M.Sc Clinical Psychology
Department of Psychology
Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar
The Gestalt Psychology was founded in early 20th century by
German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang
Kohler and they focused on how people interpret the world.
In order to better understand how human
perception works, Gestalt psychologists proposed a
number of laws of perceptual organization.
This approach is concerned with-
“Determining the biological mechanisms responsible for perception.”
These physiological mechanisms begin when receptors sensitive to specific
kinds of stimuli -light for vision, sound for hearing, etc. are activated and
trigger electrical signals that eventually result in activation of neurons in
a large number of structures, both before reaching the brain and then within
the complex architecture of a large number of interrelated brain areas.
It has determined how stimuli in
the environment are represented
by the firing of neurons and
activation of the brain, and has
between specific areas of the brain
and the perception of specific
types of stimuli .
Visual patterns such as faces, complex sounds,
and chemical compounds with specific structural
components have been linked to specific brain
A.Stimuli for Perception
B.The Attended Stimulus
C.Receptor Activity and Molecular Processes
D.Neural Processing and Neural Responding
E.Organization of Sensory Systems
F.The Sensory Code
Stimuli for Perception
the attended stimulus
A stimulus is everything in our environment that
has the potential to be perceived. This might
include anything that can be seen, touched, tasted,
smelled, or heard.
The specific object in the environment on which
our attention is focused. In many cases, we might
focus on stimuli that are familiar to us.
neural processing and neural …….responding:
Receptor activity and molecular ……..processes:
Receptors help determine which aspects of
stimuli are represented in the nervous system.
For example, for vision, light-sensitive pigments
in receptors are activated by specific wavelengths
The basis of neural processing is excitation and
Relationships that have been established
between characteristics of stimuli and
physiological responding form the backbone of
the idea that stimuli in the environment are
represented by firing in the nervous system.
organization of sensory systems:
the sensory code:
Activity from senses, such as visual stimuli extends
from the primary visual receiving area in the occipital
lobe to the temporal and parietal lobes and for Audition
and the tactile senses, also extends beyond their
primary receiving areas, and activity generated by all of
the senses extends into the frontal lobe. Specialized
areas do exist, but activity for a specific stimulus is
often widely distributed throughout the brain.
(1)Specificity coding – few neurons
(2)Sparse coding- small number of neurons
(3)Distributed coding- large numbers of neuron
The final step of the perceptual process involves
some sort of action in response to the environmental
stimulus. The action phase of perceptual development
involves some type of motor activity that occurs in
response to the perceived and recognized stimulus.
Now, we actually perceive the stimulus object
in the environment. It is at this point that we
become consciously aware of the stimulus.
Our ability to interpret and give meaning to the
object is known as recognition. It is an essential part
of perception since it allows us to make sense of the
world around us.
• The Encyclopedia of Perception- E. Bruce Goldstein
• Perception and the Perceptual Process- www.verywellmind.com
• Physiolocial Approach- sk.sagepub.com
• Psychology- Ciccarelli and White
• UGC-NET Psychology- R.Gupta’s
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