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SOCCER hand out History

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Soccer Basics.
Every sport has a history. But none of them as interesting as
the history of fo...
2 | P a g e
They wrapped their balls in bright-colored cloth and kicked them around the ground
to celebrate the abundance ...
3 | P a g e
The origin of soccer in Ancient Rome
Soccer in Ancient Rome has no rules, strategies, or tactics. It was playe...
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SOCCER hand out History

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e SOCCER HAND-OUT Soccer Basics. Every sport has a history. But none of them as interesting as the history of football. Soccer’s obscure origin is ironic considering its popularity today. Historians tried to trace the individual who began the history of football but soccer’s very ancient origins has clouded him in mystery. Yet historians successfullytraced the cultures that first played football-like games. To see more clearly how football began, we can divide its origins into two. First, the ancient times that goes back as old as 4,500 years (A) and then the modern period, the immediate predecessor of the football we love today (B). A. The Ancient Origin of Football Historic artifacts and enduring traditions make it clear that football has been played in Egypt, Ancient China, and Rome. The game’s basic principles survived through the years and went on to be played during the medieval times. Soccer’s Origin in Ancient Egypt Balls made of linen have been discovered in Egyptian tombs that date way back to 2,500 BC. Some of these balls were made from animal intestines or skin to improve their bouncing. Based on drawings, scholars theorize that Egyptians played a football-like game during feasts of fertility.
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e They wrapped their balls in bright-colored cloth and kicked them around the ground to celebrate the abundance of the earth. Approximately 2,000 years later, a different form of football-like game appeared in China. Football in Ancient China Around 476 BC to 221 BC, a sport called cuju was popularly played in China. The name is roughly translated as “kick the ball with foot.” The ancient Chinese stuffed feathers inside a leather ball which they kick inside a rectangular playing field. To score a goal, they have to shoot it through a in a piece of cloth hung between two poles. The game became so popular because it was used by military leaders as a competitive sport to keep soldiers physically fit. As the game became more widely played, royal courts began organizing cuju matches played by professional cuju players. Teams composed of women and civilians participated in tournaments as well. Just like today’s soccer, cuju players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body except their arms and hands. Referees are present in the game to make sure that players follow the rules. Unlike modern-day football, the number of players who can play cuju is flexible. It could range from two to 10 while in matches sponsored by the royal court, the number is usually around 12 to 16. But not all cuju matches are won by goals. In some tournaments, the games are decided by scores given to players according to how they played the game. For instance, players who make passes that are too short or who kick the ball outside the field’s limits are penalized with point deductions. The team that has the smallest deductions wins. During the mid-17th Century, cuju began to decline in popularity. Its codes of play, however, survived throughout the ages, making it possible to still play the game today. About the same period the Chinese were playing their referee-monitored cuju, the Ancient Romans were enjoying another version of football.
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e The origin of soccer in Ancient Rome Soccer in Ancient Rome has no rules, strategies, or tactics. It was played by 54 players (27 on each team) whose only aim is to get the ball to the opposing team’s goal. It became so popular that it was included in the early Olympics. Naturally, many players went home injured during that game. Aside from football played on the field, there was another one played on the streets. Roman orator Cicero noted that it was mostly played by young boys. These boys would run around the town, kicking the ball on the ground. He wrote about an incident where the carelessness of players led to death. It happened because they accidentally kicked the ball towards a barber who was shaving a customer. The barber lost control of his blade and cut the customer’s throat. Soccer during the Middle Ages It can be said that English people in general were the ones who kept the tradition of football alive during the Middle Ages. A very popular form of the sport in the mid-14th Century England is called mob football. It was played by an unlimited number of players. At that point, there was still no one who created football rules. Players were allowed to go on playing as long as their actions do not lead to manslaughter. They played the games on the streets and turned towns into giant pitches. Since anyone can join in the games and there were very few rules, medieval football often went out of hand and ended in riots. Playing on the streets also caused trouble to residents and merchants. These forced rulers to issue decrees banning the sport. However, it has already become so popular that its playing was not stopped at all. By the end of the 14th Century, the game has become deeply embedded in the English culture.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e B. The Beginning of Modern-Day Football While the sport was widely played by youngsters all over England, it was banned in schools because of its fierceness. Lack of rules governing player conduct often resulted in injuries and chaos. This prompted the clubs in the 19th Century to create rules that will ensure fair and honest play. These rules are the foundation of the football rules we now follow. That is why in the 19th Century clubs felt the urge of creating rules. So they gathered together and formed the Football Association. In the United States, the sport became known as soccer. Creation of the Football Association As the 1860s began, rules regulating play and roughness in the field were made. It can be said that the clubs that created more strict football rules are the ones who invented the game as we know it today. But there was one problem during that time: each club or town played with their own set of rules. So when there were meetings from different teams, it often ended in dispute as to what rules should be followed. This problem was finally solved in 1863 when twelve London clubs met to discuss common rules for the game. These clubs then formed a governing body called The Football Association, the same FA that holds today’s popular FA Cup. From England, it easily spread to other European countries such as Spain, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Eventually, these countries gathered to form a governing body of football that will oversee international games and the FIFA came to be. FA increased the popularity of football and helped in spreading it throughout the world. It became known as football, futbol, futebol, and fussbol in different countries but in the United States it became known as soccer.
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Who invented the word soccer? In some countries, such as in the United States, Philippines, and Korea, the world’s most popular sport is referred to as soccer. The word soccer was first invented in England to distinguish between rugby football and associationfootball. In order to avoid confusion, students referred to associationfootball “assoccer” while they called rugby football “rugger.” They later on omitted the letter “a” in “assoccer” to make it sound fancier. Soccer eventually outgrew the popularity of rugby football by far. The distinction between rugger and soccer was no longer necessary. People already knew which sport was meant when someone says “football.” Hence, the word football stuck in English usage. Americans, however, have their popular sport of gridiron or American football, which goes by the plain name of football. And so they have to use the word soccer to avoid confusion. Basic soccer rules, get a better understanding of the football laws and regulations through this simplified article. Main Football Rules A newbie’s companion to understanding the basic soccer rules & regulations The main objective of soccer is to score a goal with any part of the body except the arms and hands. There are 17 Laws of the Game to ensure order and fairness in play. These were formulated by FIFA, the highest governing body of football in the world. The laws were mostly based on the first set of rules formulated by the Football Association, England’s football body, in 1863. Below are the 17 Laws of the Game.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Soccer rule 1: Field of Play The field of play must be between 90 and 120 meters long (100-131 yards) and between 45 to 90 meters wide (49-98 yards). In international games, the football field dimensions are 100-110 meters (109-120 yards) and 64-75 meters (70-82 yards). The following areas of the football field must be marked: touchlines/sidelines, goal lines & goal areas, halfway line, center circle, penalty areas, arcs, & spots, and corner arcs. A flag post should be planted on each corner of the field. Soccer rule 2: The Ball Soccer Balls Charles Goodyear is considered as the inventor of the modern soccer ball. When and where the very first soccer ball was made is impossible to tell. Soccer-like games have been played since the earliest part of human civilization and the evolution of the game was accompanied by the soccer ball’s development. The oldest soccer ball can be traced to ancient times (A). It was filled with different materials to make it round. It was in the Middle Age (B) that football balls were first filled with air. Rapid developments came when soccer reached its modern period (C). Balls made of rubber were being produced and FIFA’s rules on soccer balls were established. The football balls of current times (D) are radically different from their predecessors. Advanced production technology and materials are being used, and the balls that we play with just keep on getting better and better.