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Public health policy and legislations refat2021

PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY & LEGISLATIONS Health is the right of all persons and the duty of the State and is guaranteed by means of social and economic policies aimed at reducing the risk of illness and other hazards and at universal and equal access to all actions and services for the promotion, protection and recovery of health.

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Public health policy and legislations refat2021

  1. 1. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 1 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat For Postgraduate Students Prof. AhmedRefat AG Refat Community Medicine Department FOM-ZU 2021 Module Objectives Through this module, students will explore public health law and policy and how they can advance (and hinder) the public’s health. By the end of this course, students should be able to: 1. Define some legal terminology 2. Identify and describe significant national and international public health laws and regulations 3. Explain how law affects health; 4. Define and describe basic legal epidemiology principles 5. Explain the role of law in public health practice 6. Describe the health policy process 7. Compare legislation, regulation, and litigation as public health tools 8. Discuss how laws affect the social determinants of health 9. Advocate for legal solutions to public health problems; 10. Collaborate across disciplines.
  2. 2. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 2 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Module Contents  Topic Page  Introduction  3  Unit One  The right to health in international human right law 5  Health laws 6  Health Impact Pyramid: The Power of Policy & Systems 8  Power of Policy and Laws 10  Hierarchy of Laws 12  Legal authority relevant to & the five basic legal sources.. 14  Some relevant concepts and terms 15  legislative Process 17  Policy Formulation Process 18  Health Laws in the 10 Essential Public Health Services 19  Health in All Policies HiAP. 22  Unit Two  Some Public Health Egyptians Regulations in the field of Public Health Issues  Egypt's Constitution of 2014 24  Decree 268/1975 the mission and objectives of the Ministry of Health (MOH) 26  Law. 137/1958, Amended by Law. 55/1979: Combating Contagious Diseases 27  Comprehensive Social Insurance Law 31  Rights of Persons with Disabilities 33  Law on the National Food Safety Authority (NFSA) enacted by 35  Work Law 12/ 2003 40  Law for Environment, 43  Waste Management 46  Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme 48  Profession Ethics Regulations Issued By the Resolution of the Minister of Health & Population No. 238/2003 51  Unit Three  Family of International classifications  ICD purpose and uses 55  International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 56  International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) 57  International Health Regulations 58  Some related international laws 60  Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems ILO - 62  Unit Four  MODELS OF LEGAL INTERVENTION  Actual and Hypothetical Examples of the Legal Models of Intervention Applied to Food and Nutrition 65  Legal Epidemiology 67  Five models of public health regulation: 69  Policy as a “Critical Content of the Core Msc of PH Degree.” 70  Cited References and Helpful Resources 71
  3. 3. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 3 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Introduction Health is the right of all persons and the duty of the State and is guaranteed by means of social and economic policies aimed at reducing the risk of illness and other hazards and at universal and equal access to all actions and services for the promotion, protection and recovery of health. The greatest public health challenges today are complex and require broad, multifaceted solutions. Policies , laws and regulations are beneficial in that they have the potential to affect both the environment and behavior to reduce health risks. Policies that result in systemic improvements in economic, physical, and social environments can provide opportunities, support, and clues for healthy behavior. Laws can alter social norms by influencing environments. As stricter bans on smoking in public places increased, the expectation of smoke-free air became the norm. Another benefit of using policies to promote health is that they have a broad scope. Unlike clinical or individual-level approaches, policies have the potential to reach a large population. Policy changes can benefit all people exposed to the environment rather than focusing on changing behaviors one person at a time.
  4. 4. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 4 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat
  5. 5. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 5 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat The right to health in international human right law The right to health is a human right that is well established in international human right law, that 1imposes a number of core obligations. These include the obligations to: • ensure the right of access to health services without discrimination; • ensure access to food that is safe and nutritionally adequate and to ensure freedom from hunger; • ensure access to basic shelter, housing and sanitation, and an adequate supply of safe and potable water; • provide essential medicines, as defined by WHO from time to time; • ensure equitable distribution of health facilities, goods and services; • adopt and implement a national plan of action addressing the health concerns of the population. In addition to the core obligations above, there are a number of obligations of “comparable priority”. These include the obligations to: • ensure reproductive, prenatal and postnatal maternal and child health care; • provide immunization for priority diseases; • prevent, treat and control epidemic and endemic diseases; • provide education about the major health challenges facing the community; • provide appropriate training for health personnel.
  6. 6. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 6 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Health Laws Health law is the area of law concerned with the health of individuals and populations, the provision of health care and the operation of the health care system.Two fundamental tools that assist states in the task of protecting people from threats to health, preventing disease, and striving for healthy populations, are public health law and public health policy. Public health law Public health law is a field that focuses legal practice, scholarship and advocacy on issues involving the government‟s legal authorities and duties “to ensure the conditions for people to be healthy,” and how to balance these authorities and duties with “individual rights to autonomy, privacy, liberty, property and other legally protected interests.” The scope of public health law is broad. Public health law issues range from narrow questions of legal interpretation to complex matters involving public health policy, social justice and ethics. Health policy Health policy, refers to „decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society‟ The World Health Organization states that „an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future which in turn helps to establish targets and points of reference for the short and medium term.It outlines
  7. 7. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 7 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people‟ Public Health Policy Public policy, is defined as laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic by a governmental entity or its representatives. Public Policy encompasses the intentional actions or inactions by government to address a problem affecting the public What is the purpose of a policy? The term “policy” is used in different senses related to governance:  General state policy – the political principles and direction set by a government, which forms the basis of its administration;  Legislative policy – a statement of the political purpose to be achieved with a new law, the way the purpose is to be achieved and a set of instructions for the professional legislative drafters who will draft a bill; and  Administrative policy – statements and guidelines issued by an authority regarding the way it intends to administer its duties and exercise its discretion.
