Establish in 1984, located in the Academic Building of the main campus of City
University of Hong Kong, and it is held to support and augment learning, teaching,
and research by providing a good environment for studying and to delivering an
efficient and quality library services through well-trained staff, outstanding
collections and interactive facilities.
This proposal includes a detailed solution to the problems that Run Run Shaw
Library encountered at present. Besides, we have included a detailed
implementation plan and budget requirement for your reference, so that you may
consider having some feasibility on our proposal.
The following are some major problems encountered:
Inefficient of the current manual operating system
Lack a centralized control of data
Not able to handle the large increase of workload in the future
In order to solve the problems, there are some possible suggestions to fit your
needs. The main theme of the solutions is as follows:
Fully computerized library system
A centralized control server
High speed system that is able to handle numerous process at the same
We do believe that this project can bring Run Run Shaw Library to a new
generation and providing both quantitative and qualitative services to your
This proposal is made in response to the request made by Mr. Edmond, the
manager of Run Run Shaw Library in City University of Hong Kong. The
objective of the proposal is to suggest detail solutions in computerizing the library
so that all the operations within the library can be more precise and efficient. The
proposal will describe features and the differences of the current system and the
suggested system and hence shows the importance to the birth of the new system.
Reasons for new system
Current manual operated library system results in inefficient and inaccurate daily
operations. It is inefficient as all the process have to be processed by human effort
which the librarian have to be fill in a lot of information into a book record in order
to complete a single and simple transaction like borrowing and returning of books.
Inaccurate as it is an instance of inefficiency as human errors may be committed
easily, especially during peak hours of the library usage. Moreover, it is inaccurate
when data are kept by many departments; data inconsistency and redundancy are
common problems. Therefore, a reliable and efficient system should be imposed in
the library to make Run Run Shaw Library more compatible to the future needs.
A client-server system is recommended. The system will consist of two types of
computers and one software system that embedded all tools and functions that Run
Run Shaw Library may needed to perform its daily works. There will be one server
that provides all the necessary utilities of the operations within the system. The
server will provide a centralized control to all the terminals in the system. The
other computers are the client of the system, which must access to files and data
contain in the server to execute the operations. This set up enables the library to
control all the data flow and maintain a high security computer system.
To develop a best fit system to the library, there are three stages of developing the
new system. They are gather information, design and implementation and final
testing. Within these three sections, different tactics will be adopted so that we can
design a system that can maintain high usability and accessibility. Below are some
ideas to the process.
Before setting up the system by software development tools, we will gather
information from the staff about the need for the users of the system like the staff
of library and those readers. The interview with the staff of in the library has been
carried out at present stage. Before starting implementing the system, we will
interview some of the readers to get their view on the system before we actually do
the design works.
Design and Implementation
In this stage, we will first decide the goals of the system by task analysis. Next, we
will start working on the first prototype of the system. Then we will test on its
usability and design with some design theories. We will then amend the prototype
correspondingly. Then a more complete prototype will be tested by potential users
to collect feedbacks. Finally, the system will be finalized with the amendment on
some problems of the user interface.
When the product is finalized, it will be run on a real world environment and test
on its performance. If the performance is satisfactory, it will be applied, else
amendment will be made to correct the problems. After the system has been run for
daily operation, continue maintenance and administration should be carried out to
handle any system errors and security issues.
Development Toolkits / Technology
Visual Studio.NET is a professional development software on large
application published by Microsoft for computer professionals to develop usercentered, high performance applications for their clients. This software enables
developer to develop both stand-alone and web application with large extend
of flexibility. Programmer can customized the application with different
controls to access other computer related technologies such as integrate the
software with a database. This feature best fit those organizations that maintain
huge amount of data for managing their business. Therefore, it is STRONGLY
recommended to use this development application in this case.
Relational Database Model
Relational Database Model is a database of table form. It is the most
popular database model at present. Over 90% of the existing databases are
using the model at present. In this model, relations between data are stored in
tables. A table is collection of rows of records and columns of fields. Some of
the fields can be used as a unique field to identify each row of record, it is
known as “Primary Key”. Within this database model, SQL statements can be
used to perform operations to retrieve, manipulate, define and control the data.