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e A. Ancient football – the first foot ball in history The first ever soccer ball in history was invented by ancient civilizations, 3000 years ago. The Chinese, Aztec and Maya Indians, and Egyptians each had their own contributions to the first soccer ball in history.  The Chinese made their own football with animal skin stuffed together to form a sphere.  Maya and Aztec Indians in Central America made a rubber ball, which they formed from the latex of rubber wood.  The Egyptians invented a football made of seeds wrapped in linen. They also made balls out of animal skin or catgut for improved bouncing.  The Greeks, just like the Egyptians, created a ball wrapped in linen, but it contains hair inside instead of seeds.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e B. The soccer ball of the Middle Age By the Middle Age, football was already established as a popular sport and so more attention was given to the making of the ball. Bladders were the most common material for soccer balls in Medieval Europe, such as the pig bladder ball played by the Italians in the 1600s. However, bladder balls were easily punctured and their irregular shape made them difficult to control. To solve these problems, bladder balls were wrapped in leather, making them more durable and rounder. C. The ball at the beginning of the modern period of football Football has become a well-recognized sport in the 1800s. It is in this era that professional football began and more attention was given to improving the quality of the ball. 1855: The first round foot-ball by Charles Goodyear The year 1855 marked a significant event in the development of the soccer ball. It was in the year that the first round soccer ball was made, by a man named Charles Goodyear. Prior to that, soccer balls were not totally round because they were made from animal bladders. Also rubber was not used as a material for competitive soccer balls because it is sticky and easily deforms in hot playing conditions. Goodyear solved those problems by discovering a method of treating rubber so it becomes more solid and durable, without losing its bounce. The method was called vulcanization. 1872: The official soccer ball size & shape were set Until the mid-1800s, there were no rules yet on the size and shape of the ball. The dimensions of the football ball depended on the animal bladder but with Goodyear’s
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e invention meant that the shape of the soccer ball could already be set. So in 1872, the English Football Association(FA) officially declared that the ball should be spherical and between 27 and 28 inches in circumference. It remains the official soccer ball size today. This specification coincided with the Charles Goodyear rubber ball. Therefore Goodyear can be considered as the inventor of the modern soccer ball. 1880’s: The laced ball, the first World Cup ball Leather balls were still widely used despite the introduction of the rubber ball. The establishment of the English Football League in 1888 spurred the first mass- production of leather soccer balls. The soccer ball of this era was made of several panels of pure leather, laced at one surface to keep the bladder inside intact. This type of ball was the one used in the first ever World Cup, the1930 World Cup. 1950’s: The water-proof ball Leather soccer balls began to be water-proofed in the 1950s with the use of synthetic paints. The lace was also removed to make the surface smoother and the ball easier to control. In 1951, white footballs were manufactured to improve ball visibility for players and spectators. In snowy venues, orange soccer balls were used. D. Soccer ball of current times The World Cup prompted many innovations of the soccer ball. Adidas Telstar
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e The black and white ball that remains today as soccer’s icon was first introduced by Adidas in 1970. Made specifically for the 1970 World Cup, it has 32 panels that were alternately painted in black and white (20 panels were in white and 12 in black). It is called the Telstar, after the space satellite that resembles its geometry. Its color made the ball more visible on black-and-white television. The Telstar was once again used in the 1974 World Cup, and it was in that world cup that FIFA declared an “official” soccer ball for the first time. Teamgeist, Jabulani, and beyond The 32-panel ball was the norm until the 2006 World Cup when Adidas introduced a 14-paneled ball called Teamgeist (German for “Team Spirit”). Fewer panels made the ball smoother. Instead of being stitched, the panels were bonded together for a more even surface. For the 2010 World Cup, Adidas introduced an 8-panel ball called the Jubalani (a South African word for “celebrate”). Fewer panels and better polyurethane materials improved the ball’s performance and feel. Some prototype soccer balls today are already made with astounding technology. A soccer ball called CTRUS no longer need air inflation changes colors when it goes out of bounds or when it crosses the goal line. What is a soccer ball made of? Look into the material composition of a soccer ball and get a better understanding of their qualities.
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e Do you plan to buy a soccer ball? Knowing the materials used to make a soccer ball will help you choose the right one. There are different materials for the outer cover (A), inner lining (B), bladder (C), stitch (D), and valve (E). A. Outer Cover: Polyurethane (PU) or PVC The outer cover is the outermost part of a soccer ball, which protects it from wear and gives the ball its appearance. Traditionally, the material for the outer cover is made of pure leather. But leather has poor water resistance and gets heavy in wet playing conditions. In the 1970s, soccer ball manufacturersbegancoating leather with polyurethane, a synthetic material, to protect the ball from damages like scuffs and scratches. It also made the ball playable even on wet weather. The outer cover of modern soccer balls are made of synthetic leather for enhanced water resistance. Synthetic leather (coated with polyurethane) is the material for soccer balls used at professional and top-flight level because it has the best feel for the ball. PVC is another material used for outer cover. This plastic-like material is highly durable but offers less feel for the ball. PVC covers are also hard, which do not make them ideal for playing. The cover for an indoor soccer ball is made of a material called felt, the same material that coats a tennis ball. Felt makes the ball more controllable on smooth surfaces. B. Inner lining: Cotton & polyester The inner lining is located between the bladder and the outer cover. The material it is made of determines how bouncy or how responsive a ball is. Professional soccer balls, such as the ones used in the World Cup, have inner
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e linings made of multiple layers. Often, they have four layers of polyester and cotton. Cotton gives softness to the ball while polyester makes it durable and responsive. Cheap footballs only have two layers of polyester for inner lining. These balls are still durable but they are harder and more difficult to control. C. Bladder: Butyl or latex The bladder is the part of the soccer ball which holds air. The most common bladder material is butyl because it is durable and retains air very well. Butyl's disadvantage is that it is easily deformed so it is less responsive when kicked. Latex is the preferred material in professional level because of its responsiveness. The problem with a latex bladder is that it easily loses air so it has to be filled regularly. Also, it is not as durable as butyl. Indoor soccer and futsal (Futsal) balls have their bladders filled with foam instead of air to reduce bouncing. D. Stitch: Polyester, Kevlar or glued by thermal eating Stitches hold the panels of a soccer ball together. The panels on a professional soccer ball are mostly stitched with polyester, a durable, non-absorbent material. Kevlar thread can be also used for enhanced durability and water-resistance. Some football balls these days are no longer stitched. Instead, the panels are glued together using thermal heating. These balls are now the norms in international competitions such as the 2010 FIFA World Cup because the absence of stitches makes the ball smoother and more accurate. E. Valve: Butyl or silicone The valve is the part of a soccer ball where air passes through when inflating it. It is a needle-like structure which looks like a tiny hole from the outside. Soccer ball valves are typically made of butyl, a rubber material that easily opens when the air pump needle is inserted. Because of its elasticity, it quickly closes when the pump is removed.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e Many professional football balls these days have silicone valves for better air retention. Soccer ball sizes, what is the official ball size in football? A close look at the five different football ball sizes The soccer ball used in professional leagues and in the FIFA World Cup is called “size 5”. The following are the specifications of an official size 5 soccer ball:  Circumference: 27 to 28 inches (69 to 71 cm)  Weight: 14 to 16 oz (400 to 450 grams)  Official pressure: between 8.5 to 15.6 PSI  Diameter: 8.6 to 9 inches (22 to 23 cm)  Radius: 4.3 to 4.5 inches (11 to 11.5 cm) However, the size 5 soccer ball is not used at all times. The soccer ball sizes for official match use vary according to the type of soccer being played or the age group of players. Below are the soccer ball circumference for different age groups and game variations. A. Kids’ & youth soccer ball circumference  U-6, U-7, & U-8: Size 3 is the official soccer ball for toddlers and young children. It has a circumference of 23-24 inches and a weight of 11-12 ounce. Size 3 is the smallest official ball.  U-9, U-10, & U-11: Size 4 is the standard soccer ball for kids aged between nine and 11 years old. It has a circumference of 25-26 inches and a weight of 11-13 ounce.
