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Asanka Abeysinghe
Cell-based Architecture
Decentralized Architecture Pattern for Cloud-native Applications
Chief Technolog...
2019
1997 2003
Architect
2012
VP Solutions
Architecture
2001 2008
Director
Solutions
Architecture
Deputy CTO
Open Source
D...
Objectives
#1 why: a new pattern
#2 how: created the pattern
#3 what: is Cell-based architecture
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/
Motivation
Centralized & Layered
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kaktuslampa/
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/69929929@N06/
Powerpoint Architects
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/johnerlandsen/
Reality of the Enterprise
Brownfield > Greenfield
picture credit: https://www.apstra.com/home/landscape-of-meadow-field-with-the-changing-environmen...
Reference Implementations
picture credit: https://www.marinersmuseum.org/
picture credit: http://unlocked.footlocker.com/
Underutilization of the Technology
Gap: architecture | development | deployment
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/28994379@N02/
picture credit: https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2017/07/georgia-contractor-sells-farmers-solar-tough-market/
Depende...
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tiocfaidh_ar_la_1916/
Architecture Patterns
Timeline
Background: Layered Architecture
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/23119666@N03/
A platform with an agile team
100 APIs, 60 message flows, 80 s...
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/imcountingufoz/
Rise of Microservices
Pragmatic Microservices
Netflix: APIs
Uber: Edge Gateway
eBay: API Facade
Gartner: Mini Services
Background: Layered Architecture with MSA
Background: Segmented Architecture
BS-1 BS-2 BS-n
G-1 G-2
US-1 US-n
Platform of Platforms
Platform (shared capabilities)
Project1
Project2
Project3
Projectn
Platform (shared capabilities)
Pr...
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ableman/
Making of……
picture credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Frank_Schulenburg CC BY 3.0
Building the
Concept
Business vs technical services
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/arpadlukacs/
Service: Technical definition
A code exposes through an
interface that describes a
collection of operations that
are netwo...
Service: Business definition
Software components that
can be spontaneously
discovered, combined, and
recombined to provide...
Microservice: Technical definition
A microservice must have a
single purpose and be loosely
coupled in design and
deployed...
Microservice: Business definition
Microservices is an approach to
application development in
which a large application is ...
Group of (Micro)services
The cell is the basic structural,
functional, and
biological unit of all known
living organisms
Cell-based Architecture
Component: Atomic Units
A component represents a
process or business logic
running in a container,
serverless environment,...
Cell: Units of Enterprise Architecture
A cell is a collection of
components, grouped from
design and implementation
into d...
Cell:Component
1:M
1:1
Connected Cells
picture credit: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/
Control Plane:
- Signaling of the network
- Makes decisions about the traffic flow
Data Plane:
- Forwards traffic between ...
Inter and Intra Cell communication
Local-mesh
Global-mesh
DP- data plane
CP- control plane
MP- management plane
Connected Cells
Cell gateway (ingress)
Sidecar (egress)
Adaptor (egress)
Ambassador (egress)
API-first Architecture
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hugh_nelson/
API-first Architecture Pull APIs
- RESTful HTTP, gRPC
Push APIs
- Events JMS, AMQP, SMTP
- Streams Kafka, MQTT
Gateway Pattern
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/
Automated Governance (Re)-enables Flow
Policy Store
(Registry)
Observability
(Monitoring/
Analytics)
Policy
Enforcement
(G...
Security of Cells
Developer Experience (DX)
of a Cell
Creating Cells
Brand new Cell
Existing (micro)services
Update an existing Cell
Create a new version
Lifecycle of a Cell
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rincon_de_lula/
Structured Agility
Versioned Components
Versioned Cells
Dependency managed
Autowired
Reusable
Enhanced MSA & CNA
Cell-based Enterprise
Architecture
Cell Types
Cell Type Components
Logic Microservices, Functions, MicroGateways, lightweight storages
Integration MicroESB o...
Reference Implementation L0
Reference Implementation L1
Human-centric Architecture
picture credit: https://www.vertoanalytics.com/human-vs-data-centric-marketing/
Cells and Cellular Organizations
https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2020/06/29/the-cellular-enterprise/
https://nordicapis.com/what-is-cell-based-architecture/
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/woordenaar/
Cell Boundaries
Defining Cell boundaries
The design of systems has always required an approach to the clustering of functionality, and
it ...