  8. 8. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 8 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Health Impact Pyramid: The Power of Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change For prevention to be effective in improving public health, a comprehensive approach that goes beyond education and providing direct services is necessary. Policy change is a powerful way to affect meaningful, sustainable, cost-effective improvements to public health. This a relatively new way of thinking about public health. Health Impact Pyramid To illustrate this concept, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Health Impact Pyramid to describe the impact of different interventions on health. At the base of the pyramid are interventions with the greatest impact on the population. At the pyramid narrows, the interventions require more individual effort and have less population impact. Near the base of the pyramid, the section labeled “Changing the Context to Make Default Decisions Health” is achieved through “policy, systems and environmental changes, “ which includes modifying the environment to make healthy choices practical and available to all community members, as well as influencing policy and legislation. By changing laws and shaping landscape around us, a big and sustainable impact can be made, often with fewer resources than one-time programmatic interventions with limited reach.
  9. 9. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 9 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat
  10. 10. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 10 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Power of Policy and Laws The power of policy is exemplified by the fact that every one of the top 10 public health achievements in the last century was facilitated by some sort of policy action to influence practice and prioritize. ● Vaccination, which has resulted in the control or eradieradication of smallpox, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and other infectious diseases; ● Motor-vehicle safety (through safer vehicles and highways, use of safety belts, child safety seats, and motorcycle helmets, and decreased drinking and driving), which has resulted in significant reductions in motor vehicle related deaths; ● Safer workplace (particularly in mining, manufacturing, construction, and transportation), which has resulted in significant reductions in fatal ccupational injuries; ● Control of infectious diseases (from clean water and improved sanitation, and antimicrobial therapy), which has resulted in the reduction of typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases;
  11. 11. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 11 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat ● Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke (through risk factor modification such as smoking cessation, blood pressure control, and early detection); ● Safer and healthier foods (from decreases in microbial contamination and increases in nutritional content), which has eliminated nutritional eficiency diseases such as rickets, goiter, and pellagra; ● Healthier mothers and babies (through better hygiene and nutrition), which has resulted in significant infant and maternal mortality reductions; ● Access to family planning and contraceptives, which has resulted in smaller family size, fewer infant, child, and maternal deaths, and fewer HIV and STDs; ● Fluoridation of drinking water, which has reduced tooth decay and tooth loss. ● Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard, which has reduced smoking related deaths.
  12. 12. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 12 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Hierarchy of Laws All countries have a legal foundation, generally consisting of a founding document, such as a constitution, and the laws passed by the national legislature and other levels of lawmaking authority. These laws function in a hierarchy, which determines how they rank in authority and how the authority and scope of each level is derived from the constitution. The hierarchical structure varies from country to country, and depends on the form of government. Respect for the hierarchy of laws is fundamental to the rule of law, as it dictates how the different levels of law will apply in practice. In general, the fundamental levels of hierarchy consist of: a constitution or founding document; statutes or legislation; regulations; and procedures. Treaties and international obligations, executive orders and presidential decrees, common law/case law, codes of conduct, and policies. Each of these elements fits into – or interacts with – the hierarchy of laws in different ways, depending on the system of government in a particular country . Basic elements of the hierarchy, 1. A constitution states the grounding legal and democratic principles that its government is obligated to uphold, and because of this is considered the supreme law in a country to which all other laws must adhere.
  13. 13. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 13 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 2. A statute is a law enacted by a legislature to govern society, and its authority is derived from the constitution or founding document of a country, which authorizes the legislature to enact it. 3. Regulations are issued under the authority of a statute by a division of the government or by a special body . For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as “delegated” legislation, and they provide administrative and technical detail to carry out the purpose of the statute. 4. Finally, procedures describe the required steps necessary to complete a process, and are generally written by an administrative body to ensure that the law and regulations are applied consistently and fairly to all parties
  14. 14. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 14 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Legal authority relevant to population health comes from five basic legal sources .. The Five basic legal sources: 1. Constitutions. All government action to advance public health must be consistent with constitutional authority and constitutional protections of individual rights. 2. International agreements. The President may bind the state to international treaties and executive agreements that require creation of domestic laws. 3. Legislation. The legislative branch (Congress, state legislatures and city councils and other local legislative bodies) creates policies and distributes public funds by enacting statutes, which are commonly called ordinances at the local level. 4. Regulations. Regulations (sometimes called rules or by-laws) are issued under the authority of a statute by a division of the government or by a special body, .. For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as “delegated” legislation. 5. Case law. The judicial branch, through courts, resolves disputes and interprets laws, including balancing community needs with constitutionally- protected rights of individuals.