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e  U-12, U-13 & up: The regulation size soccer ball, size 5, is played by youth players when they reach the age of 12. Size 5 is also the ball used in high school soccer. B. Ball sizes for other forms of football  Five-a-side football: Five-a- side football is played with slightly different rules from regular football but it is still played with the standard soccer ball.  Beach soccer: The ball used in official beach soccer games is a size 5 but is slightly lighter, 14-15½ ounces. It is often brightly colored to make it more visible on a sandy playing ground.  Futsal: A size 4 soccer ball is used in futsal. However, the ball material for futsal is different than the one in youth soccer: a futsal ball is filled with foam to make is less bouncy since the sport is played on a hard surface. It is also typically covered with felt or suede for more friction.  Indoor soccer: Like in futsal, the ball size for indoor soccer is number 4 and is covered with felt or suede. However, indoor soccer balls are typically bouncier than in futsal. C. Special soccer ball sizes  Size 1 soccer ball: Also called the miniball, this ball is very small with a circumference of only 17 inches. This ball is typically bought by parents for play for their one- to three-year old children. The size 1 soccer ball is not used in tournaments but is used by some clubs or teams to train players in ball control.
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e  Size 2 soccer ball: This ball is slightly bigger than size one, with a circumference of 20-22 inches. This ball is usually given for play for children four years old and below. Some coaches use the size two ball for ball control drills. The soccer ball’s diameter must be 68-70 millimeters and must weigh 410-450 grams. If it bursts while in play, the game is stopped and resumed by the referee dropping the ball between two players from opposing sides. Soccer rule 3: Number of players A football match is played by two teams of no more than eleven players each, with one player per side playing a goalkeeper. The minimum number of players in a soccer team is seven. A match is not started or continued if there are less than seven players in a team. In official football competitions, the maximum number of substitutions is three. However, in friendly tournaments, there can be as many as six or unlimited substitutions, depending on what each side have agreed on together with the referee. Soccer rule 4: Player’s equipment The following soccer equipments are required of each player: a shirt, shorts, socks, shin guards, and football boots. Goalkeepers from both sides should wear a kit that will distinguish them from the outfield players and the referees. Players are allowed to wear head gears but are discouraged from wearing most forms of jewelry. Soccer rule 5: Head referee The duties and responsibilitiesof the head referee in soccer include: ensuring that players wear the proper strip and equipment, signaling the start and end of game, citing and punishing violations of rules, stopping play if a player requires medical attention, deciding whether or not to continue a game, and keeping time. The referee cites fouls and infringement of the rules and prevents repeated occurrences of unsportsmanlike conduct by cautioning players with a yellow card or sending them off with a red card. Two yellow cards in football is equivalent to a red card. A player who receives a red card in football cannot be replaced so his team must continue the game with one man less. Soccer rule 6: Assistant referees
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e The role of assistant referees in football or linesmen is primarily to assist the main referee by signaling for corner kicks, throw-ins, and violations of the offside law. They may also bring to the referee’s attention the infringements that he has not noticed of. However, it is always the head referee who has the final word. Soccer rule 7: Match duration The length of a soccer match is 90 minutes, played in two equal halves of 45 minutes. Additional minutes in a soccer game may be played at the end of each half to compensate for lost time during the game. The added minutes are called “injury period” and should not be confused with the overtime in soccer, which is played in some competition if a winner is not yet decided after regulation time. Soccer rule 8: Start/restart of play A kickoff starts a football game and restarts it at the second half or after a goal is scored. The team which kicks off the ball at the beginning of the match is determined by a coin toss. During the kickoff in football, only two players are allowed inside the center circle: the one kicking and the one receiving the ball. Soccer rule 9: Ball in and out of play The soccer ball is out of bounds when it has crossed the goal line or touchline whether on the ground or in air. If it rebounds off the referee, an assistant referee, a goal post, crossbar, or corner flag post and remains inside the field, then it is still in play. Soccer rule 10: Method of scoring A goal is scored in football if the ball crosses the goal line between the two goalposts and under the crossbar, as long as no violation of the rules has taken place. The side that scores the most goals wins. If both teams have the same number of goals at the end of the match, it is considered a draw even if neither of them scored a goal. Soccer rule 11: Offside
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e A player is in offside position if there are fewer than two defenders (including the goalie) between him and the goal line. A violation of the offside rule in football occurs if he is in that position and the ball is played to him. A free kick is awarded to the opposition if a player is caught offside. Soccer rule 12: Fouls and misconducts The following are the most common fouls in football: kicking, tripping, pushing, or charging another player recklessly; striking or attempting to strike an opponent or any member of the opposing side. A foul is called if a player: makes a tackle but hits the player before the ball; deliberately handles the ball (except the goalkeeper in his proper area); or if he uses excessive force in defending an opponent. Soccer rule 13: Free kicks A free-kick in football restarts a play after a foul or rule infringement is committed and is usually taken from the spot where the violation was committed. A free-kick can either be “direct”, in which a kicker may score directly, or “indirect”, in which another player must touch the ball before a goal can be scored. Soccer rule 14: Penalty kick A penalty kick in football is awarded if a defender commits a foul inside his own penalty area. The kick is taken from the penalty spot and all the players (except the kicker and the goalkeeper) must be outside the penalty area and penalty arc. Soccer rule 15: Throw-in A throw-in in football is awarded to a team if the ball goes over the touchline. It is awarded to the team opposing the side that touched the ball last. The throw is taken from the spot where the ball goes out of bounds. The taker must throw the ball with both hands, both feet on the ground, and facing the field of play. Soccer rule 16: Goal kick A goal-kick in football is awarded to the defending team if the opposing team causes the ball to go over the goal-line. Any player from the defending side is allowed to take the goal kick. It must be taken anywhere on the goal area and must go beyond the penalty area or it will be retaken. The ball must be touched by another player before the taker can play it again. Soccer rule 17: Corner kick
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e A corner kick in football is awarded to the attacking team if an opposing player is the last to touch the ball before it goes out of bounds on the goal-line. The attacking team resumes play by placing the ball in the corner arc nearest to where it crossed the goal line. Different types of football, distinguish the different variants of soccer that were derived from the original There are many games that descended from football; check out its 7 most popular variants The popularity of football has led to the development of many variations of the game. Some were developed out of necessitywhile others were modified to cater to people with disabilities. For example, indoor soccer was invented so football can be played all year round in a controlled environment and wheelchair soccer was adapted to make the game accessible to people with disabilities. Over time, these types of football gained foothold among fans and leagues were established to facilitate tournaments. Below are the most popular variants of football that you can play. 5 a side football Five-a-side football is an informal variant of football played with five players, with one taking the position of a goalkeeper. The game is played on a smaller field and with a smaller goal. It can be played indoor or outdoor and the field may be enclosed with barriers or not. There is no governing body that establishes the rule for five-a-side and the game
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e rules are often decided right before kickoff. Despite that, there are rules that are widely used in five-a-side games like:  the ball is not allowed to go over the head  there is no offside law  sliding tackles are forbidden Futsal (Futebol de Salao) Futsal is the fastest-growing variant of football in the world. The game is played indoors on a hard playing surface defined by lines. Five players play for each team and the number of substitutions is unlimited. The ball used in futsal is smaller than regular football and has lesser bounce. Two major bodies govern the rules in futsal, FIFA and the World Futsal Association. The biggest futsal tournament is the FIFA Futsal World Cup, held every four years. Brazil and Spain are the two nations that dominate this sport. Beach soccer (Beasal) Beach soccer is a variant of football played barefooted on a sandy surface that measures 30 by 40 yards. Five players on each side, who can be replaced anytime, compete in three 12-minute periods. Beach soccer is no longer considered a mere pastime by vacationers, having been officially recognized by FIFA in recent years. It has become a discipline in its own right and now has its own World Cup. The sport owes its success to its dramatic and intense nature, with high number of goals per game that are often scored in acrobatic and stunning ways. Indoor soccer (Arena soccer)
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e Indoor soccer is a six-a-side variant of football played on a field delimited by walls or boards instead of touchlines. The ball can be played directly off the boards, which makes goal kicks, throw-ins, and corners unnecessary and the game very fast- paced. Different leagues in the world have their own version of indoor soccer but they all have similar features:  the game is typically played in four 15-minute periods  there is no offside  the ball is not allowed to go over head height and headers are not permitted Street soccer Street football is an informal variant of football that has no fixed rules: it can be played anywhere by any number of players, there is no time limit unless agreed upon, and players can decide on the method of winning. The rules for street soccer are created before the game to suit the playing environment and can evolve during play to deal with any new situation(for example, the addition of players or the intolerance of the neighborhood). Many of soccer’s greatest technicians like Maradona and Zidane are products of the streets. The lax rules of the game encourage creativity and the crudeness of the playing area and equipments develop technical skills. Freestyle football Freestyle football is basically juggling a soccer ballin creative and impressive ways. Any part of the body can be used with the exception of the arms and hands. It is originally a street game but has become a sport in its own right with competitions like Red Bull street style.
