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Ohio's Juvenile Justice System

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In Ohio, youth who are incarcerated are more likely to reoffend and have less success in education and employment. Speaker Erin Davies from the Ohio Juvenile Justice Coalition shared how Ohio reduced the number of kids facing jail time and the latest numbers on Ohio kids in the juvenile justice system.

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Ohio's Juvenile Justice System

  1. 1. Welcome to the Webinar For the best audio today, call in using a landline. The phone number and 3-digit Audio Pin are located under “your Audio Options”.
  2. 2. a statewide coalition of over 475 organizations working together to promote health and human service budget and policy solutions so that all Ohioans live better lives. Advocates for Ohio’s Future is…
  3. 3. Erin Davies Executive Director Ohio Juvenile Justice Coalition
  4. 4. JUVENILE JUSTICE IN OHIO Erin Davies, Executive Director Juvenile Justice Coalition edavies@jjohio.org
  5. 5. Juvenile Court 101: Purpose ofThe Juvenile Court To provide rehabilitation and treatment to youth to hold them accountable and maintain public safety, while recognizing fundamental differences between youth and adults.
  6. 6. Juvenile Court 101: Youth Development •Adolescent brain development •U.S. Supreme Court case law – Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005) – Graham v. Florida, 130 S.Ct. 2011 (2010) –J.D.B. v. North Carolina, 131 S.Ct. 2394 (2011) –Miller v. Alabama, Slip Opinion No. 10–9646 (2012)
  7. 7. Juvenile Court 101: Terminology AdultTerm JuvenileTerm Definition Found guilty Adjudicated delinquent Court determines you committed an offense Sentence Disposition Punishment for committing an offense Jail Detention Pre-trial secure placement Prison Correctional facility Post-trial secure placement Probation Probation Part of sentence/disposition for committing crime Parole Parole Conditional early release from a locked facility
  8. 8. Juvenile Court 101: Ohio’s Juvenile Justice System Unique things: •“Home rule” state – 88 counties do things 88 ways •For offenses committed before the age of 18, juvenile court has jurisdiction over youth up to age 21 •Data challenges
  9. 9. Juvenile Justice Involvement: Type ofYouth What type of youth come before juvenile courts? •Abuse, neglect, and dependency cases (A/N/D) •Custody cases •Youth accused of status offenses (i.e. underage drinking, truancy, running away from home) •Youth accused of delinquency offenses
  10. 10. Juvenile Justice Involvement: Courts’ Responses What are the courts’ levels of responses to youth? Prevention Referral to juvenile court Diversion or specialized docket Formal Processing (Adjudication and Disposition) Adult court
  11. 11. Juvenile Justice Involvement: Courts’ Responses – Adult Court Age Where Tried Where Sentence Served Basis for Adult Court Involvement Bindover 14+ Adult Court Adult System Age, offense, and other factors SeriousYouthful Offender (SYO) 10+ Juvenile Court Juvenile System and PotentiallyAdult System (after age 14) Age, offense, and other factors Youth Over 18 in Juvenile Court 18-21 Juvenile Court Juvenile System and Adult System Age
  12. 12. Juvenile Justice Involvement: Education Context Juvenile justice involvement level Education context Prevention School responder program Diversion Youth caught with drugs in school, placed in drug court diversion program Status offense Truancy Delinquency offense Behavioral problems that come to the attention of the court (i.e. fight on the bus) SYO/Bindover High level delinquency offenses (i.e. school shootings), but can be any felony over the age of 14
  13. 13. Juvenile Justice Reforms: Goal Moving toward a “right sized” system that ensures an individually tailored, evidence- based appropriate response for each youth designed put youth on the right path.
  14. 14. Negative Impacts of Juvenile Justice System Involvement Overly punitive responses are: • Expensive • Ineffective and may actually reduce public safety • Reduce youth’s ability to develop skills needed for positive adulthood • Create collateral consequences for youth, including for employment
  15. 15. Negative Impacts - Detention • Research shows that : - Detention is one best predictors of recidivism. - Youth who spend any amount of time in detention are more likely to abuse substances, less likely to complete high school, less likely to find employment, and less likely to form stable families. - Detention ($60-$136/day) is more expensive than community-based alternatives, like electronic monitoring and day reporting programs ($3.75-$50/day).
  16. 16. 17% 51% 60% 83%80% 44% 31% 16% 6% 3% 7% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Population Felony Adjudication Committed to DYS Adult Court Race/Ethnicity in Ohio's JJ System Black White Latino
  17. 17. Relative Rate Index (RRI) Numbers White Black Hispanic Arrest 1.0 3.12 0.31 Refer to Juvenile Court 1.0 1.11 1.97 Diversion 1.0 0.60 0.82 Detention 1.0 1.51 1.54 Petitioned 1.0 1.02 0.89 Delinquency 1.0 .97 0.97 Probation 1.0 .89 1.28 DYS 1.0 1.66 1.27 Adult Court 1.0 8.95 7.96
