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Pleural effusion

Pleural effusion, sometimes referred to as “water on the lungs,” is the build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs. The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.

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Pleural effusion

  1. 1. PLEURAL EFFUSION PRESENTED BY ABHAY RAJPOOT
  2. 2. DEFINITION A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
  3. 3. INCIDENCE Pleural effusion is a fairly common condition. It is estimated to occur in as high as one million people in the United States each year. The most common underlying cause is congestive heart failure. Other common causes include lung infections, some cancers, and blood clots in the lung.
  4. 4. RISK FACTORS  Heart failure  Pneumonia  Cancers, such as lung, breast, lymphoma, mesothelioma  Liver disease  Connective tissue diseases (rheumatic heart disease, arthritis)  Pulmonary embolism  Radiation therapy  Tuberculosis  Nephrotic syndrome  Pregnancy
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY  A viral infection, such as the flu (influenza)  A bacterial infection, such as pneumonia  A fungal infection  Autoimmune disorder, such as rheumatoid arthritis  Certain medications  Lung cancer near the pleural surface
  6. 6. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  7. 7. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  8. 8. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
  9. 9. CONTI…
  10. 10. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION  History  Physical examination  Blood tests
  11. 11. CHEST X RAY
  12. 12. CT SCAN
  13. 13. USG
  14. 14. THORACOSCOPY
  15. 15. THORACENTESIS
  16. 16. Tube thoracostomy
  17. 17. Pleurodesis
  18. 18. Pleural decortication
  19. 19. NURSING DIAGNOSIS  Ineffective breathing pattern related to decreased lung expansion as evidenced by dyspnoea  Impaired gas exchange related to capillary membrane changes as evidenced by air hunger  Activity intolerance related to hypoxemia as evidenced by gasping  Imbalance nutrition less than body requirement related to less intake of food as evidenced by weight loss  Risk for potential complications related to pleural effusion
  20. 20. RESEARCH STUDY A study was conducted by German Research Centre for Environmental Health In their recent work, the team built on findings which they had also published in Nature Communications in May 2017. “the results of study reveal that inflammatory messengers of the immune system − notably interleukin-1β − activate a signaling pathway in mutated cancer cells, which in the long term can lead to pleural effusion"
  21. 21. SUMMARY
  22. 22. CONCLUSION Pleural effusions are one of the symptoms of mesothelioma, an aggressive but rare type of cancer. Mesothelioma can develop in pleura, the lining of the lungs, which is known as pleural mesothelioma and accounts for about 70% of all cases
  23. 23. ASSIGNMENT Thoracentesis and its nursing care
  24. 24. BIBLIOGRAHY  https://www.webmd.com/lung/pleural-effusion-symptoms-causes-treatments#1  medicinenet.com/pleural_effusion_fluid_in_the_chest_or_on_lung/article.htm  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleural_effusion  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/299959  medlineplus.gov › Medical Encyclopedia
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Pleural effusion, sometimes referred to as “water on the lungs,” is the build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs. The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.

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