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PPT_B.Voc. MLT_Sem 3_MLT 7_Ch 1_v 1.3_Shweta - Copy.pptx

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PPT_B.Voc. MLT_Sem 3_MLT 7_Ch 1_v 1.3_Shweta - Copy.pptx

  1. 1. Renal Function Test B. Voc. in Medical Laboratory Technology Semester – 3 MLT 7 – Bacteriology and Clinical Biochemistry - 2 Chapter – 1
  2. 2. Objectives By the end of this chapter, you will be able to: Identify the basic structure of kidney organ. Discuss the factors affecting the kidney functioning. Identify the laboratory tests for kidney disorders. Discuss the various kidney function tests. Determine the osmolality of urine and serum. Describe the different types of kidney diseases.
  3. 3. General Consideration  Body metabolism  Urine formation  Preservation  Regulation  Balance  Factors affecting: ◦ Urine formation ◦ Kidney function ◦ Renal and tubular conditions
  4. 4. General Consideration (Contd.)
  5. 5. General Consideration Figure: Longitudinal section of right kidney Figure: Glomerulus and glomerular capsule
  6. 6. General Consideration Figure: Anatomy of the nephron
  7. 7. General Consideration A Journey Through the Nephron https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c05mJaeIQuY
  8. 8. General Consideration Urinary system – Human body https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGYd1wrTgE
  9. 9. Laboratory Tests Aiding in the Evaluation of Kidney Function Tests for kidney impaired processes Status of kidney function Location of defects Causes: ◦ Pre-renal ◦ Renal ◦ Post-renal
  10. 10. Kidney Function Tests Group I tests: ◦ Blood urea nitrogen ◦ Serum creatinine ◦ Routine urine examination Group II tests: ◦ Serum total protein, albumins and A/G ratio ◦ Quantitative determination of urinary proteins ◦ Electrophoretic fractionation of serum proteins ◦ Serum cholesterol
  11. 11. Kidney Function Tests Group III tests: ◦ Tests measuring glomerular filtration ◦ Creatinine clearance test ◦ Urea clearance tests Group IV tests: ◦ Tests measuring tubular function ◦ Determination of specific gravity, concentrating and diluting ability ◦ Determination of serum and urine osmolality ◦ Determination of urine ammonia ◦ Phenolsulphonphthalein (PSP) test
  12. 12. Kidney Function Tests Group V tests: ◦ Tests determining acid-base status ◦ Tests determining renal blood flow Kidney profile tests: ◦ Blood urea nitrogen ◦ Serum total proteins ◦ Creatinine clearance test ◦ Routine urine examination ◦ Serum electrolytes ◦ Blood gases, pH, carbonates
  13. 13. Determination of Osmolarity of Urine and Serum General consideration: ◦ Osmolarity ◦ Osmoreceptors ◦ Osmometer Freezing point osmometers ◦ Principle ◦ Components ◦ Working
  14. 14. Determination of Osmolarity of Urine and Serum (Contd.)  Specific gravity tests: ◦ Concentrating power of kidneys ◦ Dilution power of kidneys
  15. 15. Diseases of the Kidneys Acute glomerulonephritis Acute diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis Chronic glomerulonephritis Acute pyelonephritis Chronic pyelonephritis Diabetic Nephropathy Acute renal failure Nephrotic syndrome Hypertensive Nephropathy Renal conditions caused by renal calculi
  16. 16. Diseases of the Kidneys Fig 14.5 Kidney afflicted with pyelonephritis
  17. 17. Diseases of the Kidneys Figure: Illustration for Nephritic vs Nephrotic syndrome comparison
  18. 18. Diseases of the Kidneys Artificial Kidneys - Dialysis Machine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YmJUpb8G74
  19. 19. Summary Now, you are able to: Identify the basic structure of kidney organ. Discuss the factors affecting the kidney functioning. Identify the laboratory tests for kidney disorders. Discuss the various kidney function tests. Determine the osmolality of urine and serum. Describe the different types of kidney diseases.
  20. 20. References A Journey Through the Nephron (2013) available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c05mJaeIQuY (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014) Anatomy of the nephron (2014) [Online] available from: http://museummonger.com/kidney-nephron-anatomy/ (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014) Artificial Kidneys - Dialysis Machine (2012) available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YmJUpb8G74 (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014)
  21. 21. References Glomerulus and glomerular capsule (2013) [Online] available from: https://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/chapter-26-urinary- system/deck/8901400 (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014) Kidney anatomy (2014) [Online] available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_hilum#mediaviewer/File:Blausen_0592_Kidn eyAnatomy_01.png (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014) Kidney afflicted with pyelonephritis (2001) [Online] available from: http://www.smartdraw.com/examples/view/urology+-+pyelonephritis/ (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014)
  22. 22. References Posterior view of the kidneys (2008) [Online] available from: http://www.austincc.edu/apreview/PhysText/Endocrine.html#top (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014) Urinary system – Human body (2012) available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfGYd1wrTgE (Accessed on 4th Dec 2014)

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