This technology is STRONGLY recommended since the structure of the data
contains in a library is similar to the data structure within this model.
Therefore, different data can be access through the corresponding SQL
statement and software functions.
Ethernet, 100 BASE-T
Ethernet is the most popular use type of Local Area Network (LAN)
technology. There are a lot of standard in Ethernet technology. The standard
that we have chosen now, i.e. 100 BASE-T, specify that the network can afford
a transmission speed of 100 Mega Bits per second at maximum. You may also
decide to run on a higher or lower network speed according to your
Active Server Page (ASP.NET)
Active Server Page (ASP.NET) is a scripting environment for Microsoft
Internet Information Server in which you can combine HTML, scripts and
reusable ActiveX server components to create dynamic web pages.Features
include innovative web publishing, customisable tools, wizards, customisable
management tools, flexible administration options, and analysis tools. Internet
Information Server (IIS) makes it easy to share documents and information
across a company intranet or the Internet, and is completely integrated with
Windows NT Directory Services.
VBScript is a scripting language. A scripting language is a lightweight
programming language. VBScript is a light version of Microsoft's
programming language Visual Basic. When a VBScript is inserted into a
HTML document, the Internet browser will read the HTML and interpret the
VBScript. The VBScript can be executed immediately, or at a later event.
Microsoft's scripting language which is an extension of their Visual Basic
language. VBScript can be used with Microsoft Office applications and others.
It can also be embedded in web pages but can only be understood by Internet
Structured Query Language (SQL)
SQL is a program which is used to data control, retrieve data and query
data. One or more large structured sets of persistent data, usually associated
with software to update and query the data. A simple database might be a
single file containing many records, each of which contains the same set of
fields where each field is a certain fixed width. Certain fields may be
designated as keys, which allow searching for specific values of that field will
use indexing to speed them up.
This is a database
server is a computer system that
processes database queries and manages network resources. This model of
server is design to business to business and it has large extension.
Cisco uBR7246VXR Router
The Cisco uBR7246VXR universal broadband router provides modular,
standards-based products that deliver high-quality Internet Protocol (IP) data
services over cable and fixed wireless broadband infrastructures. This product
brings intelligence to the edge of the network with integrated IP rout.
Dell’s Dimension 4700 Terminals
Terminal enables user to communicate with a server. It contain a
combination of keyboard and display screen, user can get data from the server
side easier, so Dimension 4700 is suitable.
Cat 5 Unshielded Twist-paired Cable (UTP) Cable
Unshielded twisted pair, a popular type of cable that consists of two
unshielded wires twisted around each other. Due to its low cost, UTP cabling is
used extensively for local-area networks (LANs). UTP cabling does not offer
as high bandwidth or as good protection from interference as coaxial or fiber
optic cables, but it is less expensive and easier to work with.
Microsoft Windows 2003 Server
This version of windows is specially designed for server’s operating
system. It was built base on Window 2000 Server’s technology which provide
efficient file and printer sharing. What’s more important is that it provides
secure and reliable network utilities. This operating system also provides some
internet utilities which may be useful as there are any future expansions.
Microsoft Windows XP Professional
This version of windows is specially designed for businesses of all sizes. It
also provides high security. With XP Professional, you can build your own
network easily. It provides reliable file and hardware sharing. To most
business, sharing means everything. With this features, business can set up a
client-server system and thus made everything efficient. Cost is a big
consideration of every business, with the above features; cost can be greatly
reduced by centralized control and save in human resources.
Operation of the system
The operation of the library system is divided into three major parts.
Operation of the Web borrowing system
The borrowing system is used the web technology to build up. The
user can access the web within the library (through intranet) or outside
the library (through internet).The web borrowing system is divided
into two parts.
