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abnrml chwng.pptx

  2. INTRODUCTION ■ Mastication (chewing), in which food is crushed and mixed with saliva to form a bolus for swallowing, is a complex mechanism involving opening and closing of the jaw, secretion of saliva, and mixing of food with the tongue.
  3. ■ Of course, chewing is also the essential first step of digestion. Food must be chewed so it can be swallowed easily and, when it arrives into the stomach, be properly digested. Chewing leaves food small enough for the gastric juices in the stomach to further degrade it and reduce it to microscopic size.
  4. MAIN MUSCLES OF MASTIFICATION ■ Masseter ■ Temporalis ■ Medial pterygoid ■ Lateral pterygoid
  5. ■ Chewing disorders are chewing with the mouth open; excessive chewing of gum; exclusive chewing on one side; avoidance of foods with certain textures such as meat, raw vegetables, seeds, some fruit and nuts; preference for soft or pureed food; pain or discomfort during chewing; abnormal jaw movements.
  6. ABNORMAL CHEWING Types of abnormal chewing are : ■ sluggish mastication ■ Unilateral mastication ■ Mastication using incissors
  7. SLUGGISH MASTIFICATION ■ Reasons: lack of intrest in food, pain in oral cavities, other problems. ■ Causes :chewing and biting actions of the jaw deform the thin layer ■ of soft tissue surrounding the teeth that are yet to appear, ■ forcing them outwards. ■ so a sluggish chewing can cause under developed teeth or ■ underdeveloped mastication muscles ■ Insufficient occlusal forces are injurious to the attachment ■ apparatus of the tooth ■ Prevention : counciling , eonsulting an ENT , or a den
  8. UNILATERAL MASTIFICATION Reasons: Various causes can be enumerated like deep carious lesions, gingival overgrowths covering occlusal surface, pericoronal and periodontal abscess, food lodgment, missing antagonist teeth, habitual usage of only one side, improperly fabricated prosthesis,
  9. Causes :unilateral mastication leads to hypofunction of the attachment apparatus on the neglected or unused side. this inturn affect periodontium.effects of nonfunction on periodontium have been studied on humans and animals,2-6 indicating narrowing of the periodontal membrane, loss of functional orientation of the principle fibers osteoporosis of alveolar bone, and reduction of bone height.
  10. TOOTH GRINDING Reasons : improperly aligned teeth or irregular contact between upper and lower teeth, illnesses and other medical conditions (such as nutritional deficiencies, pinworm, allergies, endocrine disorders), and psychological factors including anxiety and stress.
  11. ■ Awake bruxism may be due to emotions such as anxiety, stress, anger, frustration or tension. Or it may be a coping strategy or a habit during deep concentration. ■ Sleep bruxism may be a sleep-related chewing activity associated with arousals during sleep.
  12. COMPLICATIONS ■ Damage to your teeth, restorations, crowns or jaw ■ Tension-type headaches ■ Severe facial or jaw pain ■ Disorders that occur in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), located just in front of your ears, which may sound like clicking when you open and close your mouth
  13. ABNORMAL SUCKING ■ Newborn babies are born with several important reflexes that help them through their first weeks and months of life. These reflexes are involuntary movements that happen either spontaneously or as responses to different actions. The sucking reflex, for example, happens when the roof of a baby’s mouth is touched. The baby will begin to suck when this area is stimulated, which helps with nursing or bottle feeding.
  14. Why Pacifiers and Thumb Sucking Cause Dental Problems:
  15. ■ It’s not uncommon for infants to suck on their thumbs or pacifiers, especially to give themselves comfort. Over time, however, these habits can have a negative impact on oral development. Here’s what parents should know about pacifiers, thumb sucking and teeth. ■ Do Pacifiers Affect Teeth? ■ While babies love their pacifiers, many parents are rightly concerned about their effect on oral development. Over time, a pacifier can cause a mouth to grow improperly, leading to abnormal tooth development, along with numerous other issues. For this reason, it’s best to limit the use of pacifiers and discontinue their use altogether as quickly as possible.
  16. ■ Do Pacifiers Make Your Teeth Crooked? ■ The long-term use of pacifiers changes both the alignment of the teeth and shape of a developing mouth. As infants mature, their jaws will grow around any device repeatedly held within their mouths. Since the pacifier tips an infant’s mouth upward, teeth can become crooked. Pacifiers can also cause bite problems, along with alignment issues with the jaw.
  17. ■ As the mouth forms around the device, babies can develop common developmental irregularities known as “pacifier teeth.” Unfortunately, this can have long-term repercussions, requiring painful and expensive dental treatments to restore the teeth and jaw to a normal state.
  18. ABNORMALITIES ■ There are also abnormalities when infants practice sucking in abnormal way ■ Sucking abnormalities usually present as absence of the sucking response, weakness or incoordination of sucking and swallowing, or some combination of these problems ■ some common abnormalities are : ■ Prolonged sucking ■ Sluggish sucking
  19. Prolonged Thumb Sucking Reasons : prolonged sucking usually happens when the infant use breastfeeding for a long time . Causes :prolonged breastfeeding eventually has some disadvantages, including limitations on a mother’s schedule and lifestyle, a baby’s dependence on the breast, pain from first teeth, critical public opinion and effects on the menstrual cycle , lethargic, sleepy, not wanting to eat
  20. Perverted Sucking Reasons : happens when the child is unsatisfied with breast feeding (less breast feeding period ) when the child receive less attention from mother when sucking had become his habbit or due to unconscious sucking . Causes : the child may use fingers or pacifiers for long time .this may cause dental deformations
  21. Vigorous thumb sucking can have Many effects on the teeth and mouth. That’s because of the repetitive pressure the thumb and sucking places on the teeth, jawbone, and roof of the mouth.
  22. ■ It may cause any of the following: ■ Overbite, where the front teeth protrude out from the jaw and mouth ■ Other bite issues, such as the bottom teeth tipping inward toward the back of the mouth or an open bite, where the top and bottom teeth don’t meet when the mouth is closed ■ Changes to the shape of the jaw, which can also affect the alignment of the teeth and speech patterns, such as the development of a lisp ■ Sensitivity of the roof of the mouth
  23. Prevention ■ Feed the child whenever he is hungry ■ Feed the child in natural way breast feeding ■ Never let the habit to be started the practice must be discontinued at its inception
  24. Bibliography: ■ ■ ■