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e Freestyle football came into prominence when Nike launched an ad in 1998 featuring the Brazil squad performing tricks in an airport. Football superstars Wayne Rooney, Cristiano Ronaldo and Ronaldinho have also performed freestyle tricks for soccer ads. Paralympic football Paralympic football is a form of football that has been adapted for people with handicaps. Its two most common versions are five-a-side, for people with visual impairment, and seven-a-side, for people with cerebral palsy. Other versions of football for people with handicap exist and are becoming more structured and popular:  deaf football – adopts FIFA rules, has grown out of the community of deaf people around the world  wheelchair football – played with a bigger ball by people on electric wheelchair  football for amputee – outfield players must have one leg amputated and goalkeepers may have two legs but must have one amputated hand Football jersey numbers, how do footballers get their number? Get an answer to this question and more in this guide to soccer shirt number. The reason behind the printing of jersey numbers is simple: it helps referees and fans distinguish players on the pitch. Numbered shirts were first worn in professional football by English clubs Arsenal and
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e Sheffield Wednesday in August 1928. At that time, starting players were wearing numbers 1 to 11 according to their positions on the field, and higher numbers for substitutes. Fixed numbers assigned to each player, called squad numbers, for the duration of a competition was introduced first during the 1954 World Cup. 40 years later, The Football Association(governing body of English football) abandoned the required use of 1-11 for the starters and squad numbers became the rules during the 1993- 94 English Premier League season. Nowadays most of the top football leagues in the world adopted the squad numbers system. Methods of assigning jersey numbers in football Different methods to assign a shirt number to a player exist: Assignment by football position The jersey number traditionally denotes the position of a soccer player. Despite the establishment of squad numbers, jerseys 1 to 11 are often given to the first choice line-up according to their positions on the field. Belowisthe traditional numberingof playersinamodern4-2-3-1 formation: 1 – Goalkeeper 2 – Right fullback 3 – Left fullback 4 – Centerback 5 – Centerback 6 – Defending/Holdingmidfielder 7 – Right midfielder/wingers 8 – Central/Box-to-boxmidfielder 9 – Striker 10 – Attackingmidfielder/Playmaker 11 – Leftmidfielder/wingers Because the assignmentof jerseynumbersby football position isatraditionandnota rule, teamsare free togive numberstotheirplayersastheywant.
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e Assignment by alphabetical order During 3 consecutive World Cups (1974, 1978, and 1982) Argentina numbered the team alphabetically by surname. In consequence, starting goalkeeper Ubaldo Fillol wore the number 5 jersey during the 1978 World Cup and the number 7 in 1982 letting the number 1 to an outfield player. An exception was made in 1982 to let Diego Maradona wore his favored 10 instead of the 12. During the 1982 World Cup, England used the same alphabetical order system except for the goalkeepers and the number 7 of the captain, Kevin Keegan. Assignment by “oversight” Before the 1958 World Cup, Brazilian officials sent the list of selected players to the FIFA, but forgot to assign shirt numbers to each of them. This is a delegate of Uruguay, Lorenzo Villizzio, which distributed the numbers trying to do his best. He gave the number 10 to an unknown 17 years old player, Pelé, and the number 3 to the first choice goalkeeper Gilmar! Famous soccer jersey numbers Some jersey numbers became more popular than the rest through the history of football. Below are the three legendary football jersey numbers: 7 – the number seven, dedicated traditionally to right wingers (Luis Figo, Marc Overmars, Pierre Littbarski, Garrincha), has been worn also by many brilliant forward like Raul, Claudio Caniggia, Pato, David Villa, Bebeto or Shevchenko. But number 7 jersey became iconic in one club particularly: Manchester United. Indeed, many players who have worn this number marked the history of the Red Devils like George Best, Bryan Robson, Eric Cantona, David Beckham and Cristiano Ronaldo recently. 9 – the number nine football jersey is worn by pure strikers, deadly anywhere near the penalty area and brilliant finishers. Ronaldo de Lima, Romario, Gabriel Batistuta, Marco Van Basten, Samuel Eto’o and Alan Shearer are some of the great footballers who donned the number 9 shirt.
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e 10 – on the shirts of all football teams in the world, there is a number that is more prestigious than all the others, the No. 10. Mythical, this number is usually reserved for the most skillful player of the team. The most iconic footballers in history like Pelé, Diego Maradona, Zinedine Zidane, Michel Platini, Ferenc Puskás and Messi today wore or wear the legendary number 10. Retired jersey numbers You may have come across the term “retired jersey number”. In football, like in other sports, a retired jersey number is one which can no longer be used by other players of the same squad. Numbers are retired to honor a player who has given significant contributions to a club or national team. Below are some retired jersey numbers: #3 of Milan – for Paolo Maldini, the greatest player of AC Milan #6 of Milan – for Franco Baresi, one of the finest defenders in football history #6 of Roma – for Aldair, one of the best Brazilian fullbacks #6 of West Ham United – for Bobby Moore, one of England’s greatest footballers #10 of Brescia – for Roberto Baggio, the best Italian footballer ever #10 of Kispest AC/Honvéd – for Ferench Puskas, considered as the best Hungarian players of all time #10 of Napoli – for Diego Maradona, who gave lifted them from one of the poorest to the best club in Serie A #14 of Ajax – for Johan Cruijff, considered as Netherland’s best ever player #23 of Manchester City – for Marc-Vivien Foe, City player who died while playing for his country Cameroon Jersey number retired for fans In football, the fans are dubbed the 12th player because their support is equal to having an additional player on the field. Some football clubs that received strong support from fans retire the number 12 jersey to honor them. Thus, Fenerbahce, RC Lens, Bayern Munich, Feyenoord, Portsmouth, Dynamo Kiev, Lazio or Zenith St. Petersburg are some of the clubs where the number 12 has been permanently withdrawn to pay tribute to the loyalty of supporters. Soccer tactics
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e Identify & study the different tactics & strategies of football. Soccer positions explained, look into the roles & duties of the different football positions. Football positions are as varied as the skills of players and the tactics of the game. Find out which spot you belong. Soccer has many different positions and many different names that come along with them. Each player position has his own very specific task, from defending against opponent attacks to scoring. To simplify, we will categorize the football positions into four: the goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders, and forwards. Goalkeeper (GK)
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e The goalkeeper is simply known as the guy with gloves who keeps the opponents from scoring. He has a special position because only him can play the ball with his hands (provided that he is inside his own penalty area and the ball was not deliberately passed to him by a team mate). Aside from being the last line of defense, the goalkeeper is the first person in attack. That is why keepers who can make good goal kicks and strategic ball throws to team mates are valuable. The goalie has four main roles: saving, clearing, directing the defense, and distributing the ball. Saving is the act of preventing the ball from entering the net while clearing means keeping the ball far from the goal area. The goalkeeper has the role of directing the defense since he is the farthest player at the back and he can see where the defenders should position themselves. Distributing the ball happens when a goalkeeper decides whether to kick the ball or throw it after making a save. Where the keeper throws or kicks the ball is the first instance of attack. Some of history’s finest goalkeepers are Lev Yashin, Gordon Banks, Dino Zoff, Peter Schmeichel, and Gianluigi Buffon. Defenders A defender’s task is to keep the ball away from the keeper, prevent opposing attackers from passing or receiving, and block shots. Defending requires a player to be well-fit, hard-working, and quick at anticipating the movement of the opponents. Defenders must protect the keeper: they should think of the goalie as an important person that opponents are not allowed to get near to. Typically, teams play with four defenders.