  15. 15. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 15 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Some relevant concepts and terms Constitution Establishes the innate characteristics of the country and its authority; outlines the rights and responsibilities of its citizens – as such it is the supreme law. * All other laws must adhere to the constitution. * The constitution should reflect and adhere to a country‟s international obligations. International Laws * Trans-border agreements that have different impacts on the country‟s law, depending on the treaty language and the way a country‟s constitution manages them. * No legal way to enforce compliance, unless the treaty sets up a dispute resolution process. Statutes / Legislation * Statutes are enacted by the legislative branch of government, and govern a wide range of issues that require regulation in a modern, democratic state – including elections. * Must adhere to the constitution and international law. * Amended by the same process as first enacted, and enforced by a country‟s enforcement agencies. Procedure * A procedure is a description of the required steps necessary to complete a process. * Procedures are generally written by an administrative body to ensure that the law and regulations are applied consistently and fairly to all parties.
  16. 16. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 16 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat * Enforcement of a procedure is generally achieved by requesting compliance as a condition of completing a process or receiving a benefit (for example, candidacy) – rather than sanction or punishment. Codes of Conduct * A written set of rules, principles or standards to govern the behavior of certain groups. * It is a best practice for EMBs to develop codes of conduct to govern external actors such as candidates, media, election observers, security personnel, and election officials. * Enforcement of codes of conduct depends on whether they are considered “soft” or “hard” law. Codes of conduct are considered “soft law” when they are not passed by a lawmaking body and thus rely on voluntary compliance. Guidelines, Instructions, and Policies * Terms such as “guidelines” and “instructions” are uncertain in meaning and can result in ambiguity, particularly with regard to enforceability. * “Policies” are broad, informative statements of intent regarding principles to be followed, priority of programs. Treaties are agreements between two or more countries, entered into after negotiation. Their purpose is to create international rules or standards by which the involved parties agree to abide. Much of international law has been written and enforced through treaties. Treaties have been used to end wars, foster trade and promote human and civil rights, among other goals. Presidential Decrees/Executive Orders Executive orders are legally-binding directives to an executive agency by the president or other executive acting within his or her constitutional authority.
  17. 17. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 17 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Legislative Process The legislative Process includes evaluating, amending, and voting on proposed laws and is concerned with the words used in the bill to communicate the values, judgments, and purposes of the proposal. An idea becomes an item of legislative business when it is written as a bill. A bill is a draft, or tentative version, of what might become part of the written law. A bill that is endorsed is called an act or statute. Ideas for legislation can come from legislators who have experience in a particular field, or legislators can copy legislation because an idea that works well in one jurisdiction can be useful to its neighbors. Legislators also receive proposals from the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws; a conference of 250 lawyers appointed by governors to represent the states. The Council of State Governments, the American Law Institute, the American Bar Association, and numerous other organizations all produce model acts for legislatures. Protection and promotion of social and economic interests of particular groups also motivate legislation. Interests groups usually become involved in the legislative process through lobbyists. The general procedure of enactment of legislation is governed by the constitution. When a bill is first introduced it is referred to a relevant committee. to accommodate and to eliminate technical defects a bill can then be rewritten. If the committee recommends that the bill be passed, the bill is placed on the agenda for action by the full legislative body. After a lengthy and complex procedure, legislators vote on the final passage of the bill. Once the bill is approved by both houses and is put into final form, it must be signed by the executive. An executive can refuse to sign a bill and can return it to the legislature with a veto message explaining why. If the executive signs the bill, it is filed and becomes law.
  18. 18. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 18 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Policy Formulation Process Policy process involve a „descriptive’ stage, in which attempts to simplify complexities by identifying key elements of a problem or threat occur; and „prescriptive’ stage which translates demands into specific actions. One may also consider the policy process as a continuous process that involves then following stages: * Agenda setting. Identifying problems that require government attention, deciding which issues deserve the most attention and defining the nature of the problem. * Policy formulation. Setting objectives, identifying the cost and estimating the effect of solutions, choosing from a list of solutions and selecting policy instruments. * Legitimation. Ensuring that the chosen policy instruments have support. It can involve one or a combination of: legislative approval, executive approval, seeking consent through consultation with interest groups, and referenda. *Implementation. Establishing or employing an organization to take responsibility for implementation, ensuring that the organization has the resources (such as staffing, money and legal authority) to do so, and making sure that policy decisions are carried out as planned. * Evaluation. Assessing the extent to which the policy was successful or the policy decision was the correct one; if it was implemented correctly and, if so, had the desired effect. * Policy maintenance, succession or termination. Considering if the policy should be continued, modified or discontinued.
  19. 19. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 19 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Health Laws in the 10 Essential Public Health Services The 10 Essential Public Health Services provide a framework for public health to protect and promote the health of all people in all communities. To achieve equity, the Essential Public Health Services actively promote policies, systems, and overall community conditions that enable optimal health for all and seek to remove systemic and structural barriers that have resulted in health inequities The Ten Essential Public Health Services fall into three categories that define the core functions of public health: A. Assessment B. Policy Development C. Assurance A. B.
