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Goeg: class 10, Agriculture cbse

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Goeg: class 10, Agriculture cbse

  2. 2. AGRICULTURE  India is an agriculturally important country. 2/3rds(63%) of the population is engaged in agriculture.  Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces food and other raw materials for industries. 2
  3. 3. Types of Farming  Primitive Subsistence Farming  Intensive Subsistence Farming  Commercial Farming 3
  4. 4. Development of Agriculture In the l9th century improved farming methods and invention of farm equipments brought remarkable changes in the development of agriculture in the world. 4
  5. 5. Subsistence agriculture Commercial agriculturePlantation agriculture Shifting agriculture Intensive agriculture 5
  6. 6. Primitive subsistence farming  Use primitive tools-hoe, digging-sticks.  2) Depends on monsoon and natural fertility  3) Low productivity  4) Do not use modern inputs  5) Practiced in small patches of land eg, jhumming in north-east. 6
  7. 7. Intensive subsistence farming  Labour intensive  Depends on irrigation and biochemical inputs  High production  Use modern inputs.  Practiced in areas of high population 7
  8. 8. Importance of Agriculture  Source of employment  Food supply to the people  Raw material for industry  earns foreign exchange  contributes 26% of GDP 8
  9. 9. Features  traditional agricultural system  subsistence farming  over dependency on rain  inadequate storage facility  small land holdings  inadequate means of transport 9
  10. 10. Cropping Pattern  Kharif crops: sown with the onset of monsoon June) and harvested in oct.ex-rice,maize, moong,cotton,jute etc  Rabi crops: sown in winter from oct-dec and harvested in summer (apr-june)- ex-wheat peas,gram, mustard.  Zaid crops :it is a short season during the summer months .ex-watermelon, muskmelon,cucumber. 10
  11. 11. Classification of crops Food Crops Fibre Crops Beverages Cash crops Fibre Crops 11
  12. 12. Major Crops  Food Crops: Rice,wheat,maize, millets,jowar,bazraetc.  Beverages: Tea, coffee, sugarcane  Non-Food crops: Cotton, jute. 12
  13. 13. Fibre crops Jute-The Golden Fibre of India 13
  14. 14. A unique gift of nature, Jute, the Golden Fiber, is truly one of the most versatile fibers, known to man. Used to make bags, rugs and other aesthetically beautiful jute handicrafts, the 100% bio- degradable fiber has found great usage in industries. USES OF JUTE 14
  15. 15. Jute is a rainy season crop  sown from March to May according to rainfall and type of land harvested from June to September depending on whether the sowings are early or late. 15
  16. 16. Climatic conditions required for cultivation of Jute SOIL - well drained fertile soil in the flood plains TEMPERATURE 25 0 - 30 0 C RAINFALL 150- 200 CM ANNUALLY Grows well in Hot and humid climate Takes 8 to 10 months to mature 16
  17. 17. Distribution India was the largest producer m in the world before partition West Bengal is the largest producer contributing about 70% of the jute of India. Other producers are Bihar, Assam,Orissa and UP 17
  18. 18. Major Growing Areas Jute thrives best in damp heat, and the climatic conditions prevalent in West Bengal in India are well suited for its cultivation. Indian states ideally suitable for the cultivation of jute are:  West Bengal Bihar  Assam Orissa  Uttar Pradesh Mesta, or Kenif, botanically known as Hibiscus Cannabinus, is also grown in these areas as a textile fiber. Mesta is a coarser, more brittle fiber, and is used by the jute mills in admixture with jute to obtain certain desired properties. 18
  19. 19. CHALLENGES FACED BY THE INDUSTRY Decline in the demand for jute carpets & packing materials High production cost Stiff competition in international market Availability of synthetic substitutes Low productivity using outdated machinery Artificial or synthetic fibers are cheaper & readily available everywhere 19
  20. 20. SUGGESTIONS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS OF JUTE INDUSTRY Urgent need for replacement of the outdated machinery Use of modern technology Modernisation of its products Improve the quality of goods as well as develop new products 20
  21. 21. COTTON Khariff crop Tropical and sub-tropical crop Shrub- grows upto 1 – 1.5 mts high, produces big yellow flowers which develop into seed called ‘bolls’.The seed inside is surrounded by cotton fibre. 21
  22. 22. Climatic conditions required for cultivation of Cotton Soil - drier parts of black soil of the Deccan Plateau Temperature High temperature between 20 0 to 30 0 C Rainfall Light rainfall about 100 cm ,210 frost free days and bright sunshine Requires 6- 8 months to mature 22
  23. 23. Production  India is the third largest producer in the world after the USA and China.  India was the first country to develop hybrid variety of Cotton .This led to spectacular increase in the production. 23
  24. 24. Varieties of Cotton  On the basis of Length of the Fibre and the Quality of the yarn there are Three varieties-  Long Staple  Short Staple  Medium Staple  ‘MCU -5’ & ‘Hybrid - 4 ‘ are the Long Staple Hybrid varieties. 24
  25. 25. DISTRIBUTION  Maharashtra and Gujarat are the Traditional producers of cotton  Other producers are Punjab, Haryana,Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka and Tamilnadu. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. SUGARCANE  Native to India  2nd Largest producer of sugarcane in the world next to Brazil.  Cane sugar is used to make three types of Sugar – Gur , Khandsari and sugar.  Important Commercial and Cash Crop 27
  28. 28. Climatic conditions required for cultivation of Sugarcane Soil - Deep, loamy and well drained fertile soil (Alluvial and Black soil) Temperature Between 21 0 to 27 0 C Rainfall Light rainfall about 75 cm and100 cm Long frost free days at the time of Harvest 28
  29. 29. Distribution  Sub Tropical varieties of sugarcane are grown mainly in UP, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana.  Tropical varieties of sugarcane are grown mainly in Maharashtra, AP, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. UP and Maharashtra are the leading producers followed by Punjab,AP,Bihar etc 29
  30. 30. Technical and Institutional Reforms Institutional Reforms:Collectivisation,consolidation of holdings,cooperation and abolition of zamindari system. Technical Reforms/Agrl Reforms: 1. Green Revolution-new methods and better inputs in production 2. White Revolution-increase in milk prod and distribution. 3. 1980’s&90’s-Comprehensive land devlopment programme was initiated which include both institutional and technical refprms. 4. Kisan credit cards (KCC) and Personal 30
  31. 31. Contribution of Agriculture to National economy, employment and output. 1. Agrl to growth of GDP-1992-2001- 3.3%. 2002-2007- 4% 2. To Employment: Still 63% of population dependent on agriculture as the mainstay of livelihood. 31
  32. 32. Food Security 32
  33. 33. Food Security  Food security in India is ensured through Public Distribution system(PDS).  The objective is to ensure availability of foodgrains to comon people at affordable proces .  For this the Food Corporation of India procures foodgrains and the govt ensures that the farmers receive the minimum suppor priceMSP. 33
  34. 34. Food Production  1999-2000 209.8 m.tonnes  2000-2001 196.8 mt  2001-2002 212.9 mt  2002-2003 174.8 mt  2003-2004 213.5 mt  2004-2005 204.6 mt 34
  35. 35. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture 35
  36. 36. Impact of Globalisation  After globalisation in 1990 farmers have been exposed to new challenges.  Aims to improve the conditions of marginal farmers.  New gene revolution is replacing green revolution.  Gives scope for organic farming. 36
  37. 37. Agriculture, food security, poverty, hunger, starvation…. All these are inter related in one way or the other. Its everybody's responsibility to ensure food safety and food affordability to all. For that we should follow eco friendly methods of cultivation. 37