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e Center-back/center-half/central defender (CB) In a four-player defense, the center-backs are the two defenders in the middle. They are erroneously called center-halves, because in an obsolete football formation called the 2-3-5, the “3” players are designated with that name. As tactics evolved, the “3” dropped to “center-back” but still retained the name “center- half.” A center back must be strong, fearless, and good at timing tackles. Being tall is an advantage for a center-back as it allows him to win the ball in the air, an essential skill in corner kick situations. Ronald Koeman, Fabio Cannavaro, and Franco Baresi are some of the greatest center backs of all time. Full-back (LB, FB) A full-back is a defender positioned on the side. They are either classified as left back (LB) or right back (RB). The defenders positioned between them are called centerbacks. The full-back is tasked to prevent opponents from attacking on the sides. He must be quick and must be able to prevent opponents from making a cross. He is often assigned to mark the opposing winger.
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e Wing-back (LWB, RWB) A wing-back is a full-back that advances up to the opponent’s goal end. He runs the whole length of the football pitch: he defends the flanks like a dedicated full- back and attacks like a winger. This is the most physically demanding position on the field. Cafu and Roberto Carlos are two of the best wing-backs ever. Sweeper (SW) A sweeper is located at the back of the defensive line, just in front of the keeper. This position is no longer popularly used in the modern game but was popular in the past especially with the catenaccio system of Italy. A sweeper’s task is to clear the ball in case it breaks through the defenders. He does not man-mark an opponent so he can collect loose balls or go upfield to bring the ball forward in attack. The German football legend Franz Beckenbauer is the most remarkable of all sweepers. Midfielders
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e Midfielders link the offense and the defense: they bring the ball up to the forwards in attack and prevent the ball from reaching the defenders when not in possession. You can think of them as the telephone line that connects two people. Without a solid midfield, it is very difficult for the forwards to score and the defense is often put at risk of the opponents’ attacks. Below are the many types of midfielders and the roles they perform. Defending/Holding midfielder (DM) A defending or holding midfielder is stationed just in front of the defensive line. His responsibility is to prevent the ball from reaching the defensive line. He must be skilled at intercepting passes, tackling the ball, and positioning themselves strategically. Claude Makelele and Dunga are two of the great holding midfielders. Central/Box-to-box midfielder (CM) A central midfielder is stationed at the center of the field. If he plays both offense and defense, he is called a box-to-box midfielder. The name implies that he runs from his own penalty box to the opponent’s to fulfill different roles. A box-to-box midfielder does the following: create opportunities for the striker and stop the opponent’s attacks. Stamina, technical ability, and relentless hard-work are the attributes of this type of midfielder. Steven Gerrard is the best box-to-box
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e midfielder of his era. Attacking midfielder/playmaker (AM) The attacking midfielder is an advanced midfield player who is primarily inclined to attack. He must have excellent ball control abilities and tactical awareness. A playmaker occupies the same position as an attacking midfielder but performs a different role. This guy is considered the brain of the team, the most skilled player who orchestrates the attack and distributes the ball. A playmaker must be good in decision-making and as the football saying goes: when you don’t know what to do with the ball, you pass it to him. The playmaker often wears the number 10 jersey. Some of the most famous playmakers in football are Zico, Zinedine Zidane, and Juan Riquelme. Wide midfielders/wingers (LW, RW) The winger plays the same role as the attacking midfielder but he focuses his attacks from the side. This position is often utilized in “odd” formations like 4-3-3 and 4-5-1. Since the winger often plays between the midfield and the offensive line, he is sometimes classified as a forward. A player who occupies this position must be fast, have excellent dribbling abilities, and accurate with passes.
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e A modern winger is typically flexible and can attack from the center, which makes him take over the role of a forward. Ryan Giggs and Garrincha are two excellent examples of wide midfielders. Forwards Forwards are the most celebrated players in the team because they are often the ones who score goals. Since there are many ways to score a goal, there are also many types of forwards. Accuracy, head ability, and ball control are the typical qualities of a forward. A forward does not have to as much work as the midfield or defense but he must be able to convert when his teammates give him the ball. Center-forward/striker (CF) Center-forwards are positioned closest to the opponent’s goal. They have two roles: first, they score goals through passes from teammates; second, they distract the defense to give room for the attacking midfielder, winger, or withdrawn striker to attack. A striker must be brilliant at receiving and controlling the ball, must be strong, and capable of winning the ball in the air. Skills at playing with the back to the goal is a prerequisite. Some of the greatest strikers of all time are Batistuta, Ruud van Nistelrooy, and Ronaldo.
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e Withdrawn striker/deep-lying forward/second forward (WF) The withdrawn striker plays behind the forward. It is typical in attacking football strategies to put him as the main scorer while the person in front of him serves as decoy. The deep-lying forward is often utilized in the 4-4-2 formation. A deep-lying forward must have excellent passing skills as he is expected to feed the striker and at the same time possess technical abilities with the ball as he often receives back passes from the striker. Pele played as second striker during his illustrious career. Other types of forwards Some strikers are further distinguished by their playing style, not just by where they stay on the field. The “off-the-shoulder” striker is a center-forward who is very skilled at breaking the offside trap and frees himself to face one-on-one with the goalkeeper. He is called such because he often positions himself parallel with the opposing defenders’ shoulders (in line with the second-to-the-last defender). Davor Suker of Croatia and Thierry Henry of France are off-the-shoulder strikers. The goal poacher is a type of striker who often scores goal from inside the opponent’s penalty area. He does not create his own opportunities but relies on passes and second-chances to score goals. The poacher often capitalizes on the mistake of the defense. Examples of goal poachers are David Trezeguet and Pippo Inzaghi. Football formations types & names, a simple guide to popular modern soccer formations: their strategies, tactics, & the famous teams that use them. Football formation names & types
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e List of the best modern soccer formations and how they work A football formation is a number set that describes the positions of players on the field. It determines how many players play on defense, the midfield, and the frontline. The first number always describes the defender, and so on. For example, a formation like 4-3-3 plays with four defenders, three midfielders, and three forwards. The goalkeeper is never mentioned in a soccer formation. Most formations are described in three numbers but four- and five-rank formations are also possible. The coach’s choice of formation is usually dictated by the type of players a team has. A coach may also change his team’s formations during a game to adapt with different situations (for example, when a goal is scored, a player is sent off by a red card, or a key player is injured). Below are the most dominant formations in football today: 4-4-2 formation (4-4-1-1 / 4-1-2-1- 2) 4-4-2 is the most basic of modern football formations. It is composed of four defenders (two center-backs, two fullbacks), four midfielders (two central midfielders, two side midfielders), and two forwards. In the 4-4-2 formation, one of the two forwards often plays outside the penalty box to bridge the midfield and frontline. This gives the team the appearance of playing a 4-4-1-1 formation. The advantage of this formation is having an extra player that can help the striker
