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General translation 4.pptx

  1. Lecture 8
  2. The classical taxonomy of translation procedures dates back to 1958 and is the work of J. P. Vinay and J. Darbelnet. It consists of seven categories: 1. BORROWING Borrowing is a translation technique that involves using the same word or expression in original text in the target text. The word or expression borrowed is usually written in italics. This is about reproducing an expression in the original text as it is. In this sense, it is a translation technique that does not actually translate… Example: I like pizza so much. Jihad is a holy war fought by Muslims. I met sheikh Al-Amrani in the mosque.
  3. Cont… 2. CALQUE (LOAN TRANSLATION) A calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word translation. Example: Fish in troubled water = Try to take advantage of a confused situation. This term, first recorded in 1568, expresses the even older notion that fish bite more readily when seas are rough. - Storm in a tea cup=a situation in which people are very angry or upset about something that is not important. - Behind the scenes=out of sight of the public at a theater or organization. - Food for thought= something that should be thought about or considered carefully.
  4. Cont. 3. LITERAL TRANSLATION Usually this is called a literal translation or metaphrase. This means a word-for- word translation. According to Vinay and Darbelnet, a literal translation can only be applied with languages which are extremely close in cultural terms. It is acceptable only if the translated text retains the same syntax, the same meaning and the same style as the original text. Example: ‫ذهب‬ ‫زيد‬ ‫الى‬ ‫عدن‬ Went Zaid to Aden ‫لسان‬ ‫طويل‬ - Long tongue (i.e. abusive) ‫احب‬ ‫ابني‬ ‫كثيرا‬ - I love my son a lot.
  5. Cont. A- Word-for-Word Translation: A word-for-word translation is the way of transferring meaning of each and every word of the source language into the target language with its equivalent words. Example: ‫ذهب‬ ‫زيد‬ ‫الى‬ ‫عدن‬ Went Zaid to Aden B- One-to-One Literal Translation: It is a broader form of translation. In this method, we consider the collocation meanings and translate each SL word or phrase into an identical word or phrase in the TL with the same number, grammatical class and type of language. ‫لسان‬ ‫طويل‬ Long tongue (i.e. abusive)
  6. Cont. C- Literal Translation of Meaning: It is the translation of meaning as closely, accurately and completely as possible. This is why sometimes it is called Close, or Direct Translation. It takes into account the TL grammar and word order. ‫احب‬ ‫ابني‬ ‫كثيرا‬ I love my son a lot.
  7. Cont.. 4. TRANSPOSITION Transposition involves moving from one grammatical category to another without altering the meaning of the text. This translation technique introduces a change in grammatical structure. Example: This made me feel shocked and embarrassed.
  8. Cont.. 5. MODULATION This technique refers to the use of a phrase that is dissimilar in the source and target languages to convey the same idea. Example: He cleared his throat.
  9. Cont.. 6. ADAPTATION Adaptation, also called cultural substitution or cultural equivalent, is a cultural element which replaces the original text with one that is better suited to the culture of the target language. This achieves a more familiar and comprehensive text. Example: I welcomed my guests and gave them a glass of whiskey.
  10. Cont.. Since the sixties, several authors (Michel Ballard, Hélène Chuquet, Michel Paillard, etc.) have established other methods of translation, such as explicitation (introducing specific details in the text of the target language), collocation (using a sequence of words that usually go together in the target language) and compensation (where an allusion or reference does not appear in one part of the text as in the source version, but later in the target text).