Measure the success
picture credit: https://www.marketingdonut.co.uk/direct-marketing/running-a-direct-mail-campaign/getti...
https://www.tasktop.com/blog/5-best-metrics-youve-never-met/
https://dzone.com/articles/reducing-mttr
Mean Time to Repair
Self-contained
Deployable as a unit
Independently elastic
Local data & control plane
Summary: Cell
Decentralized, MSA, Cloud-native
Technology neutral
Human-centric
APIs as products
Summary: Cell-based Architecture
Contribution: walk the talk
picture credit: https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2018/06/microsoft-buying-github
picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/infomatique/
Invitation to consume and contribute
https://github.com/wso2/re...
@asankama
THANK YOU
https://www.linkedin.com/in/asankaabeysinghe/
asankaa AT wso2.com
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe
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apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe

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apidays LIVE New York
A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications
Asanka Abeysinghe, Chief Technology Evangelist at WSO2

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apidays LIVE New York_A Decentralized Reference Architecture for Cloud-native Applications by Asanka Abeysinghe

  1. 1. Asanka Abeysinghe Cell-based Architecture Decentralized Architecture Pattern for Cloud-native Applications Chief Technology Evangelist (former Deputy CTO) WSO2 Inc.
  2. 2. 2019 1997 2003 Architect 2012 VP Solutions Architecture 2001 2008 Director Solutions Architecture Deputy CTO Open Source Distributed Computing Programmer COBOL OLE, OLE2 COM, COM+ DCOM CORBA Java Developer J2EE MMS286-DX4 Eventing FIX HL7 CONNECT-health Global architecture team 500+ customers Champions program Chief Architect2005 QSP AR Trusted advocate Game hacker C++ programmer Age-16 Hedge fund tools Ref. Architecture Ref. Methodology Evangelize 2018 Middleware Developer/Architect Entrepreneur Chief Technology Evangelist 2020 Connecting humans & technology Architecting the transformation
  3. 3. Objectives #1 why: a new pattern #2 how: created the pattern #3 what: is Cell-based architecture
  4. 4. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/
  5. 5. Motivation
  6. 6. Centralized & Layered picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kaktuslampa/
  7. 7. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/69929929@N06/ Powerpoint Architects
  8. 8. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/johnerlandsen/ Reality of the Enterprise
  9. 9. Brownfield > Greenfield picture credit: https://www.apstra.com/home/landscape-of-meadow-field-with-the-changing-environment-2/ Legacy, monolithic Microservices, sprawl
  10. 10. Reference Implementations picture credit: https://www.marinersmuseum.org/
  11. 11. picture credit: http://unlocked.footlocker.com/ Underutilization of the Technology
  12. 12. Gap: architecture | development | deployment picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/28994379@N02/
  13. 13. picture credit: https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2017/07/georgia-contractor-sells-farmers-solar-tough-market/ Dependency management
  14. 14. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tiocfaidh_ar_la_1916/ Architecture Patterns
  15. 15. Timeline
  16. 16. Background: Layered Architecture
  17. 17. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/23119666@N03/ A platform with an agile team 100 APIs, 60 message flows, 80 services, n DBs Multi-tenanted, 3 active tenants First release after 3 years
  18. 18. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/imcountingufoz/ Rise of Microservices
  19. 19. Pragmatic Microservices Netflix: APIs Uber: Edge Gateway eBay: API Facade Gartner: Mini Services
  20. 20. Background: Layered Architecture with MSA
  21. 21. Background: Segmented Architecture BS-1 BS-2 BS-n G-1 G-2 US-1 US-n
  22. 22. Platform of Platforms Platform (shared capabilities) Project1 Project2 Project3 Projectn Platform (shared capabilities) Project1 Project2 Project3 Projectn Platform (shared capabilities) Project1 Project2 Project3 Projectn Platform (shared capabilities) Project1 Project2 Project3 Projectn CI/CD User Store
  23. 23. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ableman/
  24. 24. Making of…… picture credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Frank_Schulenburg CC BY 3.0
  25. 25. Building the Concept
  26. 26. Business vs technical services picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/arpadlukacs/
  27. 27. Service: Technical definition A code exposes through an interface that describes a collection of operations that are network accessible using a standardized messaging protocol.
  28. 28. Service: Business definition Software components that can be spontaneously discovered, combined, and recombined to provide a solution to a business problem.
  29. 29. Microservice: Technical definition A microservice must have a single purpose and be loosely coupled in design and deployed independently of other microservices. "Micro" is a concept of scope rather than size.
  30. 30. Microservice: Business definition Microservices is an approach to application development in which a large application is built as a suite of modular components or services. These services are built around business capabilities.