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e attack without having to wait for midfield support. Another advantage of the 4-4-2 formation is width: the two side midfielders and two fullbacks allow a team to cover the space on the sides in defense and utilize it in offense. A team can split the function of the two central midfielders: one can be assigned a deep role in defense while the other can be placed further up to push the ball in offense. This creates a diamond-shaped midfield and turns 4-4-2 into a 4-1-2-1-2 formation. 4-4-2 came to prominence in European football with A.C. Milan under legendary football managerArrigo Sacchi. Milan utilized this formation to win three European Cups, two Intercontinental Cups, and three UEFA Super Cups between 1988 and 1995. 4-3-3 & 4-5-1 formations 4-3-3 sounds like a very offensive formation and 4-5- 1 a very defensive one but, amusingly, both formations are basically the same. Both play with four defenders, three central midfielders, two wingers, and one striker. However, in 4-3-3 the wingers are considered as forwards while in 4-5-1 they are considered more as midfielders. In the 4-3-3, the central midfielder in the middle is primarily assigned on defense and is positioned just in front of the back four. The other two midfielders play an all-around role: they participate in defense as well as in offense. Wingers in the 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 have the following responsibilities: they bring the ball up to the striker, provide him crosses, or cut inside the penalty area to support the striker. When their team loses the ball, it is their task to mark the opposing fullbacks. In this type of formation, the striker is typically good at playing with his back to the goal: he can control passes and distribute the ball to teammates or make pivot shots. Because the striker is expected to receive many crosses, teams who play 4-3- 3 or 4-5-1 often field a tall striker who has a great heading ability. Barcelona adapted a version of 4-3-3 formation in winning back-to-back La Liga championships in 2005 and 2006 as well as the UEFA Champions League title in
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e 2006. During the same period, Chelsea used the more defensive 4-5-1 formation with coach Jose Mourinho to win back-to-back Premier League titles. 5-3-2 & 3-5-2 formations 5-3-2 and 3-5-2 are two football formations that are the same. Their only difference is how the two players on each flank are seen. In the 5-3-2, these players are considered as fullbacks while in 3-5-2 they are considered more as wingers. In practice, 3- 5-2 is simply 5-3-2 in an offensive mode. In the 5-3-2, there are five defenders (three central defenders, two defenders/wingers), three central midfielders, and two forwards. One central defender may drop back to play as sweeper to convert the 5- 3-2 to a 1-4-3-2 formation. The key players in the 5-3-2 formation are the fullbacks: their primary tasks are to defend the flanks but they also give width to a team’s offense by providing support from the sides. Since those players have to work the whole length of the pitch, they are typically versatile players with high stamina. Of the three midfielders in the 5-3-2, one is positioned in front of the defense to perform defensive tasks. The two other midfielders play a more offensive role even if they also participate in the team’s defense. Usually, one forward plays as a striker while the other plays a supporting role. One of the most remarkable team that played with this formation is 2002 World Cup champion Brazil, which played an offensive 5-3-2, relying on its able fullbacks Cafu and Roberto Carlos. 4-3-2-1 formation (the “Christmas tree”) The 4-3-2-1 is a narrow football formation played with four defenders (two fullbacks, two center- backs), three central midfielders, two attacking midfielders, and one striker. Because of its pointed shape on the blackboard, 4-3-2-1 is dubbed the “Christmas tree” formation. Defense in the 4-3-2-1 is the same with other flat
  36. 36. 36 | P a g e back four formations, except that the defense on the flanks is left solely to the fullbacks. Like in the 5-3-2 and 4-3-3, one player on central midfield is assigned a defensive role while the other two are more offense-oriented. Unlike the 4-5-1, the two attacking midfielders focus more on the middle instead of the wings. However, a coach can give more width to its offense by letting the fullbacks work the whole length of the pitch. Carlos Ancelloti, as coach of AC Milan, implemented the 4-3-2-1 formation in winning two Champions League titles (2003 & 2007). 4-2-3-1 & 4-2-1-3 formation The 4-2-3-1 is a football formation made up of four defenders, two central midfielders, three advanced midfielders (one playmaker, two wingers), and a striker. When people consider the wingers in the 4-2- 3-1 as forwards, this formation is listed as 4-2-1-3. However, 4-2-3-1 and 4-2-1-3 are essentiallythe same. The two central midfielders in this formation are primarily defensive and so they are often called “holding midfielders”. Ahead of them are the wingers, who usually work very near the touchline to spread out opposition defense and provide crosses to the striker. The playmaker is the key player in this formation, being the one who controls the team’s offense. He is typically the most skillful, creative, and tacticallyaware player of a team. Usually, he is not assigned to a fixed position and is free to play on any part of the football field (parts of a football field). This formation has the big advantage of having both a playmaker, who coordinates the attack, and wingers, who give width to the offense. The 4-2-3-1 formation was the basic formation of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa. It was used by more than half of the 32 teams in that tournament and was the formation of three of the four semi-finalists: Germany, Spain, and Netherlands. Other football formations The evolution of football strategies and tactics brought about the birth of numerous new formations. Below are some unorthodox football formations:
  37. 37. 37 | P a g e 3-4-3 formation (3-3-1-3) 3-4-3 is a football formation popularized by Barcelona and AC Milan in the 1990s, which evolved from the 4-3-3. It looks very offensive, with only three players left to defend in front of the goal. However, the midfield and the backline can work closely together on defense, especially when the ball is near their goal. A popular three-forward formation similar to the 3-4-3 is 3-3-1-3, which was used by the Dutch total football team of the 1970s and West Germany in the 1972 World Cup. 3-4-2-1 formation 3-4-2-1 is a football formation that is played with three defenders, four midfielders (two center midfielders, two side midfielders), two attacking midfielders, and one striker. It is similar to a 3-4-3 except that the wingers are replaced by as attacking midfielders instead. 3-6-1 formation 3-6-1 is a football formation with three defenders, six midfielders (two defensive midfielders, two wide midfielders, two offensive midfielders), and one striker. This unusual formation is often used when a team is leading to constrain play to the midfield. 3-6-1 can easily be converted into a more balanced 4-4-2 formation by dropping back one midfielder in defense and putting one midfielder on the frontline. 1-4-3-2 formation 1-4-3-2 is a football formation that became popular with Italy’s catenaccio system in the 1960s. It is typically played with one sweeper, four defenders (two center-backs, two fullbacks), three central midfielders, and two strikers. When used with the catenaccio tactic, players often lie deep in their own half playing defense primarily and waiting for good opportunities to counter-attack. The key player in the formation is the sweeper, who provides an additional line of defense behind the center-backs. 4-6-0 formation 4-6-0 is a football formation that assigns no dedicated striker. It is similar to a 4-3-3 or the classic football formation 4-2-4, except that there are actually no
  38. 38. 38 | P a g e forwards since the frontline is withdrawn deep into the midfield. 4-6-0 can also be described as a 4-3-3-0 formation. This formation was dubbed by Brazilian coach Carlos Alberto Parreira as the “formation of the future” and was used by Manchester United to become 2008 UEFA Champions League winner. Old football formations, study how the soccer formations of the past work and the famous teams that utilized them. Get a better understanding of how classic soccer formations worked In the earliest days of football there were no specific formations or designated positions. Football was played like a children’s game of kick and run: the ball was kicked long and all the players ran towards it. In 1863, the offside rule in football was formalized with the creation of the English Football Association. The rule stated that any player in front of the kicker is offside and cannot play the ball. The kick and run game was no more and became a game of charge-and-dribble: players dribbled the ball as far as they can towards the opponents goal with several teammates to their sides. Players rarely passed the ball and there was no real formation.
