
affordability to all. For that we should follow
eco friendly methods of cultivation.
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