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Localising SDGs at LSGs 15122019.pptx

  1. Localising SDGs at Local Self Governments (Gram Panchayats) Dr. Rupam Mandal Centre for Poverty Studies and Rural Development December 2019
  2. Development and Local Self Governments (PRIs) • What is development  improvement in economic and social condition of people and places  linked to addressing poverty, education, health, employment, infrastructure and facilities, basic amenities like housing, drinking water, sanitation  It is also about equity and enhancing human abilities • How is development reflected at the village level?  By the facilities that a village has to enrich a human life and sustain the environment around it. Water, sanitation, housing, no poverty, energy, health, environment, education, employment etc. reflect how developed a village is, along with justice for all, conserving our eco systems and gender equality
  3. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) • A universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. • An evolution of the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015, the SDGs are a collection of 17 goals with 169 targets under them, covering a wide host of social & economic development issues. • Adopted by UN member nations in September 2015, the SDGs aim to provide a uniform set of targets for human, social & economic development for member countries based on their own priorities and positions, to move toward a prosperous and sustainable world where no one is left behind.
  4. Sustainable Development Goals
  5. Sustainable Development Goals & Localization - Need  While SDGs are primarily a collection of global & national targets, local level action is at the heart of them  While the goals are universal, the implications and intervention possibilities are local  Local community action is essential to the achievement of the SDGs, for the simple reason that as the rung of administration that is nearest to the people, it is best placed to design & implement locally relevant policies aligned to local priorities  This is particularly crucial in a country like India, where several diverse contexts exist even within a state  In a heterogeneous context, achievement of the SDGs hinges on localized action with GPs playing a significant role
  6. Localising SDGs in India • NITI Aayog is taking the lead in co-ordinating India’s efforts towards achieving the SDGs • The Aayog is attempting to mainstream the SDGs into national & sub-national development plans, to bolster progress towards their achievement • Parallelly, the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI) has undertaken an initiative of consultation with various ministries and drafted a set of national level indicators which are reflective of the SDG goals & targets • State Governments have begun to enter the process of SDG implementation, however effective translation of the 2030 Agenda into reality requires the local governments to participate as well
  7. Localising SDGs in India …contd. Gram Panchayat and SDGs • The twin objectives of the Panchayatai Raj System as envisaged by the Constitution are to ensure local economic development and social justice • Many of the SDG targets are within the purview of the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution • Various Flagship programmes which are at the core of the SDGs and local governments play a pivotal role in implementation of many of these programmes • Flagship programmes like MGNREGS, NRLM, NHM, ICDS, NRDWSP, Tribal & SC Sub-plan schemes along with State sponsored programmes on socio-economic and human development • The Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) paves the way for the Panchayats to link it with SDGs
  8. Localising SDGs in India ….contd. Synergy between SDGs and GPDP  SDGs are a framework of targets for localized action to achieve  The aim of the GPDP initiative is to promote participatory local planning & implementation for better rural development outcomes. This presents a natural synergy between the two initiatives • The location of the SDGs within the GPDP can provide GPs with a vision for development that is in sync with national & global priorities, providing the local thrust that is required for the SDGs to be a reality
  9. Localising SDGs in India ….contd. • Gram panchayats (GPs) across the country are preparing gram panchayat development plans (GPDP), presenting an opportunity for the GPs to synchronize their plans with SDGs • It is important to set GP-level targets with measurable indicators that will have vertical and horizontal linkages, convergence possibilities, resource mobilization potential and feasible action by the GPs
  10. Why Local Self Governments ? Status and benefits • Status of Panchayats - 73rd and 74th Amendment - Paradigm shift from tow tier (Central & State Govt) to Third Tier Local Self Government Key Features : • Autonomy • Powers to take decisions in matters transferred to local governments • Undertake planning, implementation and monitoring of socio-economic development programmes • Devolution of functions, finance and functionaries
  11. Constitutional Amendments • Every State shall have Panchayats in rural areas and Municipalities in urban areas. • A three-tier system for States having population over two million • For others, a two-tier system with no intermediate tier • Panchayats and Municipalities are established as institutions of self government. • There is reservation of seats – not less than one-third seats for women while for scheduled caste and tribes, proportional to their population • The term of office for the elected representatives of these local governments is five years • The local governments are also to prepare local area development plans