  39. 39. 39 | P a g e Because of excess of dribbling and the poor number of goals scored, the FA amended the offside rule. Forward passes were allowed again as long as there were three players between the receiver and the goal line. With the new rule, teams began to play a more organized football which led to the creation of tactical formations. Below are the most influential formations in the formative years of football. The earliest football formations: 1-2- 7 1-2-7 is the most popular formation in the 1860-70s. With only one center back, two halfbacks, and seven forwards, it reflects the all-attacking nature of football in that era. The strategy at that time was mostly based on long ball to the upfield and charge- dribbling. The English team played with a 1-2-7 formation when they faced Scotland in 1872. The Scots, represented by Queen’s Park Rangers, utilized a 2-2- 6 formation. Unlike the English, who played a game based on individual skills, the Scots relied on short passing and teamwork. By passing the ball among each other, the Scots were able to grind an unexpected 0-0 draw against highly favored England. 1880 – 1925: The Pyramid (2-3-5 formation) The 2-3-5 formation is popularly known as the “pyramid” because of its triangular shape on the blackboard. It was popularized by English football team Preston North End, which had many Scottish players on its lineup. (The arrival of Scots in English
  40. 40. 40 | P a g e clubs in the 1880s led to the dominance of the passing strategyover the dribble and long ball type of play.) The pyramid can be considered the first formation that relied on teamwork rather than individual effort. In defense, the left and right halves mark the opposition wingers and the center backs mark the inside forwards. The key player is the center half, who marks the opposition striker and is in charge of pivoting the team from defense to offense. After retrieving the ball in defense, he organizes his team’s attack and feeds the ball to the forwards. Preston North End used the 2-3-5 formation to become the first winners of the English Double: winning both the English League and the FA Cup in 1889. They went through the entire season without conceding a loss, earning them the nickname “The Invincibles” and encouraging other clubs to adopt the pyramid. The formation continued to dominate English football until 1925, when the offside rules were changed to allow players to receive forward passes if there are at least two defenders between him and the goal line. In the 1930s, a modified 2-3-5 formation was popular in Austria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Called the Danubian school, its primary strategy is to distribute the ball through short ground passes. It reached its peak when Austria finished fourth in the 1934 World Cup (Football world cup 1934). 1925 – 1945: W-M formation (3-2-2- 3) The 3-2-2-3 formation was popularized by Arsenal manager Herbert Chapman in 1925 when the offside rule was changed. Chapman countered the increased pressure on defense by putting an equal number of players on the offensive and defensive ends. Three defenders (two fullbacks, one center back) and two halfbacks make up the defensive end while two inside forwards, two wingers, and one striker make up the offense. This 3-2-2-3 formation was more popularly called as the W-M formation because the defenders’ arrangement on the field forms a “W” while the forwards form an “M.” In a game, the W-M formation works with three forwards in front of the opponents’ goal, three defenders in front of the team’s own goal, and four players forming a square in the middle. Teams that have high-endurance midfielders can play this
  41. 41. 41 | P a g e position with seven forwards or seven defenders at a time. This can be done by halfbacks moving up in offense and inside forwards dropping back in defense. Arsenal is the most famous team associated with W-M. Using this formation, the club won five First Division titles and two FA Cups between 1931 and 1939. Such achievement from a previously unsuccessful club spread the use of W-M formation in all of England. 1934 & 1938: Il Metodo (2-3-2-3) “Il Metodo” (the method) was a football formation developed by Italian manager Vittorio Pozzo in the 1930s. Fundamentally, it is a defensive adaptation of the 2-3-5 formation, formed by withdrawing two forwards from the frontline. Two center backs protect the shoulders of the goalkeeper while the left and right halves take up the opposition wingers. The center half marks the opposing striker while two inside forwards lie deep to help on defense. The center half, just like in the pyramid position, serves as the transition from defense to offense. The offensive strategy is based on counterattacking and long balls, which the center half initiates with the inside forwards. The Italian football team brought il metodo to prominence by winning the 1934 and 1938 World Cup titles. 1950s: M-U formation (3-2-3-2) MU is a flexible football formation that was derived from the WM formation. It places equal number of players on both halves of the field and was popularized by the Hungarians in the 1950s. The formation works with three defenders, two halfbacks, three forwards (two inside forwards & one
  42. 42. 42 | P a g e withdrawn striker), and two wingers. The key player is the deep-lying striker, who draws out the opposing center back to make room for the other forwards. In defense, MU works the same way as the WM formation. It can be considered that MU brought the death of the then-famous WM formation, when Hungary defeated England by a score of 6-3 in 1953. Hungarian forwards constantly swapped places, which confused a man-marking English defense and ultimately led to the blow out. The game was played in Wembley Stadium and was the English’ first defeat at the venue. Late 1950s: 4-2-4 4-2-4 is the predecessor of modern football formationsand was developed by the Hungarians and Brazilians independently in the late 1950s. It is the first formation that featured a four-man backline. In defense, this formation can become a 4-3-3, with one forward dropping back to defend in midfield. The two halfbacks are tasked to block off counterattacks. Because of a weak middle, much of the defending will be left to the back four. The defenders should look to passing the ball as quick as possible to the forwards to exploit their numeric advantage. When attacking, the formation works as 3-3-4, with one defender going up to push the ball. The two strikers give depth to the attack while the two wingers give width. Brazil brought 4-2-4 to prominence by winning the 1958 World Cup. Since then, it has evolved to different four-back formations like 4-3-3 and 4-4-2. Catenaccio style football, know how the catenaccio defense works. Learn its definition and how to play this “door bolt” formation. Catenaccio soccer philosophy: if the opponents cannot score a goal, they cannot win the match
  43. 43. 43 | P a g e Catenaccio is a defense-oriented strategy first introduced by Austriancoach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. It became popular during the 1960s when Argentinea coach Helenio Herrera used it to lead Serie A club Inter Milano to several championships. The success of Inter Milano under Herrera encouraged many Italian teams to adopt catenaccio style soccer. This same strategy was utilized by the Italian national team when Herrera was appointed its manager. Because of its popularity in Italy, catenaccio calcio became almost synonymous with Italian football in the 1960s. But in the 1980s catenaccio began to decline as it proved to be ineffective against attack-oriented strategies such as total football. Yet there remain teams today that still used the old soccer style that once dominated Europe. How does catenaccio calcio work? Catenaccio calcio literally translates as “door bolt football.” It is a football strategy that employs a very tight man-marking defense, with players staying deep in their own half to prevent any offense by the opponents. Catenaccio defense seems to block any passage towards the goal, and so the name “door bolt” soccer. The most significant innovation of catenaccio is an additional defensive player called the libero or sweeper. The libero is an Italian word which means “free”. Most often, he freely roams in front of the goal to prevent any penetration by the opponents. The sweeper or libero also performs a number of other defensive tasks for the team.
  44. 44. 44 | P a g e The sweeper covers an opponent who manages to break the two lines of defense. He is also tasked to control loose balls and double-mark an opponent when necessary. If the opposing team has a talented striker, the sweeper may be assigned to man-mark him. With the libero to provide an additional line of defense, the other defenders and midfielders perform other assignments to prevent the opponents from scoring. The midfield and the defensive back keep the ball from getting near the goal. Their primary objectives are to disrupt any offensive flow, put pressure on the attackers, and deny the best offensive players from getting the ball. While teams utilizing catenaccio focus primarily on defense, it does not mean that they are not dangerous offensively. The catenaccio tactic can easily be used for counterattack, which may leave the offensive team with no time to react to the quick play switchof catenaccio calcio. Fouling and conceding free kicks is alright in catenaccio, as long as they are far from the goal and they do not lead to bookings. Since this tactic employs additional rank, the catenaccio formation is often 1-3-3-3, 1-4-4-1, or 1-4-3-2. The pros and cons of the catenaccio formation Strengths  Catenaccio is an effective defensive football strategy. The double line of defense prevents opponents from getting the ball near the goal. In case these two ranks are broken, the libero and goalkeeper will still be there to protect the goal.  The libero is useful if the opposing team has a brilliant striker. By closely marking the striker, the libero weakens him as it would require him extra effort to get the ball. Having a man that marks the striker also means that he will never be left open to use his offensive skills to score.  Catenaccio is an excellent formation for counterattacking. By creating strong defensive walls, the opponents will be forced to add more players
  45. 45. 45 | P a g e to their offense. This weakens their defense and creates a chance for the catenaccio formation to make a long pass to its forwards.  Catenaccio relies primarily on collective hard work and not on individual skills. Therefore, it is an effective strategy for weaker teams. It is also effective for teams who become undermanned after a red card.  Emphasis on a defensive style of play greatly improves the defense of players. Some of thebest soccer defenders are product of catenaccio calcio. They are Claudio Gentile, Gaetano Scirea, Paolo Maldini, and Alessandro Costacurta. Weaknesses  Although catenaccio was extensively used in the 1960s and 1970s by the Italian national football team, it is nearly obsolete at present. Teams need to adopt more offensive strategies in order to advance in football competitions since wins are now given bigger points. Before, teams are rewarded 2 points for a win, 1 point for a draw, and 0 for a loss. The same points are awarded today for loss and draw, but a win is already awarded with 3 points to encourage teams to true spirit of football—lively and attacking.  Catenaccio calcio is a poorly balanced playing style since it focuses too much on defense. It is not practical for stronger teams to play catenaccio since it nullifies their offensive force.  Catennacio football requires players to man-mark. This can easily lead to confusion when playing against a team whose players regularly switch positions, as in total soccer.  Since teams prioritize defense when playing catenaccio soccer, they will have to adopt a retreat game style. This can make teams unpopular and will subject them to criticism for using an anti football strategy. Catenaccio in the past Catenaccio was first introduced by Austrianfootball coach Karl Rappan in the 1930s. As a coach for Swiss football club Servette in 1932, Rappan first introduce the libero then known as “verrou” which means “lock” in French.
