World Englishes and English language teaching:
As English has developed a plural sense, with its different varieties
designated world Englishes ;WE. Due to these geographical varieties,
English can be used as a “language of identification” along with being
“language of communication” . This global spread of English requires not
only a shift in our conception of English but also a shift in ELT practice. As
English has become a heterogenous language with multiple norms and
diverse grammars, it is the time for ELT professional or teacher to modify
his ELT practice and embrace diversity in varieties.
“The implications leading to political correction ,urging
teachers to include different varieties of English and users of
English and embrace diversity.”
• It deals with the teaching and learning aspect of varieties
like how specific variety has been taught or learnt.
Language awareness Sociolinguistics
❖ It is the need of hour
to engage with
varieties and even
must be relative
competence in new
varities according to
❖ ELT professional must
provide his students
with a sufficient
awareness of dialect
ual constraints and
cultural sensitivity in
order to tackle diverse
❖ One's proficiency must be
developed in strategies of
proficieny might invlove
4 Attitudinal resources
and humility to negotiate
Implications of spread for ELT:
Analyzing the implications of the global spread of English
ELT professionals might need to be aware of and attend to,
so they can successfully teach implications to their students.
Kachru has vastly contributed in order to give implications of
spread for ELT.
★ Kachru’s role:
Kachru (1996) called for the slaughter of the five sacred cows
of English: the acquisitional cow, theoretical cow, pedagogical
cow, sociolinguistic cow, and ideological cow.
• Sacrificing each of these sacred cows require a significant
Global literacy:: a new paradigm for EIL education.
“Global literacy is cross-cultural fluency and responsiveness in
understanding, engaging and communicating in an
● EIL educators should be aware of historical background of
how English has become lingua franca in many parts of the
● Should clarify the true meaning of globalization in
multicultural context beyond orientalism and Occidentalism.
● Students must be aware of global literacy at basic level for
successful cross-cultural communication
“Meta-cultural competence refers to ‘a competence that enables
interlocutors to communicate and negotiate their cultural
conceptualizations during the process of intercultural communication”.
It involves three components:
● variation awareness.
● explication strategy.
● negotiation strategy.
Requirements for Pakistani students in Future:
Pakistani students have to develop their understanding about
the different perspectives and teachers should provide a deep
insight to the students about the thematic understanding of
the issues presented by Y Kachru in 2005.She classifies the
research interests in WE as:
1. Spread of English in history.
2. Linguistic variations.
3. Socio-cultural context.
4. Intelligibility for both local and global varieties.
5. Issues of bilingualism and multilingualism.
6. Issues like Linguistic imperialism.
WE implications in planning and policy:
• Language planning:
Language planning is basically all the conscious effort to change the
linguistic behavior of speech.Language planning occurs when there is
more than one language within the community.It is irrespective of number
size status and geography.
• Language policy:
According to Kaplan and Baldauf “ language policy is a body of ideas
loss regulations rules and practices the plants language change in the
society group system”
Recurrence of English in language policy:
● Inner circle
● Outer circle
● Expanding circle
The prominence of a language in a language policy is due to a
number of factors such as population, prestige ,status and
nationalism and English shares all these factors to the different
Choice and hegemony of English:
Dominance of English in language policy is an effect of deliberate choice.
it is the language of globalization and opens the door of advancement. In
a survey of a post Imperial English in 20 countries it was found that
English was used in a different domain including education ,the media,
technology, , social contacts etc.
Most of the decision on the language policy
are taken by bureaucratic for example
1. they are taken by government and semi
2. Their implementation rules are made by
3. Elite class who really interested in
maintaining the status of English
responsible for decision making