  12. Constitutional Amendments …contd. • Resources to the local governments may come from own resources generated by them like from taxes, duties, tolls, fees, rent, user charges, taxes collected by the state and a part of which assigned to or shared with the local governments, specific purpose grants from the State and Central governments, untied grants, borrowing, donations and gifts • Each district has a District Planning Committee (DPC), which prepares a development plan for the district consolidating the urban and rural local plans and higher tier plans • Village assemblies’ alias Gram Sabhas with all adult citizens as members • States are mandated to confer power and responsibilities to these Gram Sabhas • The State governments shall constitute independent State Election Commissions • 29 subjects are transferred to the local governments; the details of which have to be defined by the State governments
  13. • Schedule XI of the Constitution
  14. Towards a Poverty Free Panchayat
  15. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat What can a Gram Panchayat do ? FACILITATE • Access to - Social protection - Housing - Water and Sanitation - Electricity • Resilience to extreme climate events and other environmental shocks • Implementation of NREGS • Income generation through – - Skill training - Entrepreneurship development - Employment - Building of institutions like SHGs - Access to financial services, including microfinance
  16. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat .contd. What can a Gram Panchayat do ? • ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION IN - Needs assessment - Social services planning • PLAN - Operational guidelines for care and protection of destitute and vulnerable - Convergence of GPDP funds and programmes • IDENTIFY - Poor, destitute and critically vulnerable to shocks and disasters - Appropriate new technologies to improve productivity
  17. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat ..contd. Action Points for a Panchayat • Take steps to create an in-depth understanding of the term poverty among the Panchayat Committee and other community volunteers • Dissemination about various schemes for poor and vulnerable through ASHA workers, Anganwadi workers and school teachers • SHG Formation, their handholding and training • Developing criteria for identification of the poor, destitute and vulnerable • Initiating participatory surveys for their identification and need assessment • Ensuring transparency in the selection process / providing benefits • Set the goals and targets for their gram panchayat • Develop a comprehensive programme based on the need assessment, goals and targets • Converge different agencies, their programmes and schemes and community organisations which can support the Gram Panchayat • Facilitate registration of PDS • Develop a monitoring mechanism
  18. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat ..contd. While Planning for Eradicating Poverty? • Reduce poverty and vulnerability by deceasing people’s exposure to social and economic risks, like lack of employment, food, ill health and disability and building their capacity to manage these risks • Ensure that all people, in particular the poor and vulnerable, have access to basic services and facilities, natural resources, economic and financial services • Ensure social care and social security network for all, especially for the poor and the vulnerable
  19. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat .. contd. Resources SCHEMES • Deen Dyayal Antyodaya Yojaona (DAY-NRLM) • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gurantee Scheme (MGNREGS) • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana (DDU-GKY) • State Poverty Eradication Missions • National Social Assistance Programmes (NSAP) • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) • Public Distribution System (PDS) • Rashtriya Swastha Bima Yojana (RSBY) • Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana • Other State and Central Schemes PEOPLE • Self-Help Groups and their Federations, Literacy workers, ASHAs, Teachers, National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) Community Resource Persons (CRPs), Anganwadi workers, Rojgar Sevaks
  20. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat ..contd. Setting Goals and Targets • Ensure that all children of school going age are enrolled and there are no drop outs • Ensure access to scholarships, hostel facilities, transportation facilities, books, uniform etc. to all school / college going children • Ensure motivation and counselling support to all school / college going children • Ensure coverage of all the poor families under MGNREGS • Ensure the skill upgradation of the labourers in agriculture and animal husbandry related to mechanization and value addition of agriculture produce • Building and handholding the labour banks • Building institutions like SHGs of the poor men and women in a neighbourhood • Ensure support for initiating thrift-credit activities, microfinance, bank linkages etc. • Facilitate income generation through enterprenuership development and initiation of individual / group enterprises
