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Diversity in organizations Chapter-2

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Diversity in organizations Chapter-2

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In this chapter we will learn about the grounds of diversity, what kind if workforce will be needed for particular tasks, what pros diversity can bring to an organization and how to manage such a diverse workforce. In the end we will also learn about the current trends and global importance and implications of diversity.

In this chapter we will learn about the grounds of diversity, what kind if workforce will be needed for particular tasks, what pros diversity can bring to an organization and how to manage such a diverse workforce. In the end we will also learn about the current trends and global importance and implications of diversity.

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Diversity in organizations Chapter-2

  1. 1. Diversity in Organizations Key Concepts • Biographical Characteristics • Ability • Implementing Diversity Management Strategies • Global Implications
  2. 2. What is Diversity? Diversity can be defined as the inclusion of people belonging to different races, cultures and religions having different set of norms, values and concepts.
  3. 3. Level of Diversity • Surface-level diversity: Difference in easily perceived characteristics. It can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotype and assumption. Such as race, age, gender… • Deep-level diversity: More important for determining similarity as people get to know one another. Such as values, personality, and work preferences.
  4. 4. Discrimination Discrimination means we are allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people. Unfair discrimination is often very harmful to organizations and its employees, and results in reduced productivity, negative conflicts, and increased turnover rates. Discrimination type: • Discriminatory policies or practices • Sexual harassment • Intimidation • Mockery and insults • Exclusion • Incivility
  5. 5. Biographical Characteristics Biographical characteristics means personal characteristics that are objective and easily obtained from personal records. • It comes under Surface-level diversity. • It includes age, gender, race, and length of tenure.
  6. 6. Does age and job performance have relationship? • Older employees are less likely to quit. • Older workers bring positive qualities to their jobs, such as experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality. BUT… • Older workers are also perceived as lacking flexibility and resisting new technology. • Young employees are less experienced than older workers but they tend to have more flexible attitude, and an energy or passion to move forward.
  7. 7. Does age and job satisfaction have relationship? • Young employees seem to have less satisfaction and have higher turn over rates. • Satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age. • However, satisfaction tends to decrease among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.
  8. 8. Whether women performs as well on jobs as men do? There are few differences between men and woman in job performance. • Work schedules seem to differ between genders. • One study point out woman are more likely to turn out than men. • Parents were rated lower in job commitment, achievement striving, dependability than individuals without children.
  9. 9. Race and Ethnicity Race means biological heritage of people. Ethnicity is additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlaps with race. This factor often causes discriminative behavior among employees. o People tend to favor colleagues of their own race. o Substantial racial differences exist in attitudes toward affirmative action. o African Americans generally fare worse than Whites in employment decisions.
  10. 10. Disability • Workers with disabilities receive higher performance evaluations. • But they also encounter lower performance expectations and are less likely to be haired.
  11. 11. Tenure Tenure means seniority as per time on a particular job. • It is a good predictor of employee productivity. • Tenure on an employee’s previous job is a powerful predictor of that employee’s future turnover.
  12. 12. Religion Not only do religious and non-religious people question each other’s belief systems; often people of different religious faiths conflict. Faith can be an employment issue when religious beliefs prohibit or encourage certain behaviors. Religious individuals may also believe they have an obligation to express their beliefs in the workplace, and those who do not share those beliefs may object.
  13. 13. Ability Ability is an individual’s current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. These are of two types: 1. Intellectual abilities Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities ─ thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. 2. Physical ability Physical ability is the bodily work done by employees. There are nine basic physical abilities.
  14. 14. Implementing Diversity Management Strategies Diversity management is a process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others.
  15. 15. Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees-1 Attract diverse employees : target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce. The selection process is one of the most important places for diversity efforts. • It should be fair and objective, qualifications are more important. Similarity in personality does appear to affect career advancement. • Collectivistic cultures & individualistic cultures • Deep-level diversity is more important than surface-level diversity.
  16. 16. Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees-2 Individuals who are demographically different from their co-works are more likely to feel low commitment and turn out. All workers appeared to prefer an organization that values diversity.
  17. 17. Does diversity help or hurt group performance? In some cases, diversity in traits can hurt team performance, whereas in others it can facilitate it. Whether diverse or homogeneous teams are more effective depends on the characteristic of interest. Demographic diversity (in gender, race, and ethnicity) does not appear to either help or hurt team performance in general. On the other hand, teams of individuals who are highly intelligent, conscientious, and interested in working in team settings are more effective.
  18. 18. Effective Diversity Programs Organization use a variety of efforts to capitalize on diversity. oTeach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity. oTeach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. oFoster personal development practices that bring out the skills and ability of all workers.

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