  20. 20. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 20 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat A. Assessment: ___1. Monitor health status to identify community health problems. ___2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community. B. Policy Development: ___3. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. ___4. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems. ___5. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts. C. Assurance: ___6. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. ___7. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable. ___8. Assure a competent public health and personal health care workforce. ___9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services. ___10. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems EPHS-5 Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts. ___Leadership development at all levels of public health. ___Systematic community-level and state-level planning for health improvement in all jurisdictions. ___Development and tracking of measurable health objectives as a part of continuous quality improvement strategies.
  21. 21. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 21 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat ___Joint evaluation with the medical health care system to define consistent policy regarding prevention and treatment services. ___Development of codes, regulations, and legislation to guide the practice of public health. EPHS-6 Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. Enforce Laws This is the first portion of the assurance component. This calls for agencies to make sure that the community is following safety guidelines in order to protect the public from potentially being effected in a way that will negatively affect their health . Agencies or health departments are to execute the laws in which regard proper sanitation and safe drinking water. By making sure these laws are being executed it can prevent an outbreak that will negatively affect the health of a community .  Full enforcement of sanitary codes, especially in the food industry.  Full protection of drinking water supplies.  Enforcement of clean air standards.  Timely follow-up of hazards, preventable injuries, and exposure- related diseases identified in occupational and community settings.  Monitoring quality of medical services (e.g., laboratory, nursing homes, and home health care).  Timely review of new drug, biologic, and medical device application.  Advocacy for needed new health and safety laws and regulations https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/images/graphics/essential-services-wheel.png https://www.cdc.gov/publichealthgateway/publichealthservices/essen tialhealthservices.html
  22. 22. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 22 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Health in All Policies HiAP. Health in All Policies is an approach to public policies across sectors that systematically takes into account the health implications of decisions, seeks synergies, and avoids harmful health impacts in order to improve population health and health equity. The following points highlight a health in all policies approach:  Health in All Policies is a collaborative approach to improving the health of all people by incorporating health considerations into decision-making across sectors and policy areas.  Health is influenced by the social, physical, and economic environments, collectively referred to as the “social determinants of health.”  Health in All Policies, at its core, is an approach to addressing the social determinants of health that are the key drivers of health outcomes and health inequities.  Health in All Policies supports improved health outcomes and health equity through collaboration between public health practitioners and those nontraditional partners who have influence over the social determinants of health.  Health in All Policies approaches include five key elements: promoting health and equity, supporting intersectoral collaboration, creating cobenefits for multiple partners, engaging stakeholders, and creating structural or process change.  Health in All Policies encompasses a wide spectrum of activities and can be implemented in many different ways.  Health in All Policies initiatives build on an international and historical body of collaborative work
  23. 23. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 23 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Some Egyptians Public Health Regulations in the field of Public Health Issues Unit Two
  24. 24. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 24 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Some Relevant Public Health Egyptians Regulations in the field of Public Health Issues Egypt's Constitution of 2014 https://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf Some articles related to public health Article (13) The State shall protect workers' rights and strive to build balanced work relationships between both parties to the production process. It shall ensure means for collective negotiations, protect workers against work risks, guarantee the fulfillment of the requirements of security, safety and occupational health, and prohibit unfair dismissal, all as regulated by Law Article (18) Every citizen has the right to health and to comprehensive health care which complies with quality standards. The State shall maintain and support public health facilities that provide health services to the people, and shall enhance their efficiency and their equitable geographical distribution. The State shall allocate a percentage of government spending to health equivalent to at least 3% of Gross National Product (GNP), which shall gradually increase to comply with international standards. The State shall establish a comprehensive health insurance system covering all diseases for all Egyptians; and the Law shall regulate citizens' contribution to or exemption from its subscriptions based on their income rates. Refusing to provide any form of medical treatment to any human in emergency or lifethreatening situations is a crime. The State shall improve
  25. 25. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 25 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat the conditions of physicians, nursing staff, and health sector workers. All health facilities as well as health-related products, materials and means of advertisement shall be subject to State control. The State shall encourage the participation of private and nongovernmental sectors in providing health care services according to the Law. . Article (46) Every person has the right to a sound healthy environment. Environment protection is a national duty. The State shall take necessary measures to protect and ensure not to harm the environment; ensure a rational use of natural resources so as to achieve sustainable development; and guarantee the right of future generations thereto. Article (78) The State shall ensure the citizens' right to adequate, safe and healthy housing in a manner which preserves human dignity and achieves social justice Article (79) Each citizen has the right to healthy and sufficient food and clean water. The State shall ensure food resources to all citizens. The State shall also ensure sustainable food sovereignty and maintain agricultural biological diversity and types of local plants in order to safeguard the rights of future generations. Article (83) The State shall guarantee the health, economic, social, cultural and entertainment rights of the elderly people, provide them with appropriate pensions which ensure a decent life for them, and enable them to participate in public life. In its planning of public facilities, the State shall take into account the needs of the elderly. The State shall encourage civil society organizations to participate in taking care of the elderly people. https://www.egypt.gov.eg/english/laws/constitution/chp_one/part_one.aspx
  26. 26. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 26 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Presidential Decree No. 268 of 1975 defines the mission and objectives of the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) Article 1 of the decree provides that the Ministry‟s main mission is to protect the health of all Egyptian citizens through preventive and curative services at a centralized level. The MOH has an array of objectives, which include the following: (1) shaping national health care policies; (2) recording health care data and conducting economic health studies; (3) providing centralized health services, including central laboratories, pharmaceutical services, and manpower training; (4) monitoring the quality of medicine; (5) offering effective management during public health crises; (6) administrating health services and units; and (7) coordinating with domestic medical units on the local level in all governorates.