  21. Towards a Poverty Free Gram Panchayat ..contd. Setting Goals and Targets • Improve the productivity of the available land by ensuring irrigation, protection from wild animals, better seeds, bio-fertilisers, integrated pest management etc. • Identify appropriate technologies for reducing drudgery and risk of pollutions at home and at work • Ensure basic services like housing, water supply, sanitation, electricity to all populations • Ensure quality mid-day meal to all school going children • Promote locally grown nutritious food • Develop strategies for a strong campaign which will induce changes in attitude regarding reproductive health, hygiene and nutrition • Ensure that all vulnerable persons are covered under social insurance schemes like health insurance, life insurance and accident insurance • Dovetail appropriate schemes to ensure maximum care and protection of vulnerable individuals or households • Provide counselling and treatment support to the victim/families of substance abuse – alcohol, drugs and smoking
  24. Distinctive Features • Following the State Guideline, the GP formed a 105 strong frontline work force named GP Planning Facilitating Team (GPPFT) with ERs, GP employees, employees of line departments operating at GP level, SHG members and community representatives among others and deployed this team for all works relating to GPDP including enabling environment building, collection and analysis of data, situation analysis, preparation of the plan and also for assistance in implementation and monitoring • The amazing institutional capacity of the GP and the individual capacities of almost all the ERs and functionaries of the GP - which are a pre-requisite for effective planning, implementation and monitoring - are notable in every sphere of functioning of the GP • Intense and inclusive participation of all sections of communities, particularly SHGs, through “Para Baithaks” (neighbourhood meetings) in all the stages of preparation, implementation and monitoring of GPDP • Mobilisation and utilisation of Own Source Revenue (Rs.18.44 lakh in 2017-18) enhanced the GP’s scope of discretion in convergent planning.
  25. Distinctive Features .. contd. • Based on a wide vision of overall economic development and social justice in the area, the GP first set its goals to be met during the year in consonance with the SDGs and linked all its plan activities with 11 out of 17 SDGs. • As against the usual practice of focus on infrastructure development, the GP incorporated in its Rs.778 lakh strong budget a wide range of no-cost/low-cost and no-tech/low-tech activities including social forestry through people’s initiatives; awareness camps about health and hygiene, nutrition and safety network for women, children and adolescent girls; awareness camps on issues related to expansion of livelihoods; preparation and use of bio-fertilizers; preparation and use of bio-pesticides • The GPDP laid utmost emphasis on social and human development issues including deployment of “Kanyashree Brigade” against social evils like child marriage, school drop-out, trafficking, child labour, atrocities against women etc.; support with saplings for setting up of kitchen gardens at the premises of every AWC and most households; gas connection and installation of fire-extinguishers with the AWCs out of its OSR; bringing at least one woman from each household into any one of its 500+ SHGs for expansion of livelihood opportunities • The GPDP gave due thrust on upgradation of physical environment in the entire area discarding use of plastic, raising of mangrove, solid waste management
  26. Distinctive Features … contd. • Based on a wide vision of overall economic development and social justice in the area as mandated by the Constitution, the GP first set its goals to be Convergence of the initiatives of the GP with the schemes, initiatives and resources of all the line departments operating at the GP level • Effective application of Information Technology e.g. GP Management System (GPMS), GIS, PlanPlus, GRMS (Grievance Redressal Management System) • The GPDP is well documented with its activities spread over 5 Sub- Committee based sub-plans integrated into a consolidated Annual Plan & Budget for 2017-18 • The Digambarpur GP is predominantly a “Beacon GP” in all senses of institutional capacity, inclusive and intense participation of people including women and children in all stages of GPDP, SDG compliance, sustained increase in Own Source Revenue including voluntary contribution in terms of cash-kind-labour, actual practice of convergence, low-cost-no-cost activities, focus on human development and social development, GP-SHG partnership and tangible achievement towards an Environment-Friendly GP, a Child-Friendly GP and a Gender-Just GP
  27. Strategic approach for the GPDP • The Sub-Committee based integrated Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) • In accordance with SDG 3, 4 and 6, priority was given to education and public health. Emphasis was given on development of child friendly environment in schools like park, garden, toilets, annual sports and cultural events etc. Under sanitation and public health, liquid and solid waste management has got priority • Keeping view of SDG 1, 2 and 8, activities are planned for livelihood promotion and agriculture. Training planned to be conducted through Block Agriculture Officer, Animal resource development officer and Soil conservation officer. Provision for excavation and re-excavation of small irrigation canal, ponds, and water bodies have been kept to convert single crop land to multiple crop land. Pisciculture has also been given importance. Emphasis on composting and vermicomposting has been given to increase use of organic fertilisers. • Installation of Hume pipes and culverts planned to prevent water logging and improve connectivity in line with SDG 9 • Nursery raising, social forestry and beautification of local area planned to be done through plantation of trees to promote biodiversity, prevent soil erosion and climate change in line with SDG 13 and 15. • To promote gender equality (SDG 5), awareness camp on women’s rights, training and skill development of women SHGs in collaboration with NRLM planned.