1. User information
This part will contain user account information. User can check
his borrowing status, renewal the book and reservation of the
2. Library Catalogue.
This part will contain the book status. User can check the books
he wants are lend out or not. Also, it can check the detail of the
Operation of Terminal system
There will be 100 terminal computers in the library and all of them are
connected to the server. The terminals can check the information in
the library. The terminal system is divided into two parts.
1. Library detail.
The details of the library. User can get more information of the
library. It will have the map of the library and the book location
in the library. User can see the whole library map and the search
the book location in the library.
2. Book detail.
It will use the web borrowing system to check the book status
in the library.
Operation of Database Server system
The database server acts a very important role in the library. It stores
all the book and user data in it. So the database server system will be
divided into two parts in order to maintain the server stable.
1. Update the database.
It has user friendly software to the librarian to add the
book, modify existing book.
2. Sever Management
It will prevent unauthorized access of sites.
The database server system will be backup the data daily
New Bar-Coding automatic identification system will be used in the
Windows 2000 Terminal Server will be used to run on the server based.
Windows 2000 will be used to run the LAN architecture with the client based.
Microsoft SQL Server will be running on a Windows 2000 Server as the
InterDev will be used as a candidate database access technology.
Microsoft Visual Basic will be the development of the most application.
Borland J-Builder will be used to development a Java-based application.
Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS) running on Windows 2000
Server will be the internet and intranet Web Server.
Windows 2000 with Internet Explorer will be the client workstations.
Intersolv PVCS version control software will be used to manage the directory
which is storing the charter and all subsequent documentation and work-inprogress components.
System Architect 2001 will develop all model-driven documentation as the
Galen Kirchoff is the executive sponsor who commits the entire group at least
one-quarter time and he will direct this project.
Sandra (Project manager) who will also work as a senior system analyst in the
Bob Martinez (Systems analysts) who will program in the rapid application
development or prototyping sense of the word.
Sarah Hartman who serves a 2-year appointment to Information Services as a
business analyst will be the business director.
All IT directors will have the minutes and report of the meeting which is the
weekly status meetings chaired by the project manager.
As one of the critical service provider in a tertiary institute, a user-friendly system
and high quality services help increase the ranking of a university. Therefore, it is
important to provide a user-centered library services
Old Manual Operating System
When the system is still under manual
operations, the efficiency is lower down as
it takes long time to fill in forms and
passing of information is not quick enough
to solve huge number of request. Also,
data redundancy and inconsistency is a
The old system does not provide sufficient
utilities to ensure the accuracy of the result
of every operation. The most common
problem is filling in invalid or wrong data.
Moreover, when update of data is
necessary, the update is not applied on
every department keeping the same record.
As a result, data inconsistency appeared.
The old system is not user-friendly as it
does not provide an easy way for user to
complete a task. Usually, users have to go
through complicated process in order to
complete a simple operation like register
to the library and reserve books.
Suggested Computerized System
By comparing the performance, the
computerized system definitely is much
more a better chose then the existing
system as data can be share on the
centralized server. Thus, the problem of
data redundancy and inconsistency can be
avoided by update the only copy of all
For the side of the new system, the
problem of data inconsistency will not
appeared as data are only updated in the
database of the system. Moreover, when
users are entering data for their operations,
validity checking can be employed on data
entry fields to improve the accuracy of the
system. Especially on some important
information like the serial number of
User-friendly are greatly improve with the
aid of computer technology. The new
system provides utilities in order to help
users in case of any enquiries. Also, user
oriented customizations enable high
flexibilities to use to system.
Manual operating system is difficult to
manage as every department work on its
own set of data and there aren’t any
communications between departments to
exchange data. Even if it does, problems
like efficiency and accuracy and resulted
in a high management cost. Also, a lot of
management staff have to be employed in
order to divert all the data flow to ensure
the system to run properly to minimize the
Under human processing system, future
expand means a need to increase the
number of working people to order to
satisfy a larger number of record keeping
or an increase in the number of customers
that are needed to serve them at the same
time. If the above measure is carried out, it
will definitely worsen the situation of
efficiency and accuracy. Thus maintenance
cost will be pull to a higher level in this
Management is much easier under a high
computerization environment. For data
management, we need to employ only few
database administrators (DBA) instead of
many management staff to control the data
flow. Moreover, with DBA, we can set up
security gates so that data are wellprotected and will only be available to
those people who get the authentication.