  27. 27. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 27 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Law No. 137/1958, Amended by Law No. 55/1979: CombatingContagious Diseases Object and Scope of the Law: Regulating prevention of the contagious diseases and actions for combating any of them. Regulation of the Law: Chapter (1) has set a definition for the contagious disease as set out in the attached table; and has invested the Minister of Health with the powers to effect / insert any amendments in such table when necessary. Chapter (2) : Articles ( 2 -3- 4 ) have indicated the protective vaccination, antidotes, and serums, and restrictions to be observed , and duties of the those in charge of vaccinations. The legislation has for the first time innovated the periodical vaccination against the contagious diseases. Article (6) has stressed the right of the Health Authority in vaccinating people in certain areas and the right of the Minister of Health in issuing the decrees necessary for regulating the vaccination process against the contagious diseases. Chapter (3): has tackled prevention of epidemic leakage ; Article (10) has stipulated that the Minister of Health shall have the right to issue the decrees necessary for quarantining / isolating , monitoring ,and putting under observation persons and animals coming from abroad ; and indicated the health / hygienic conditions required for the imported goods
  28. 28. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 28 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat and materials; and has demanded vaccination to all pilgrims prior to their departure. Chapter (4) is related to the preventive measure to be taken when contagious diseases loomed. Article (12) has indicated the steps to be taken when person is infected ( or suspected to be infected ) with any contagious disease, and demanded reporting such case within 24 hours. Article (14) has identified the person in charge of reporting such cases and has granted the competent authority the right to take any action necessary to avoid spread of the diseases. Article (15) has identified the power of the law officers in applying the provisions of this law and has granted them the right to inspect houses and suspected places to prevent spread of the diseases, to quarantine / isolate patients and those mingling with them, vaccinating them, and disinfecting their houses and household materials. The law has also granted the law officers to destroy objects deemed contaminated and difficult to disinfect. Law officers may seek assistance of the policemen to carry out their tasks. Article (16) has stipulated that it is compulsory to quarantine/ isolate any person suspected to be infected with any of the contagious diseases set out in the section(1) of the table; Article (20) has entitled the Minister of Health to issue a decree declaring that certain area is deemed epidemic / infectious area and authorized him to take all measures necessary to prevent spread of the disease through the administrative channels. Such measures include banning the gathering of people at public meetings or in religious festivals, destroying contaminated food and drinks, removing water pots, backfilling wells, closing cafes and markets, cinemas, schools, work places or any other place the running of which deemed hazardous to the public health. Authorities Responsible to Execute Law No. 137/1958: Ministry of Health- Ministry of Interior.
  29. 29. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 29 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat ‫أحكام‬ ‫بعض‬ ‫بتعديل‬ ٠٢٠٢ ‫لسنة‬ ٢٤٠ ‫رقم‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫االحتياطات‬ ‫شأن‬ ‫في‬ ٢٥٥١ ‫لسنة‬ ٢٣١ ‫رقم‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫المعدية‬ ‫األمراض‬ ‫من‬ ‫للوقاية‬ ‫الصحية‬. ‫ينص‬ ‫القانون‬ ‫على‬ ‫انه‬ ‫يجوز‬ ‫لوزير‬ ‫الصحة‬ ‫لمنع‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫األمراض‬ ، ‫ان‬ ‫يلزم‬ ‫األفراد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫الفئات‬ ‫التي‬ ‫يحددها‬ ‫باستخدام‬ ‫الكمامات‬ ‫الواقية‬ ‫او‬ ‫األقنعة‬ ‫الطبية‬ ‫أو‬ ‫األوشحة‬ ‫وغيرها‬ ‫من‬ ‫مستلزمات‬ ‫الوقاية‬ ‫األخرى‬ ‫خارج‬ ‫اماكن‬ ‫السكن‬ . ‫كما‬ ‫يضع‬ ‫وزير‬ ‫الصحة‬ ‫القواعد‬ ‫واإلجراءات‬ ‫الصحية‬ ‫الواجب‬ ‫اتباعها‬ ‫في‬ ‫شأن‬ ‫التعامل‬ ‫مع‬ ‫جثامين‬ ‫الموتى‬ ‫باألمراض‬ ‫المعدية‬ ‫المنصوص‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫في‬ ‫القانون‬ . ‫ويعاقب‬ ‫بالحبس‬ ‫وبغرامة‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تقل‬ ‫عن‬ ‫خمسة‬ ‫آالف‬ ‫جنيه‬ ‫وال‬ ‫تجاوز‬ ‫عشرة‬ ‫أالف‬ ‫جنيه‬ ‫او‬ ‫بإحدى‬ ‫العقوبتين‬ ‫كل‬ ‫من‬ ‫أعاق‬ ‫أو‬ ‫عطل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫منع‬ ‫دفن‬ ‫ميت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أيا‬ ‫من‬ ‫الشعائر‬ ‫والطقوس‬ ‫الدينية‬ ‫المتبعة‬ ‫للدفن‬ ‫أو‬ ‫خالف‬ ‫القواعد‬ ‫واإلجراءات‬ ‫التي‬ ‫يحددها‬ ‫وزير‬ ‫الصحة‬ . Classification of COVID-19 by the Egyptian Government: According to the Minister of Health and Population‟s Decree no. 145/2020, COVID-19 is listed under Section One of the Contagious Diseases list annexed to the Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law no. 137/1958 (the “Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law”). Obligation to Report: Articles no. 12 and 13 of the Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law puts an obligation on any of the below individuals to report any infected or suspicious cases of COVID-19 to the authorities (practically, this can be the Ministry of Health on its dedicated hotline): • any doctor witnessing the infected or suspicious case;
  30. 30. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 30 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat • any family member or care provider; • the employer or the manager of an entity; • driver of a transportation vehicle; or • an administrative authority representative The report shall include the case‟s name, address of residence and the profession. Other Obligation(s) Listed Under the Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law: • According to article no. 19 of the Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law, the competent medical authorities (e.g. the Ministry of Health and Population and the law enforcement officers) shall have the right to monitor any person who came in contact with an infected individual for a period decided by the competent medical authorities. If a person refuses to be monitored, the authorities may order putting this person in quarantine. • Additionally, the Minister of Health and Population is authorized to overtake any means of transportation, real estate, pharmaceutical products, chemical products, medical devices or supplies necessary for the prevention of diseases listed under Section One (which now includes COVID-19). Also, the Minister of Health and Population is authorized to assign any person to perform any works related to theprevention and control of the epidemic against compensation provided by to the provisions of the Supply Affairs Law no. 95/1945. Moreover, according to article no. 20 bis of the Health Measures to Prevent Contagious Diseases Law, the Minister of Health shall have authorities to impose obligations to wear masks or other preventive gear and issue regulations in relation to handling corpse of those deceased due to a Contagious Disease