  31. 31. Group of (Micro)services
  32. 32. The cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms
  33. 33. Cell-based Architecture
  34. 34. Component: Atomic Units A component represents a process or business logic running in a container, serverless environment, or an existing runtime. A component is designed based on a specific scope, which can be independently run and reused at the runtime.
  35. 35. Cell: Units of Enterprise Architecture A cell is a collection of components, grouped from design and implementation into deployment. A cell is independently deployable, manageable, and observable.
  36. 36. Cell:Component 1:M 1:1
  37. 37. Connected Cells picture credit: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/
  38. 38. Control Plane: - Signaling of the network - Makes decisions about the traffic flow Data Plane: - Forwards traffic between hops - Takes data packets picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/teflon/ Management Plane: - Configure - Observeabiltty, Monitor
  39. 39. Inter and Intra Cell communication Local-mesh Global-mesh DP- data plane CP- control plane MP- management plane
  40. 40. Connected Cells Cell gateway (ingress) Sidecar (egress) Adaptor (egress) Ambassador (egress)
  41. 41. API-first Architecture picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hugh_nelson/
  42. 42. API-first Architecture Pull APIs - RESTful HTTP, gRPC Push APIs - Events JMS, AMQP, SMTP - Streams Kafka, MQTT
  43. 43. Gateway Pattern picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ell-r-brown/
  44. 44. Automated Governance (Re)-enables Flow Policy Store (Registry) Observability (Monitoring/ Analytics) Policy Enforcement (GW) Automated governance is made of three things: A source of truth: Policy store/registry Enforcement of the policy Gateway or plugin attempting to keep the desired state Observability How close to the desired state are we?
  45. 45. Security of Cells
  46. 46. Developer Experience (DX) of a Cell
  47. 47. Creating Cells Brand new Cell Existing (micro)services Update an existing Cell Create a new version
  48. 48. Lifecycle of a Cell
  49. 49. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rincon_de_lula/
  50. 50. Structured Agility Versioned Components Versioned Cells Dependency managed Autowired Reusable Enhanced MSA & CNA
  51. 51. Cell-based Enterprise Architecture
  52. 52. Cell Types Cell Type Components Logic Microservices, Functions, MicroGateways, lightweight storages Integration MicroESB or other integration microservices, lightweight storage and/or cache Legacy Existing systems, legacy services External SaaS and partner systems Data RDBMS, NoSQL, File, Message Broker* Identity IDP, user stores Channel Web Apps, IoT, mobile apps
  53. 53. Reference Implementation L0
  54. 54. Reference Implementation L1
  55. 55. Human-centric Architecture picture credit: https://www.vertoanalytics.com/human-vs-data-centric-marketing/
  56. 56. Cells and Cellular Organizations
  57. 57. https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2020/06/29/the-cellular-enterprise/
  58. 58. https://nordicapis.com/what-is-cell-based-architecture/
  59. 59. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/woordenaar/ Cell Boundaries
  60. 60. Defining Cell boundaries The design of systems has always required an approach to the clustering of functionality, and it remains an open Computer Science problem - so don't expect a definitive answer! The number of component-component connections within a cell should be higher than the number that crosses the cell boundary. Other approaches such as Domain-driven Design (DDD) may help, but fundamentally the cell model is there to provide team boundaries. Hence the size of a cell should be based on the size, responsibility, and output of a team - and the size and output of a team based on team concepts. Cell-based architecture aims to create business focussed architectural constructs that can reuse at a higher level, so naturally organizing the teams and cells around business functions is essential.
  61. 61. Measure the success picture credit: https://www.marketingdonut.co.uk/direct-marketing/running-a-direct-mail-campaign/getting-the-measure-of-your-marketing
  62. 62. https://www.tasktop.com/blog/5-best-metrics-youve-never-met/ https://dzone.com/articles/reducing-mttr Mean Time to Repair
  63. 63. Self-contained Deployable as a unit Independently elastic Local data & control plane Summary: Cell
  64. 64. Decentralized, MSA, Cloud-native Technology neutral Human-centric APIs as products Summary: Cell-based Architecture
  65. 65. Contribution: walk the talk picture credit: https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2018/06/microsoft-buying-github
  66. 66. picture credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/infomatique/ Invitation to consume and contribute https://github.com/wso2/reference-architecture https://github.com/wso2/reference-methodology https://ballerina.io http://wso2.com http://cellery.io
  67. 67. @asankama THANK YOU https://www.linkedin.com/in/asankaabeysinghe/ asankaa AT wso2.com

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