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Why Open Science Matters to Libraries/Ina Smith

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Why Open Science Matters to Libraries/Ina Smith

  1. 1. The Landscape of Open Science in Africa Why Open Science Matters to Libraries 1 Ina Smith 30 October 2018 With direction from
  2. 2. Change is Inevitable 2
  3. 3. Our Needs 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Connected World 7
  8. 8. Fourth Industrial Revolution • Before: Steam & Water, Electricity & assembly lines, Computerization • Current and developing environment in which disruptive technologies and trends such as the Internet of Things, robotics, virtual reality (VR) and artificial intelligence (AI) are changing the way we live and work • Smart technologies to allow machines to interact, visualise production chain, make autonomous decisions 8
  9. 9. • What is the 4th Industrial Revolution? https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_co ntinue=5&v=kpW9JcWxKq0 • Integration between natural & artificial – become more efficient 9
  10. 10. • ”It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.” • “Constant connection may deprive us of one of life’s most important assets: the time to pause, reflect, and engage in meaningful conversation.” https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial- revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. • Risks & opportunities: “decision-makers are too often caught in traditional, linear (and non-disruptive) thinking or too absorbed by immediate concerns to think strategically about the forces of disruption and innovation shaping our future.“ - Prof Klaus Schwab, Founder & CEO of World Economic Forum 13
  14. 14. National Development Plan • “… offers a long-term perspective. It defines a desired destination and identifies the role different sectors of society need to play in reaching that goal …” • “ …. aims to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. According to the plan, South Africa can realise these goals by drawing on the energies of its people, growing an inclusive economy, building capabilities, enhancing the capacity of the state, and promoting leadership and partnerships throughout society.”
  15. 15. The high domestic cost of broadband internet connectivity is a major hindrance. All South Africans should be able to acquire and use knowledge effectively. Make high-speed broadband internet universally available at competitive prices.
  16. 16. Which of your tasks as a librarian in your library will never be replaced by AI, VR, robots? 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 “The spread of information and communications technology and global interconnectedness has great potential to accelerate human progress, to bridge the digital divide and to develop knowledge societies, as does scientific and technological innovation across areas as diverse as medicine and energy.” Transforming our world: the UN2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development -
  19. 19. Science 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21 Digital Citizens https://www.edsurge.com/news/2017-06-20-students-say-they-are-not-as-tech-savvy-as-
  22. 22. 22 https://theconversation.com/students-struggle-with-digital-skills- because-their-teachers-lack-confidence-56071
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 24 Extended opening hours Past matric papers Tutor sessions https://www.parent24.com/Learn/Matric- past-exam-papers/index-past-matric-exam- papers-20160930
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. ` 26
  27. 27. 27 https://sci-hub.tw/ Alexandra Elbakyan
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29 R 1,084,139.66
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. We need more Data
  32. 32. Fake Data, Fake Research http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-39357819
  33. 33. 35 “Replications of 21 high-profile social science findings demonstrate challenges for reproducibility and suggest solutions to improve research credibility. Eight of the 21 studies failed to find significant evidence for the original finding, and the replication effect sizes were about 50% smaller than the original studies.” https://cos.io/about/news/do-social-science- research-findings-published-nature-and-science- replicate/
  34. 34. Data bring Power, but also Responsibility 36 Endangered species Classifying data to keep poachers, enthusiasts who might use information to track & disturb creatures. BUT Declassifying data led to discovery of at least three new populations. Pezoporus occidentalis
  35. 35. Satellite Data Monitoring Pollution 37
  36. 36. Slide Credit: Laura Merson, IDDO Ebola Outbreak 2014-15
  37. 37. Slide Credit: Laura Merson, IDDO After the Outbreak Post 2015
  38. 38. http://www.nature.com/news/data-sharing-make-outbreak- research-open-access-1.16966
  39. 39. Repatriation of Data
  40. 40. Intellectual Property Rights Policy “In many African countries, intellectual property protection is undeveloped, ineffective, expensive and unenforced and in some African countries there exists uncertainty on protection of IP and the threat of innovation being stolen away from inventors.” https://ipstrategy.com/2016/12/05/a-new-look-at-intellectual-property- and-innovation-in-africa/
  41. 41. Early years: Awarded to individual researchers Recently: Researchers working together/ who collaborate
  42. 42. Albert Einstein 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
  43. 43. Open Science Defined “Open Science is the practice of science in such a way that others can collaborate and contribute, where research data, lab notes and other research processes are freely available, under terms that enable reuse, redistribution and reproduction of the research and its underlying data and methods.” - FOSTER Project, funded by the European Commission
  44. 44. But Open Science is more than just process - it is also about collaboration, and strong engagement with and participation of wider society, of which citizen science is also a component. It is a vital enabler in maintaining the rigour and reliability of science; in creatively integrating diverse data resources to address complex modern challenges; in open innovation and in engaging with other societal actors as knowledge partners in tackling shared problems. It is fundamental to realisation of the Sustainable Development Goals.