  31. 31. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 31 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Comprehensive Social Insurance Law Law no. 148/2019 What’s new in the Law? 1.The Law unified the dispersed social insurance laws under one umbrella and made all categories of persons subject to the same legislation.  The Law replaced Law 179/1975 on Social Insurance (the “Old Social Insurance Law”), Law 108/1976 on Social Insurance for Employers and the like, Law 50/1978 on Social Insurance for Egyptians working abroad, as well as various other regulations and decrees. This means that all categories of insured persons will be subject to the new Law instead of these old scattered laws. 2. The Law extended social insurance protection to new groups of employees  These are primarily non-regular and seasonal employees or further categories of employers. Examples include fishermen, overland transportation employees, domestic workers, owners of small shares of real estate and owners of environmental, rural and familial industries, as well as owners of sole- person companies. These new categories would not affect most corporations. 3. Subscription amounts have changed:  The contribution rates / percentages to be deducted from the salaries of the insured persons (employers and employees) have changed. The amounts of income on which the rates are assessed have not been addressed by the Law but will be subject to the executive
  32. 32. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 32 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat regulation to be issued soon. These may change then. Accordingly, the effect as to the increase or decrease of social insurance obligations on the concerned parties cannot be entirely assessed at this stage. Below are snapshots of the key provisions of the New Law. SCOPE OF APPLICATION Now, under the New Law the following categories will be covered and benefit from its schemes:  Public sector employees.  Employees of state owned companies.  Private sector employees.  Employers, business owners and directors.  Egyptians outside Egypt (optional).  Expats inside Egypt.  Employees with irregular employment relationship (i.e. seasonal employees, street vendors, house-keepers/servants...etc). The minimum age of the insured persons shall be (18) years (except to the insurance of employers and business owners whose age shall not be less than 21 years). INSURANCE TYPES UNDER THE NEW LAW Pursuant to the New Law, the covered persons shall benefit from the following insurance schemes:  Old age, disability and death.  Work injuries.  Illness/sickness.  Unemployment. https://nosi.gov.eg/ar/Pages/HomePage/Home.aspx
  33. 33. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 33 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Law No. (10) of 2018 Rights of Persons with Disabilities Law number 10 of 2018 in its second article states that : persons with disabilities includes those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others;... Law No. (10) of 2018 , article 4 includes the general principles established in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, as follows: 1- Non-discrimination on the basis of disability, type of disability or gender of the person with disabilities, and to ensure de facto equality in all human rights and fundamental freedoms. 2- Create conditions and respect differences to accept persons with disabilities as part of human diversity. 3- Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities, respect for their right to preserve their identity and to express their views freely. 4- The right of persons with disabilities to express their views freely and to give due weight to these views when making the decisions in all matters affecting them to ensure their full and effective participation in society. 5- The right of persons with disabilities and their families to obtain all information that concerns them from all entities. 6- To enable persons with disabilities to participate in the conduct of public
  34. 34. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 34 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat affairs on an equal basis with others, to provide a safe environment for persons with disabilities and protect them from all forms of exploitation. 7- Integrating in all policies and programs what protects and promotes the rights of persons with disabilities. Law number 10 of 2018 embodied all the requirements of article (4) of the Convention and the most important general obligations as it included all the legislative, administrative and procedural aspects for the enforcement of the rights of persons with disabilities; civil, political, economic, social and cultural. Article (28) of the law imposes on the State an obligation to include the rights and needs of persons with disabilities fairly and in a balanced manner in programs and policies to combat and reduce poverty. Law No. 10 of 2018 on Persons with Disabilities also provides a solid foundation for the protection of children with disabilities. Article (4) includes the State's obligation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, to respect the evolving capacities of children with disabilities, to preserve their identity and to express their views freely on all matters affecting them, with due regard to their views according to their age and maturity, on an equal basis with other children, and to provide information and assistance in the exercise of that right in proportion to their disability and age. The Act also gives particular attention to the education of children with disabilities in the third chapter in articles 10 to 17..
