1. A Presentation on The Market Survey of Building Construction Materials:
Lime And Mortar
Abhishekh Subedi (PUR077BAR004) Achutam Giri (PUR077BAR005)
Bibisha Tamang (PUR077BAR010) Govinda Budhathoki (PUR077BAR016)
Prayush Giri (PUR077BAR028) Priyanka Giri (PUR077BAR030)
Soniya Shrestha (PUR077BAR043) Suman Shankar (PUR077BAR044)
Department Of Architecture-Batch 2077
Mr. Suman Limbu
2. Building Materials:
Materials used in construction process are building materials. Many naturally occurring
as well as industrial products are being used in building Works. Some of the materials
1. Rock 2. Wood 3. Mud and clay 4. Lime 5. Sand
6. Cement 7. Concrete 8. Glass
9. Metal 10. Paints and many more.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral composed
primarily of oxides, and
hydroxide, usually calcium oxide and/ or calcium hydroxide.
The use of Lime as
cementing material has been made since ancient times
Properties Of lime
1 It has good plastic properties.
2 It stiﬀens quite easily in a short
3 It has good adhering properties
with both stone and bricks.
4 It can withstand moisture easily.
5 It is easily workable.
Sources of lime:
1. Lime stone from
beds of old rivers.
3. Kankar found
below the ground.
4. Shells of sea
Fig: Lime powder
4. 1. Lime for sculptures 2. Lime-sand mortar 3. Lime plastering 4. Lime-stone bricks
Uses Of lime
Classiﬁcation Of limes
1 Fat Lime:
1 It hardens very slowly.
2 It has a high degree of plasticity.
3 Its colour is perfectly white.
4 It sets slowly in the presence of
5 It slakes vigorously.
2 Hydraulic lime: This lime is
also known as water lime as it
sets under water.
1 It hardens slowly.
2 It possesses hydraulic property.
3 Its colour is not as white as fat
3 Poor lime: This lime is known as
impure or lean lime as it contains
30% of clay. It slakes very slowly. It
doesn't dissolve in water. It hardens
sets very slowly. It has poor binding
properties and its colour is muddy
This is primarily a mixture of sand and cement
(can also include lime) that is used
to bond brickwork and block work together to
form walls and other structures. Water
is also added to the mix to activate the
cement and make the whole mixture harden.
Sand is a granular material composed of ﬁnely divided rock and mineral-
particles. Sand has various compositions but is deﬁned by its grain size. Sand
grains are smaller than gravel and coarser than slit.
Source of sand: Riversides (mainly)
Extractors : Crusher Industries
Photographs from Purwanchal sand crusher udhyog
Types of sand used in Mortar:
Soft (Builder Soil)
used for bricklaying mortar,
building foundations, for
paving slabs, wall rendering.
It is a smooth kind of sand
and has cohesive properties.
It has a gritty feel. It is used
in concrete and can also be
used for rendering walls and
Cement is the backbone of all types of building materials. It helps to
hold all the building materials together
Scenario in Nepal
Cement production in Nepal has been growing sharply over the past few years.
The industry is among the country's most ﬂourishing business sectors as the
demand for cement is constantly rising. The Nepali cement industry is growing
strong due to the increased demand post-earthquake. In addition, some major
projects in hydropower and road network expansion and other construction
initiatives taken by the government have been contributing to the growth.
Photograph of Shivam Cement Factory
Common Types Of Cement:
1. OPC Cement
2. PPC Cement
3. PSC Cement
8. Market Survey:
1. Hetauda chun udhyog:
Their quarry site is located at Nibutar village about
13 km from Hetauda.
The capacity of plant is 60 tone per day powder.
The industry produces high quality calcite,
dolomite and lime powder
which they supply to agriculture, cosmetic, colour
and cement industries.
2. Shivam Cement’s Limestone mine:
The Shivam company is provided with high quality
limestone from its self owned
mines situated at Sukoura and Ipa Panchakanya
This is indian brand
lime which is
imported to nepal and
mostly sold in terai
9. Conclusions from market survey of
1. It is not readily available due
to decrease in its use.
2. Its cheap material.
3. Construction limestones are
imported by cement factories
in large scale.
4. Poultry and agricultural limes
are easily available.
14. Prajapati Dhuwani Sewa
Sand- Rs 26000 per tipper
Conclusion After Market Survey of Sand:
Sand is readily available material and can be found of diﬀerent scales as per
building work requirement. Price may vary according to seller and the source
of sand. Also, Suppliers are concerned about the illegal black market trade
of sand and it has to be stopped.
15. Major Findings
1. Lime is not readily available nowadays and there is lack of
lime industries in Nepal.
2. Lime is not used commonly nowadays because cement
does all the work and for plaster, people use white cement or
3. Price of Sand diﬀers according to the place and source. So
it is necessary to consult with contractors and engineers about
it before buying.
4. Sand is being illegally extracted from rivers and is being
sold at BLACK. This is aﬀecting the rivers badly and every
suppliers are concerned about it.
5. Cement is doing great business in Nepal and it is helping to
uplift the economy of the country.
6. Unlike lime, Cement is easily available at every place.
7. Nepal is doing great in Technology too as construction
materials are also being sold in online platforms.
1. As there is greater possibility of lime ﬁndings in
Nepal, Lime industries
should be increased so that Nepal can be self reliant
2. Government should make strict policies on
controlling illegal extraction of sand, rocks etc.
3. The cement industries in Nepal are doing great so
there must be increase in their export.
We sincerely appreciate your attention today and
this brings to the end of our presentation.
Thank you so much for your interest and
Presentation font: Helvetica neue
ERC B-Arch 2077
Group “Lime and Mortar”