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• Formerly Bombay, is the commercial and
financial centre of India, with a
population of about twelve million at 2010.
• Mumbai is built on what was once a set
of seven islands: Bombay
Island, parel, Mazagaon, mahim, colaba, w
orli, and Old Woman's Island(also known
as Little Colaba).
• The seven islands coalesced into a single
landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via
large scale land reclamation(1845).
• The huge city is growing by many thousand
hopeful immigrants from predominantly
rural areas each day.
• Mumbai‘s particular topography – it is a long, narrow peninsula –
meant that the constantly needed extension of the city limits was
possible in one direction only, northwards.
HISTORY AND NEED FOR NEW CITY
• Britain‘s efforts as a colonial power 200 years
ago were directed at citifying something that
was essentially a withdrawn little town
because of its outstanding location as a
harbor and trading center.
• But Bombay did not flourish until 50 years later, when the turmoil of the Civil War cut off
American cotton export. So the world focused its interest on Indian cotton, and Bombay
became the center for the shipment of goods.
• Ultra-fast growth began, the port became the largest in India, and rapid urban expansion
created the problem of a housing shortage and a proliferation of emergency accommodation.
• The center of Mumbai, now and then, is at the southern end of the peninsula, where
commercial life developed and population density and land prices are highest.
• The extreme expansion of the urban area to one side of a fixed commercial center created
Mumbai‘s major problems of long transport routes. Journeys lasting several hours on
express trains had to be accepted if people were to get to work, a state of affairs that
eventually reached its natural limits.
• Bombay’s population jumped from 1.5 million in the years leading up to the Second World War
to 4.5 million in 1964, and was predicted to double by 1984.
• As early as 1964, Bombay municipality published the draft plan
to deal with population growth for next two decades and invited
the public comments and suggestions from the public.
• Charles Correa with his colleagues Pravina Mehta and Shiresh
Patel proposed to the Mumbai city authorities that they should
not expand any further northwards, but use an eastern site cut
off by a sea bay for urban expansion, with the aim of
establishing New Mumbai.
• The government did not finally accept this plan until 1970,
when it started to buy land east of Mumbai old town.
• Large bridges then made it possible to create a direct link with
the old centre, so that there was now nothing else in the way of
the actual goal of a new commercial centre with a new
• The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was
founded, and Charles Correa headed it as chief architect from
1970 to 1974.
• Their aim was to settle at least four million people in New
Mumbai, thus containing the spread of further emergency
accommodation and creating enough new jobs.
NAVI MUMBAI - INTRODUCTION
• The prominent authors of the twin city concept
were Charles Correa (architect and urban
designer) , Pravina Mehta(structural engineer)
and Shirish Patel(engineer and planner) who
presented to the government a proposal in 1964
for constructing new growth centers across
Bombay harbor on the mainland.
• Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. km.
• The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. It is a
narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north,
south and east, and the Arabian Sea on the west.
• There were two key aspects to be dealt with:
• creating living space and
• setting up mass transport systems.
NAVI MUMBAI – CONCEPT
• The success of Navi Mumbai lies in the approach
adopted while it’s planning. Considering the massive
scale of Navi Mumbai project and to avoid a Mumbai
like situation of activity concentration caused by a
mono-centric development model, the planners
adopted polycentric nodal pattern of development.
• The polycentric approach based on principle of
• It avoids concentration of population, and activities in
a particular area rather it works like ‘bunch of grapes’
and focused on decentralization and balance
distribution of residential areas, job centers, wholesale
markets, non polluting industries and population
density and other activities in different nodes / areas of
• The pattern ensured balanced land and even
distribution of residential areas, job centres, wholesale
markets, non-polluting industry and population density.
• The 12 self-contained nodal townships are strung
along the mass rapid transport corridors, designed to
minimise travel time and distance between nodes and
• The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at a height of
• The principles were
• Decentralization by the design of self sufficient townships (nodes).
• Residential neighborhoods (sectors)
• Single use zoning as opposed to traditional multiple use zoning.
• The total area of Navi Mumbai was divided into townships. Each township has several
sectors. Many were residential in nature.
• Each node was planned to accommodate a range of some income groups.
• Ponds were created to accumulate excess run off.
• Each node is self-contained for 100,000 to 200,000 people.
• The nodes contain residential, commercial, infrastructure and recreational uses.
At a larger scale, nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs
and transport facilities.
