2. Defining Curriculum Design
Curriculum design is a blueprint of the learning objectives for students
as well as tutors.
The curriculum once designed provides a clear pathway with regards
to learning outcomes, teaching goals and ultimately helps students in
acquiring and retaining key skills, subject knowledge and
With student development as one of the core aspects of curriculum
design - a well structured curriculum takes into account the student’s
past curricula, and current teaching and assessment trends, to ensure
that students have a holistic development on the personal, academic
as well as professional fronts.
3. Evolution of Curriculum Design
Early man passed on hunting
techniques to the next
coupled with the vast
progress of humanity-calls
for curricula that deal with
4. How is Time Utilized in a Classroom?
According to a newly designed curriculum, time in the classroom will
need to be divided into the following key areas:
5. Kern’s Six Step Methodology for Curriculum
DesignKern et. al. has suggested a Six Step method for curriculum design. Even
though these six steps are mainly targeted at medical students, the
assumption here is that these principles can be applied to the general
6. ● Problem Identification: Provides a rationale for the curriculum by
considering student, teacher and societal needs.
● Needs Assessment: Assess the needs and environment of students to
influence behavioural and performance outcomes.
● Goals and Objectives: Goals provide a broad view of the general ends of the
learning and teaching experience. Objectives focus on the components of a
curriculum and support the goals set for the targeted students and
● Educational Strategies: Divided into curriculum content and educational
methods - to achieve behavioural and cognitive objectives.
● Implementation: Assists the process of curriculum design with respect to the
personnel, learning duration, facilities and funding.
● Evaluation and Feedback: This step provides clues on individual
achievements, scope for curriculum improvement and plays a vital role in
assessing whether the goals and objectives are fulfilled.
Kern’s Six Step Methodology for Curriculum
8. What Questions Are Posed to a Curriculum
Ralph W Tyler from the University of Chicago proposed these
questions to academics who design curricula:
● What educational purposes should the curriculum seek to attain?
● What educational experience can be provided by the curriculum
to obtain the purposes?
● How can the educational experiences be organized and
● How can the educational purposes be evaluated for efficiency in
terms of content, measuring student outcomes and provide an
overall assessment of the proposed curriculum?
9. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Benjamin Bloom from the University of Chicago proposed the
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
13. Levels of Curriculum Design
What is intended for
the students by the
What is taught by
What is learnt by the
14. Types of Curriculum Design
Subject Based Design
Subject-centered curriculum design
describes what needs to be studied and
how it should be studied.
Does not take into account a student’s
individual learning style.
Problem Based Design
Is focused on teaching students on
observing problems and arriving at
solutions based on life experiences.
May not take individual learning styles
Learner Based Design
Pays special attention to the varied
learning needs of students, and
accommodates different student needs.
Puts pressure on instructors to create
customized material conducive to varying
15. Determinants of Content in Curriculum
While creating the content and the objectives for a curriculum these
are the components that are taking into consideration:
Concepts, Principles, Theories
Process and Skill Component
Mental Processes and Physical
Attitudes and Values
16. How is Content Selected for a New
Content that is accurate and
current based on advances,
discoveries, global and local
Content focused on the
learner’s level of subject matter
Content needs to reflect the
social, cultural and
that the student interacts
Content must maintain a
balance between constant
fundamental aspects and
changing theoretical and
practical aspects of a subject.
Content that takes into
personnel and an institute’s
calendar of events.