Therefore, system administration works
can be work in a more efficient and low
cost under the new system even the setting
up cost or running cost is higher than the
With a computer environment, expansion
can be achieved simply by replacing out
dated hardware or updating the software
with better functions. Therefore, it does
not demand for any physical increase in
space or increase in staffs to upgrade the
system. Moreover, maintenance cost
remains stable over time as the
administrative works are more or less the
same even there are changes in hardware
or software being used.
There are 6 stages in our implementation plan.
Borrowing Web-page Analysis and Design
Hardware Installation and Testing
Software Installation and Testing
Database Designing and Implementation
Network Installation and Testing
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
6. Hardware Training
6. Software Training
Stage 1 - Borrowing Web-page Analysis and Design
In this stage we will build up a website. We will design a user friendly
website aims for borrowing and renewal the book on the internet or
inside the library through the intranet. It will be divided into three parts.
The first part is the analysis, we will get the information by interview the
interviewer and this process will last for two weeks. The second part is
the designing, regarding to the information that we have got from
analysis, we will start doing the web-page designing. After the five-weekdesigning, with the finished web-site, we will do a testing. Library staff
are asked to do a testing on the system, then we may re-design the webpage according to the users’ favor.
Stage 2 - Hardware Installation and Testing
The hardware will be installed after the web-page analysis and design is
finished. Server will be installed to allow connection to internet. Apart
from this, terminal computers will be installed in the library. These
terminal computers provide services users to use for book searching,
borrowing and renewal of books. The installation will be progressed for
one week. After all, we would invite users to do testing in order to define
any errors occur.
Stage 3 - Software Installation and Testing
After the hardware installation, the next step is to install software to the
computers. Microsoft windows 2003 server will be installed in server for
the efficient file and printer sharing. For terminal computers that target
for users, Microsoft Windows XP Professional software will be used.
These two software would be the main tools in the system. The
installation process will take one week to do. During a one-week testing,
library staff will try to use the software to track the book sales and stock.
Users are invited to try the entire book service system.
Stage 4 - Database Designing and Implementation
Database will be designed to store book details and personal information
of the users. We will spend two weeks to do the designing. We will
collect all the library book descriptions, storing the data into the
computers. Then, we will start implementation on the following week.
Stage 5 - Network Installation and Testing
This stage will last for two weeks. First, we will order the necessary
hardware for building up the network. Next, we will link up all the
terminal computers to the server. After all, we will do a test on it to
ensure the server system run properly.
Stage 6 – Staff Training
In this stage, it will be divided to two sub-stages, including software
training and hardware training. The entire course will last for two
months. We will hire professional instructor to give a complete training
course. The training course will be given in easy-to-follow lessons and
practical exercises. Both software and hardware training course will be
held in the same phase. Software training course will be provided to
teach basic skill of using Microsoft 2003 Server. Also, there will be
teaching on saving data and managing files. Hardware training course
will mainly target on the bar code reader, printing machine and the
fundamental networking knowledge, so the librarians can repair the
Course will also focus on how to deal with the Intranet, the internal
website. Every staff will have their own personal login password and
identity. Staff will learn sharing information directly in an organization.
According to the implementation plan, there are six stages of system testing within
the development period. Here are the details of each test.
Seek users categorization of functions
Card sorting method will be used to gather information about the user’s
conceptual model. Card sorting will give users certain cards with label of the
function’s name. Then users will categorize the cards into different categories.
With this method, we can know the conceptual mind of users so that it makes
the users easier to perform a task if we put the functions under the same
Debugging on system design
Programmer will debug the software to check if there are any run-time
errors of the program. For example, they will check if there are any
unusual behaviour of the program when certain conditions are fulfill. In
case of this, they will then fix the problems and proceed the checking on
other pages or functions of the software.
Think Aloud Testing
Test on hardware installation
Test on network performance
Test on the whole system