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* Piperidine Nucleus can be obtained by hydrogenation of
pyridine using Nickel as catalyst.
* Piperidine Alkaloids are biosynthesized from
L-Lysine amino acid.
◘The amount of piperine varies from 1–2%
in long pepper, to 5–10% in black peppers
◘ Piperine is a weak basic alkaloid, does not form stable salts.
◘ It is tasteless at first, but has a burning after taste.
◘ It is decomposed easily with alcoholic KOH
to yield piperidine and piperic acid.
Piperine + H2SO4 red color.
◘ Condiment, Tonic and rubefacient.
◘ In traditional medicine, used as stimulant, carminative &
It reduces the levels of cytokines that promote inflammation (IL-1b,TNF-α, and PGE2) and increases the
levels of cytokines that reduce inflammation (IL-10).
• Increasing bioavailability of many drugs and supplements;
The primary value of piperine in health supplements is its ability to enhance the bioavailability of
some other vitamins and minerals.
By inhibiting the detox enzymes that break down drugs (such as CYP3A4) and increasing
drug/substance absorption in the gut (increase blood supply), piperine increases the body’s ability to
make effective use of many other compounds.
It acts directly as a hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger.
• Increasing catecholamines in the brain – these help improve mood, cognitive function, and fight of
• Increasing muscle metabolism by increasing ATPase activity. This increases the use of energy by
the muscles and helps in weight loss.
Gorgani, Leila, et al. "Piperine—the
bioactive compound of black pepper:
from isolation to medicinal
formulations." Comprehensive Reviews in
Food Science and Food Safety 16.1 (2017):
It enhances the effect of many drugs (including those metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 enzymes):
Diclofenac (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)
Ibuprofen (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)
Fexofenadine (an allergy drug)
Chlorzoxazone (muscle relaxant)
Domperidone (anti-emetic drug)
Docetaxel (anti-cancer drug)
Piperine also enhances the effect of supplements such as beta-carotene, curcumin, and resveratrol.
The low solubility of piperine in water and its poor dissolution is the rate‐controlling step in the
absorption process of piperine.
The pharmaceutical activities of piperine are limited due to its low water solubility and because use of it
at high concentrations can be toxic for the central nervous and reproductive systems.
Coniine and -Coniceine
are non-oxygenated, volatile, liquid alkaloids
Coniine is a colorless oily liquid,
with mice-like odor and a burning taste.
Violet or blue color
Coniine + sodium nitroprusside solution Red color
◘ Coniine is used as a local analgesic, mostly in external
preparations, due to its high toxicity.
◘ It is used as an ointment for
treatment of hemorrhoids and anal fissures.
Coniine is very poisonous,
lethal dose 120-300 mg, death may occur after ½ hr.
(or may prolong to 3 –12 hrs.)
Dried aerial parts of Lobelia inflata (Fam.
◘ These alkaloids contain piperidine rings with
alternative ( C6-C2 ) side chains derived from
phenylalanine via cinnamic acid.
◘ a tertiary base alkaloid.
◘ It is a keto-alcohol.
◘ It forms a monooxime monoester.
◘ Lobeline HCl salt is soluble in CHCl3
Lobelanine: Is a diketonic compound, therefore
it forms a dioxime.
Lobelanidine: (ketonic group absent).
It does not form any oxime
Tests for identification of lobeline:
Lobeline gives with:
◘ Marqui`s reagent red violet color
◘ Erdmann`s reagent faint green color
◘ Froehd's reagent rose red color blue
◘ Rosette crystals with KCN or Na2CO3 solution.
Uses of Lobelia
◘ Respiratory stimulant.
◘ Relieve asthma.
◘ Lobeline sulfate was formerly
incorporated in tablets or
lozenges, that were intended to
aid in breaking the tobacco habit
Chewing the plant produces effects like that of nicotine, such as sensation to the tongue and stomach, as well
as CNS effects.
Structural similarity to nicotine exerts nicotine-like effects on choline receptors
Recent studies of Lobeline have found that lobeline reduces the cytosolic pool of dopamine and therefore
diminishing methamphetamine evoked dopamine release
Due to this mode of action there are current studies developing drug therapies for methamphetamine abuse.
The Classical mechanism of action had been categorized as a nicotinic receptor agonist at the nicotinic
acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) but with a weaker effect, recent studies suggest it to be an antagonist effect.
Ingestion of lobeline may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, dizziness, visual disturbances, hearing
disturbances, mental confusion, weakness, slowed heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased breathing rate,
tremors, and seizures.
Lobeline has a narrow therapeutic index; the potentially beneficial dose of lobeline is very close to the toxic
As smoking deterrent: daily oral dose of 6 mg (3*2 mg),
◘ The fruit rind as well as the root and stem
barks of Pomegranate
[Punica granatum, Fam. Punicaceae].
Pelletierine Isopelletierine N-methylpelletierine Pseudopelletierine
Strong basic Weak basic