  46. 46. 46 | P a g e Rappan also became the manager of Switzerland’s national team, which he led to successful international matches against powerhouses like Germany and England. Catenaccio football, however, is closely associated with Italy since it was the Italians who played it extensively. In 1947, Italian coach Nereo Rocco used catenaccio calcio to make Triestina finish second place in Serie A, the Italian football league. In the 1960s, catenaccio soccer was utilized by Helenio Herrera who brought Internazionale Milano to 3 Serie A Championship titles and 2 European Championship Cups. In 1969, Herrera moved to AS Roma where he won the Italian Cup using the same defensive soccer strategy. Herrera was famous for using catenaccio calcio to win 1-0 matches. The basic elements to Herrera’s strategy were tight defense and rapid counterattacks. But in 1970, catenaccio-style soccer began to decline because of more innovative and more offensive strategies. In 1972, Herrera’s Inter was defeated 2-0 in the European Cup finals by Ajax, with its total football strategy. The following year, Nereo Rocco’s AC Milan reached the European Super Cup finals only to be hammered by Ajax 6-0. These two major defeats of Inter and AC Milan signaled the need for a change in catenaccio-style soccer. Italians began revising their strategies in favor of more offensive play without having to give up their strong defense. By 1982, the Italian national team has come up with a semi-zonal system, which they used to win over Germany in the 1982 World Cup Finals by 3 goals to 1. It became apparent in that tournament that Italy was starting to evolve from a highly defensive system in favor of more attack-oriented football strategies. Catenaccio at present Catenaccio is rarely used today after it diminished in the 1980s. However, hyper- defensive styles similar to catenaccio are still used at present. In the 2004 European Football Championship, underdog Greece used a
  47. 47. 47 | P a g e defense-oriented football to triumph over Portugal in the final. The Greek football squad’s style of play reminded many of the catenaccio tactic Italy used to be famous for. In that game, the Portuguese soccer team kept possessionmost of the time but were unable to score because of the tight Greek defense. Greece played defense patiently until they had the chance to score. In the 57th minute, Greece stole the ball and Angelos Charisteas dribbled all the way to the top of Portugal's goal to score with a blaster. Greece’s defense prevented Portugal from scoring and won the match 1-0. One football manager closely associated with catenaccio calcio is Jose Mourinho, who coached F.C. Internazionale Milano from 2008 to 2010. In April 2010, when Milano beat Barcelona in the European Champion’s League semis, the club used a defensive strategy similar to the catenaccio played by Herrera and Rocco in Italy in the 1950s and 1960s. Inter defended tightly and often doubled the man with the ball. Inter also played tough defense against Barca’s strikers, such as Lionel Messi. Mourinho’s catenaccio, however, required players to play further up the field, unlike the traditional catenaccio where players stayed deep in their own pitch. Today, most of the clubs noted for the catenaccio style of play are Italian. The list includes Roma, with its strong four-man defense at the back and the Italian national team itself, for its 4-3-3 formation which sometimes work as the classic catenaccio formation of 1-3-3-3. Total football strategy explained, this football tactics guide tells you how the total football works. Total football is considered as the most impressive tactic ever. Find out how this strategy revolutionalized the game in the 1970s.
  48. 48. 48 | P a g e When asked what total football is about, Johann Cruyff, one of the strategy’s most famous proponents, simply said: “attackers could play as defenders and defenders as attackers. Everyone could play everywhere.” Total football is an attack-oriented strategy where players have no definite position. With the exception of the goalkeeper, everybody is allowed to play anywhere on the field. Coordination, spacing, and player movement are the key elements of total soccer. Total soccer strategy is most closely associated with Netherlands, where it has been first played. In the1974 World Cup, the Dutch national team brought it to world prominence under coach Rinus Michels. How total football works In total football, players switchto different positions to confuse the opponent’s defense. For this strategy to work, there must be a midfielder who can coordinate both offense and defense. In the case of the Dutch soccer team of the 1970s, that man was Johan Cruyff. He played as forward but he often moved to different roles as his team needed it. But more importantly, he could tell his teammates where to go and what position they should occupy. Total football’s main strategy is to possess the ball as much as possible. Players position themselves far from each other and pass the ball around. While the ball is being distributed, some players move around to get into good scoring position. There are three main objectives in a total football defense: keep the ball away from
  49. 49. 49 | P a g e the goal, intercept passes, and mark deadly strikers. Total footballers work as a unit in defense. They narrow down passing lanes and work together aggressively retrieve the ball as soon as possible. Why do players have to switch position in total football? When seeing total football for the first time, people may ask why players have to switchpositions. To understand this, let us have a little historical background on football in the 1960s. During that decade, Europe was dominated by Italy with its hyper-defensive football strategycalled “catenaccio.” In catenaccio calcio, players man-mark their opponents closely to deny them the chance to score. Such tight man-marking became a problem for many clubs. Coach Rinus Michels of Ajax defeated it by making his players move to different positions. This soccer strategy created a dilemma for the man-markers. If they chased their man, they would find themselves in the wrong position when it is their team’s turn to attack. If they let their man go, they are risking the chance of leaving an attacker open. Rinus trained his players so they can easily adapt to any position. Opponents who were not as well-adapted as the Dutch total football players found it difficult to keep up. Total football history Total football is most closely linked to Rinus Michels and Johan Cruyff but its invention precedes the Dutch. It was English coach Jimmy Hogan who laid the foundations in 1910 of what would later be called as total soccer.
  50. 50. 50 | P a g e Hogan introduced the two basic concepts of total soccer as coach of Dutch football club Dordecht: player stamina and ball passing. 15 years later, the strategy that Jimmy Hogan brought to Netherlands was refined by fellow English coach Jack Reynolds. Reynolds managed Ajax Amsterdam intermittentlyfrom 1915 to 1947. He is the one who brought the aspect of spacing into Hogan’s strategy. He did this by introducing the winger, a soccer positionwhere a player widens the offense by running the ball on the flanks. One of the most brilliant players in Reynold’s Ajax squad was Dutchman Rinus Michels. He had the mindset of a strategy maker which qualified him to become Ajax’s manager in 1965 and Netherlands’ coach in 1974. Michels trained his Ajax players to be versatile anywhere on the field. He also taught his team to work well with each other. It is in Michels’ time that “totaalvoetbal” (total football) acquired its name. The total soccer of Ajax in the 1960s and 1970s became so popular mainly because of the great players who executed it. Soccer legends Johan Cruyff and Johan Neskeens are two of the players who worked this strategy to success on the pitch. Using the total football system, Ajax won three consecutive European Football Cups (1971, 1972, & 1973), the most prestigious club competition in Europe. These impressive victories proved to the world the effectiveness of the concept of total football. In the 1974 World Cup, Cruyff and the Dutch football team executed total football to perfection that they became known as “Clockwork Orange.” This nickname denotes the team’s execution of total soccer, which is unfailing as the working of a clock. The Dutch team’s execution of total football brought them to the final of the 1974 World Cup. Using the same strategy, they reached the 1978 World Cup final only to see the championship elude them once more.
  51. 51. 51 | P a g e Total football today After retiring from playing, Johan Cruyff pursued the career of a football manager. It is during his tenure in Barcelona when he utilized the principles of total football to create a style called “tiki-taka.” Tiki-taka is characterized by consistent ball passing and player movement. It centers on a midfielder who controls the team’s offense. Today, tiki-taka has also become a significant strategy of the Spanish football team. Spaniards used it to win the European Football Championships in 2008 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010. Total football no longer exists in its purest form because of its huge demand on player versatilityand stamina. Yet its principles of passing, wide spacing, and player movement are evident in the attack-oriented football strategies of the present. Prepared by MR. ROCKY L. PENUELA P.E. INSTRUCTOR