  35. 35. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 35 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Law on the National Food Safety Authority (NFSA) enacted by Law No. 1 of the year 2017, NFSA is established to be the central regulatory authority responsible for food monitoring and safety in Egypt. It is an independent authority reporting directly to the President. The Executive Regulation of the Law (“Executive Regulations”) was issued on 18 February 2019. It sets out NFSA‟s authorities as well as the licensing and compliance requirements that should be observed and followed by food facilitates. NFSA’S AUTHORITIES NFSA will be exclusively competent to inspect and monitor food to ensure that it is produced, distributed, marketed, consumed, imported from, or exported to Egypt according to the standards of food safety and hygiene. NFSA has been granted several authorities, including among others the following: 1. Licensing, inspecting and supervising the handling of food. 2. Granting compliance certificates necessary for the exportation of locally produced food. 3. Issuing the mandatory rules for food safety and hygiene. 4. Controlling and inspecting the imported food. 5. Issuing the rules and regulations relating to advertising and labeling food products. 6. Regulating the use of food additives and substances.
  36. 36. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 36 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Important terms in the law 6. "Food" means any product or substance, whether raw, processed, partially processed, semi-processed or unprocessed, which is intended for human consumption, including beverages, bottled water or water added to food, any substance containing water and chewing gum, except for feed, plants and crops before harvesting; live animals and birds before entering slaughterhouses; sea creatures and farm-raised fish before fishing; pharmaceutical products and cosmetics; tobacco and tobacco products; and narcotic substances or psychotropic substances. 7. "Food Handling" means one or more operations of food production, manufacture, offering and displaying for sale, storage, preserving, wrapping, transportation, delivery, importation, exportation, or the licensing or approval for any of these activities. 8. "Food Safety" means that food and the environment of food handling are free from any hazard in accordance with the rules specified in the present law, food safety-related laws and executive decrees related thereto. 9. “Foods for Special Dietary Uses (FSDU)” means food products that are specially processed, prepared or formulated to satisfy particular dietary requirements, or requirements that exist because of specific diseases, including foods intended for feeding infants and children, diets for use in weight gain or reduction and stimulant, fortified and appetizing foods, as established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). 10. "Irradiated Foods" means food products that are treated by ionizing radiation, especially in order to control foodborne pathogens, reduce microbial load and insect infestation, inhibit the germination of root crops or extend the durable life of perishable fresh produce. 11. "Genetically Modified Foods (GMFs)" means foods that include, consist of or produced from the so-called genetically modified organisms "GMOs" that have had changes introduced into their DNA so as to allow for the introduction of new genetic traits.
  37. 37. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 37 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 12. "Processing Aid" means a substance or material not consumed as a food ingredient by itself, intentionally used in the treatment or production of food or its ingredients, which results in the unavoidable presence of residues or derivatives in the food. 13. "Food Additive" means any substance added to food during manufacture, processing, treatment, packaging, wrapping or transportation for technological purposes or functions or for producing actual or possible effects on food. This substance is not normally consumed as a food by itself and not normally used as a typical ingredient of the food, whether or not it has nutritive value. The term does not include contaminants or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities. 14. "Food-Contact Material" means any substance that come into contact with food or produced for the purpose of coming into contact with food, including containers, wrappings and packages. 15. "Hazard" means any physical, biological, chemical or radiological agent in food. 16. "Risk" means potential hazards in food. 17. "Traceability" means the ability to trace and follow food through all stages of production, processing and distribution. 18. "Food Withdrawal" means an action taken to remove a food product from the supply chain except for the product possessed by a consumer. 19. "Food Recall" means an action taken to retrieve a food product after being sold, where the consumer is advised to take a proper procedure such as returning or destroying the product. 20. "CAC" means Codex Alimentarius Commission which is one of the UN bodies established by way of agreement between the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) in 1963. CAC issues food standards and is the
  38. 38. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 38 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Decree of the Prime Minister No. 412 of the year 2019 "Contamination" means the introduction or occurrence of a contaminant in food. "Fraud" means the act of falsification, counterfeiting and mingling of a particular product intended for sale or possessed for the purpose of handling, by substantially altering, modifying and misrepresenting the essence, normal composition, weight or expiration date of the product with a view to changing the main characteristics of such product or hiding any defects in a fake or counterfeit product in order to appear identical to a genuine product in terms of shape and appearance, while in fact such product is different from a genuine product, without being declared on labels so as to get the price difference between genuine and fake or counterfeit products and to realize the maximum financial gain rapidly and easily. It also means an intentional fraudulent marketing practice.  "Deception" means the act of causing someone to accept as true or valid what is false or invalid.  "Processing" means any action that substantially alters the main characteristics of food in particular, cooking, baking, heating, smoking, curing, maturing, drying, mixing, milling, parting, severing, packaging, canning, chilling, freezing, pickling, extraction, extrusion, irradiation, ozone treatment, thawing or a combination of those processes.  "Manufacture" means all activities performed in a food business from the stage of receipt of raw materials until the distribution of food.  "Food Business" means any undertaking, whether for profit or not and whether public or private, permanent or temporary, performing any of the activities related to any stage of  "Audit " means a systematic and independent examination to determine whether activities and the related results thereof comply with planned arrangements and whether such arrangements are applied effectively so as to attain the objectives.  "Inspection" means the examination of any aspect of food so as to verify that such aspects comply with the legal requirements set forth in the law and food safety related legislation.