  45. 45. Open Data, Open Science & Research Lifecycle Data
  46. 46. Open Access Journals
  47. 47. Mega OA Journal - Africa https://aasopenresearch.org/
  48. 48. Open Access Repositories
  49. 49. Open Access Pre-print Repository https://arxiv.org/
  50. 50. https://openlabnotebooks.org/
  51. 51. Original Research Data Lifecycle image from University of California, Santa Cruz http://guides.library.ucsc.edu/datamanagement/ Repositories Repositories Tools Gold/Green OA Plan Policy&Infrastructure
  52. 52. Benefits of Open Data • Improve efficiency in science • Reduce duplication and the costs of creating, transferring and re-using data • Enable more research on the same data • Multiply opportunities for domestic and global participation in the research process
  53. 53. • Increase transparency and quality in the research validation process • Allow greater replication and validation of scientific results
  54. 54. • Speed the transfer of knowledge • Reduce delays in the re-use of the results of scientific research, including articles and data sets • Promote swifter development from research to innovation
  55. 55. • Increase knowledge spill-overs to the economy • Increased access to the results of publicly funded research can foster spill-overs and boost innovation across the economy • Increase awareness and conscious choices among consumers
  56. 56. • Promote citizens’ engagement in science and research • Open Science and Open Data initiatives may promote awareness and trust in science among citizens • In some cases, greater citizen engagement may lead to active participation in scientific experiments and data collection
  57. 57. • Address global challenges more effectively • Global challenges require coordinated international actions • Open Science and Open Data can promote collaborative efforts and faster knowledge transfer for a better understanding of challenges such as climate change, and could help identify solutions
  58. 58. “Several open science activities are underway across Africa, but a great deal will be gained if, in the context of developing inter-regional links, these activities were to be coordinated and developed through such a coordinating initiative.” - CODATA
  59. 59. Collaboration • Strength in collaboration • Disciplines group themselves together • Without collaboration, competition will continue • Diversity & pooling knowledge together help to accelerate discoveries
  60. 60. Square Kilometre Array H3ABioNet Genomics Data GBIF Biodiversity Data Collaborative Initiatives 63
  61. 61. Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Ghana, Zambia, Madagascar, Botswana, Namibia, Kenya, Mauritius and Mozambique
  62. 62. Testing Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; imaging neutral hydrogen—the building blocks for stars – in the distant universe; and examining galaxies that were formed billions of years ago “Construction of the SKA is due to begin in 2018 and finish sometime in the middle of the next decade. Data acquisition will begin in 2020, requiring a level of processing power and data management know-how that outstretches current capabilities. Astronomers estimate that the project will generate 35,000-DVDs- worth of data every second. This is equivalent to “the whole world wide web every day,” said Fanaroff.”
  63. 63. SKA Benefitting the Community 67 “R3 million has been spent on catering and a further R4 million on transport in the area since construction began in 2012. One hundred and seven locals have been employed by the South African Astronomical Observatory between 2015 and 2017.”
  64. 64. SKA Benefitting South Africans SKA SA Managing Director Rob Adam said, “We have electricians being trained, boilermakers, fitters and turners and people splashing the fibre that carries the signal from the satellites through the computers, that fibre is being splashed by people from the local community.”
  65. 65. SKA Benefitting South Africans
  66. 66. SKA Benefitting Africa The SKA project will also transfer skills and knowledge to African countries, which will build, maintain, operate and use radio telescopes. It’s hoped the program will bring new science opportunities to Africa in a relatively short timescale and develop radio astronomy science communities in SKA partner countries.
  67. 67. 71 “These measurements can provide cities with new neighborhood-level insights to help cities accelerate efforts in their transition to smarter, healthier cities. Data will be publicly available on Google BigQuery while full datasets will be given to science and academic communities, according to Google.”