  18. 18. QUESTION BREAK Unmute by pressing *6 or using the microphone button on the top center of your screen. You can also ask a question by typing into the chat bar.
  19. 19. Juvenile Court Reforms: How DoWe GetThere Goal: Reducing recidivism • Low reoffending risk – Diverted from the juvenile justice system altogether • Moderate or high reoffending risk – Subject to the minimal level of supervision and control consistent with public safety and be provided with appropriate, effective therapeutic services • Recognize that “punishment beyond that which is inherent in the level of control necessary for public safety is likely to be counter-productive to reducing recidivism.”
  20. 20. Juvenile Justice Reform: NationalTrends Moving Away From: MovingTowards: Placing youth in locked facilities Community-based programming alternatives Prosecuting youth in adult court Keeping youth in juvenile court One-size-fits-all approach Assessing youth’s individualized needs and appropriate responses “Gut feelings” about what works or what youth need Utilizing evidence- and research-based assessments and programs Long-term collateral consequences Minimizing collateral consequences
  21. 21. Reform Example: Ohio’s Deincarceration Programs
  22. 22. Ohio’s Initiatives - Programs Program name: Purpose: Results: OYAS Instrument to assess youth’s needs/risks at each point of the juvenile justice system Provides objective, risk-based recommendations to juvenile courts JDAI Ensure only youth who are a threat to the community are detained pre-trial Detention reductions in 5 counties averaging 27% RECLAIM andTargeted RELCAIM Direct youth away from DYS and into community-based programs (Targeted RECLAIM requires the program to be evidence-based) Lower recidivism rates; over 50% reduction in DYS facility populations BHJJ Provides evidence-based, community- based programs for youth with serious mental health or substance abuse needs Increased school attendance, reduced out of home placement, decreased substance use and recidivism Competitive RECLAIM Gives counties and technical assistance to use outcome-based programs to 1) divert low-risk youth, 2) keep medium- and high- risk youth safely in their communities, and 3) create multi-county efforts. N/A
  23. 23. Bindovers Are Down 279 307 264 234 292 297 315 319 362 303 283 205 163 158 150 200 250 300 350 400 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 NumberofYouthBound Over Fiscal Year
  24. 24. Felony AdjudicationsAre Down 8752 9090 8854 7999 7103 6511 5654 5074 4636 4674 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14
  25. 25. Racial and Ethnic Disparities (RED) National Efforts: • Federal law requires states to “address” disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system • No “silver bullet”– successes have been locally driven and purposeful with: ‐ Carefully selected leadership teams ‐ Quality-driven data collection and analysis ‐ Using objective screening and assessment instruments, and ‐ Creating and monitoring plans to reduce RED.
  26. 26. Racial and Ethnic Disparities (RED) Ohio Efforts: • Since 2007, Ohio has devoted most of its federal funding to reducing RED ‐ Focus on 14 counties that have 86% of the minority youth in the state ‐ Each county has done an assessment led by DYS ‐ Efforts have been targeted at African-American youth in prevention and early intervention programs • Programs: Mentoring, life skills, diversion, truancy and school-based interventions
  27. 27. JJC’S ROLE
  28. 28. JJC’sWork: • Track statewide policies on juvenile justice issues – legislative, regulatory, and local policies • Increase public education and involvement with juvenile justice issues, including leading visits to juvenile justice facilities • Increase the participation of youth who were involved in the juvenile justice system and their families • Provide trainings and technical assistance • Participate in coalitions
  29. 29. QUESTION BREAK Unmute by pressing *6 or using the microphone button on the top center of your screen. You can also ask a question by typing into the chat bar.
  30. 30. WRAP UP
  31. 31. How CanYou Get Involved? •Sign up for JJC’s listserv – www.jjohio.org •Follow JJC onTwitter: @ohiojjc •Help us connect with youth who have been through the system or their families who are willing to share their story •Have JJC come give a talk about the juvenile justice system and how to get involved
  32. 32. Thank you for learning with us today! Please consider making a donation to help us offer more great webinars and info to advocates like you.
  33. 33. Juvenile Justice Reform: Program Acronyms Acronyms: • JDAI – Juvenile Detention Alternative Initiative • RECLAIM - Reasonable and Equitable Community and Local Alternatives to the Incarceration of Minors • Targeted RECLAIM – evidence-based version of RECLAIM • OYAS – OhioYouth Assessment System • BHJJ- Behavioral Health Juvenile Justice Initiative • MST – Multi-SystemicTherapy