  28. Gram Panchayat Development Plan of DIGAMBARPUR GP 2017-18 Sub-Committee:-Agriculture and Animal Resource Development Sl. No. Activity Details What Benefit will accrue from the proposed activity location of activity Gram Sansad / No Location of Activity Physical target (Measurement/lengt h/area) Project land belongs to (personal/ G.P./Oth Dept. Vested land) Name of the Fund Amount Expected month & year of activity Remark Sector:- Krishi o Sangslisto MICRO IRRIGATION CANEL 1 From Bablatala More ro Saraldaha More To improve irrigation system I Dk Durgapur 350 mtr G.P. MGNREGS 75000 Apr-May SDG-2 EXCAVATION OF POND ARCHANA BAIDYA Promotion of Pisciculture and irrigation for livelihood I Dk Durgapur 180 sqm Personal MGNREGS 39868 Apr-May SDG-2 NARMADA GAYEN Promotion of Pisciculture and irrigation for livelihood I Dk Durgapur 180 sqm Personal MGNREGS 39868 Apr-May SDG-2,8 1 CONSTRUCTION OF VERMI COMPOST FOR AMBALIKA MONDAL AND 9 OTHERS TO INCREASE APPLICATION OF BIO-FERTILIZER I Dk Durgapur 3.6 sqm Personal MGNREGS 50000 Apr-May SDG-2,11,15 2 MAHARANI HALDAR 3.6 sqm Personal 3 SUFALA HALDAR 3.6 sqm Personal 4 MAHUYA HALDAR 3.6 sqm Personal 5 SHILA HALDER 3.6 sqm Personal 6 SUJALA BAIDYA 3.6 sqm Personal 7 ANGUR NAIYA 3.6 sqm Personal
  29. Steps of GPDP Followed • Workshop at the Block level • Formation of GPFT • Training of GPFT Training of GPFT members was initiated by the Block Facilitating team at the GP • Formation of Ward Level facilitating teams GPFT members divided themselves in to ward level teams comprising of GP Members, employees, ASHA, ICDS worker, SSK/School teacher, retired govt. officials, volunteers, students and local enthusiasts. • Community mobilization Community mobilization drive was conducted through wall writings, invitation letters to each households, posters etc. to spread awareness and involve villagers in to the planning process. GPFT members conducted neighbourhood meetings and collected sector specific data. • Preparation of Gram Sansad (Ward) wise draft plans GPFT members initiated preparation of draft plans based on Gram Sanasad (ward) information collected from Gram Register, sector specific data, social and natural resource map, and problem-resources-potential analysis. Focus was on social sectors and improvement in livelihoods of poor and marginalised. • Gram Panchayat development Plan The GPDP of Digambarpur GP for 2017-18 including plan for MGNREGS was prepared on 26 December 2016
  30. Proposed Target Matrix on select SDGs Goals National Indicator Gram Panchayat (GP) Indicator GP Baseline Value & (Year) GP Target Value &(Year) 15.a: Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems N.5.a.1: Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and eco system. GP.5.a.1: Official development assistance and public expenditure by GP on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and eco system. 15.b: Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation N.15.b.1: Percentage of fund utilized for environmental conservation. GP.15. b.1: Percentage of GP fund utilized for environmental conservation. 2.1: By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular, the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round N.2.1.1: Prevalence of undernourishment (Global indicator) GP.2.1.1: Percentage of children aged under 5 years who are underweight N.2.1.2: Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) GP.2.1.2: Proportion of school going age children receiving MDM
  31. The GP can make their target towards • Hunger free GP • Beggar free GP • Housing for all • ODF GP • Safe drinking water for all • Zero women & child trafficking and Child labour free GP • GP where women are empowered • Fully literate GP • Child marriage free GP • Garbage and plastic free GP • Child friendly GP
  32. Success at Nation Success at State Success at Gram Panchayat Success at LSG only can bring the success at National Level
  33. Thank you