  68. 68. 72 “Artificial Intelligence (AI) can analyse immense amounts of data to help us better study, diagnose, treat and even prevent disease.”
  69. 69. Data Democratising Agriculture 73 “ … while the big players are operating using data, the small holder farmers are operating blindly because they have no access to key information on how to farm.”
  70. 70. African Open Science Platform 74 http://africanopenscience.org.za/ Hosted by DIRISA african-open-science- platform@googlegroups.com https://www.facebook.com/ AfricanOpenSciencePlatform/ @aosp_africa
  71. 71. 75 Launched during SFSA 2016 “The creation of the African Open Science Platform is an excellent example of the tangible impact our Science Forum has already achieved in harnessing international partnerships to advance African science. The Platform will play a critical role to assist African countries in developing the necessary capacities to manage and exploit scientific data for the benefit of society. I am proud that our Department, and its entities the NRF and ASSAf, are contributing to this crucial mission.” Former Minister of Science and Technology, Ms Naledi Pandor
  72. 72. Outcome of International Accord 76 • Values of open data in emerging scientific culture of big data • Need for an international framework • Proposes comprehensive set of principles • FAIR Principles • Provides framework & plan for African data science capacity mobilization initiative • Proposes African Platform International Science Council - CODATA
  73. 73. Draft SA White Paper on STI, 2018 77 “As part of its commitment to African STI cooperation, South Africa will also work to advance the open science agenda elsewhere on the continent and within regional frameworks. The strategic role of the African Open Science Platform, hosted by the Academy of Science of South Africa, which promotes African-wide development and coordination of data policies, data training and data infrastructure, will be leveraged with the support of the DST and the National Research Foundation (NRF). In addition, South Africa is one of the founding members of the global Open Government Partnership (OECD) ….”Input by 18 October 2018
  74. 74. Continental Alignment 78
  75. 75. Global Alignment 79
  76. 76. • Global Network of Science Academies (IAP) • International Science Council(ISC) • Regional Office for Africa (ROA) • Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) • World Data System (WDS) • The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) • Research Data Alliance (RDA) • National Academy of Sciences (NAS) • InterAcademy Partnership (IAP) • African Union/Pan-African Parliament (PAP) • World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) 80 Partnerships & Stakeholders • African Union/NEPAD • Association of African Universities (AAU) • Network of African Science Academies (NASAC) • African Academy of Sciences (AAS) • African Research Councils (incl. DIRISA, funders) • African Universities • African Governments • NRENs (Internet Service Providers for Education) • Other
  77. 77. Global Registry of Data Repositories
  78. 78. Only one data repository in Africa has CoreTrustSeal Location of repositories having acquired CoreTrustSeal (accessed September 2018) Trusted Data Repositories 82
  79. 79. Cloud Computing & Networked Services 37 countries connected Level 4 NRENs: HPC, data repositories, data ecosystem (identifiers, metadata), collaborative environments and analysis tools, platform approaches and provision of software/tools/etc 85 ASREN WACREN UbuntuNet AfricaConnect2 coordinated regions (accessed Sept. 2018)
  80. 80. Cloud Computing & Networked Services 86 High Performance Computing in Tanzania, Kenya, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe
  81. 81. Open Research Data Management 87
  82. 82. 88
  83. 83. 89 https://toolbox.google.com/datasetsearch
  84. 84. Capacity Building 90
  85. 85. Network for Open Science & Dialogue 91
  86. 86. UN Key Message Africa Regional Forum on Sustainable Development, Dakar, May 2018 UN: Economic Commission for Africa “79. The creation of an African platform for research and innovation exchange will enable the dissemination of goal-relevant African research and innovation to governments and citizens. It could form the basis for linking researchers and innovators with the funding required to scale up their work. The proposed platform would showcase and share Africa’s efforts to develop goal-relevant research and innovation and could be coordinated with the Global Innovation Exchange.” 92
  87. 87. 93 “For [a country] to be competitive, it is important that it keeps up with the global trends in the provision of modern LIS that exploit all the benefits of ICTs. The LIS sector’s capacity to contribute to the nation’s ability to convert knowledge into innovations and wealth will determine its value to the nation.” - LIS Transformation Charter (2014) -
  88. 88. Thank You 94 ina@assaf.org.za