• Navi Mumbai has the SEZ zone spread over an area of 2,140 Ha across 3 nodes
of Navi Mumbai, Functioning as a deemed foreign territory.
NAVI MUMBAI – DESIGN PRICIPLES
• The structural plan of New Bombay: three
linear spines arranged in a pinwheel
around the CBD(Central Business District)
at one end tied to the regional transport
network at the other, anchoring the new
city into the surrounding region.
• With developments in road, rail, air and
water transport, Navi Mumbai is fully
equipped to cater the needs of the
• Part of this is the suburban trains that
connect to 12 nodes to each other as well
as to Mumbai.
EVOLUTION OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM
• The linear pattern of Mumbai is
better for a mass transport
system because it creates a
corridor of demand and thus an
efficient bus system.
• The system grows with a series of
sectors which pop up based on
the growth of the specific locality,
all mushroomed with bus lines.
Thus it also helps in the
development of the hinterlands.
• With the development of the
MRT, there also comes an
additional MRT which could help
with the further development of
• With the starting of a simple bus
line, gradually a complex
network of buses and trains can
be built, transgressing the
• Airoli Node
• Airoli is one of the good nodes developed in initial years by CIDCO(City and Industrial Development
Corporation).It was taken up for development during 1983-84.
• The main intention of its development to provide housing facilities to the people working.
• Airoli is located on northern tip of Navi Mumbai.
• This node has good connectivity with Mumbai through Mulund – Airoli bridge. It is also well connected
with another city Thane through railway as well as by road.
• Ghansoli Node
• The development of this node was started around 1993; the focus was to provide affordable housing to
the people working in the nearby industries.
• Located South of Airoli node.
• It is also well connected with another city Thane through railway as well as by road and with Mumbai
through Mulund – Airoli bridge.
• Kopar Khairane Node
• It is adjacent to the industrial area and Vashi. Development of this node was started in 1986.
• Kopar Khairane is also known as extended suburb of the Vashi.
• The node is well connected by train as well as road.
• Located south to Ghansoli.
• Vashi Node
• Vashi was the first node taken up for development by CIDCO. Often it is called as King of Navi Mumbai.
• Vashi is located just across the Thane creek bridge on the mainland.
• The development was started immediately after opening of Thane Creek Bridge in 1972.
• Vashi is the commercial hub of Navi Mumbai.
• Sanpada Node
• The combine development of Vashi-Sanpada node was started in 1972.
• The node is well connected by railway and road.
• Sanpada is coming up as better place for business expansion.
• Nerul Node
• Nerul is the second best developed node after Vashi. It is often called as queen of Navi Mumbai.
• The node is predominantly residential node.
• The node was taken up for development in 1981.
• CBD Belapur Node
• This node is located in the heart of the city, so planners decided to make the ‘Central Business
District’ of the city in this node.
• The north side is exclusively planned for residential use whereas south side is planned for
• Kharghar and taloja Node
• Kharghar is the futuristic node of Navi Mumbai it was started developing around 1988-89.
• One of the most artistically-designed nodes of Navi Mumbai, with novel concepts, ideas and
system forming the cornerstone of the nodes development.
• It often termed as Model
• Township of the city.
• Kalamboli and Kamothe Node
• Kalamboli is one of the busiest nodes in Navi Mumbai.
• Kamothe is one of the developing nodes of Navi Mumbai. It was started developing in 2000.
• CIDCO have started developing steel market and warehousing complex by 1979-80 and residential complex
• This node is also part of Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone.
• New Panvel Node
• This is also one of the developing nodes of Navi Mumbai. Development of this node was started in 1975-76.
• Panvel is an important railway station on Konkan Railway.
• This node is still maintained and managed by CIDCO.
• Ulwe node is located on south of CBD Belapur across the creek. Development of this node is already started.
• This node is part of Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone and is adjacent to proposed Navi Mumbai
• Ulwe is upcoming node of Navi Mumbai and its information till 2010 is not reported.
• Dronagiri Node
• Dronagiri node is the largest node planned by CIDCO
• Due to its topography it is very difficult to develop this node.
• Its proximity to the port makes it ideal for port-based industries.
• Development of this node was started after 1989.
• This node is maintained by CIDCO.
• This shows how the public
transport is used to open
up land, making its
accessible in desired
quantities and locations.
• The open green areas and
maidans(play grounds) are
kept central to
neighbourhood with a
zone for cottage and other
small scale industries on
either side of the railway