  39. 39. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 39 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat  "Monitoring" means conducting a planned sequence of observations or measurements with a view to obtaining an overview of the state of compliance with the law and food safety related legislation.  "Surveillance" means a careful observation of one or more food businesses, FBOs or the activities performed by such businesses with a view to verifying the compliance thereof with the law and food safety related legislation. Snapshots of the key provisions of the Law Risk Analysis Article (4) NFSA shall establish the procedures necessary for the implementation of risk analysis system in order to provide a high level of protection for the safety and health of consumers. NFSA shall make science-based risk assessment, where scientific evidence exists in an independent, impartial and transparent manner. The results of risk assessments shall be taken into consideration in risk management, and the results of the studies made by competent international organizations and bodies may be taken into account. Consumption patterns, consumer behavior in Egypt and other legitimate requirements related to the subject under consideration shall also be taken into account provided that health and safety requirements are fulfilled. Traceability Article (5) NFSA shall develop a food traceability system that clarifies the obligations on all parties at all stages of production, processing, manufacture, packaging and other food handling operations until a product reaches a consumer. Labelling of Foodstuffs Article (6) NFSA shall establish rules and procedures for the labelling of foodstuff
  40. 40. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 40 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Work Law 12/ 2003 Book 4 Occup .Safety and Health Part - I Definitions And Range or Application Article: 202 In applying the provisions of this Book, the following expressions shall denote the meanings indicated next to each of them: 1. Work injury, vocational diseases and chronic diseases: The definitions prescribed in the Social Insurance Law and its executive decrees. 2. Establishment: Any project or utility owned or managed by a public or private law person. 3. Establishment in applying the provisions of Part (IV) of this book: Any project or utility owned or managed by a private law person. Article: 203 The provisions of this Book shall apply to all work sites, establishments and their branches whatever their kind or attachment, whether they are inland or offshore. They shall also apply to water surfaces of all kinds, and the different means of transport. Part - II Work Sites, Installations and Licenses Part - III Ensuring Labour Environment Security
  41. 41. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 41 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Article: 208 The establishment and its branches shall provide the means of vocational safety and health and ensuring labour environment security in places of work by which to, ensure protection from physical, risks resulting in particular from the following: (A) Severity and intensity of heat and chilliness; (B) Noise and vibrations; (C) Lighting; (D) Harmful and dangerous radiation; (E) Atmospheric pressure changes; (F) Static and dynamic elasticity; and (G) Explosion risks. Article: 209 The establishment and its branches shall take all precautions arid measures as necessary to provide the means of vocational safety and health and ensuring labour environment security for protection from mechanical dangers resulting from colliding the worker's body with a solid body, particularly the following: (A) All danger arising, from work tools, and machines comprising tagging and lifting equipment, articles, apparatuses, and means of transport handling and power transmission. (B) All danger arising from construction, building, and digging works, and risks of collapse and downfall. Article: 210 The establishment and its branches shall take all protection means for its workers from the danger of infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
  42. 42. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 42 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat and the rest of biological risks, once the nature of work exposes the workers to the conditions of infection therewith, particularly the following: (A) Dealing with infected animals, their products and their wastes…. Part - IV Social and Health Services Subject to the provisions of the Social Insurance Law, the establishment and its branches shall carry out the following: (A) Medically examining the worker before joining the work to ascertain his safety and health fitness pursuant to the type of work to be assigned to him. (B) Examining his abilities, to ascertain the worker's fitness from the point of view of his physical, mental and psychological abilities to ensure his fitness to work demands. These examinations shall be carried out according to the health insurance regulating provisions. The concerned minister, in agreement with the Minister of Health, shall issue a decree determining the levels of fitness and health safety, as well as the mental and psychological abilities on the basis of which these examinations are carried out. Part - V Inspection In The Field Of Vocational Safety And Health And Labour Environment Part - VI Regulating the Agencies for Vocational Safety And Health and Ensuring Labour Environment Security in the Establishments Part - VII Research and Studies Agencies and Consultative Agencies
  43. 43. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 43 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Law for Environment, Law No. 4 of 1994. Prime Minister's Decree No. 338 promulgating the Executive Regulations of the Law for Environment, Law No. 4 of 1994. The objectives of these regulations represented by, but not limited to, the following: - To specify the establishments that should undertake an assessment of the environmental impact. - To specify the assignments of the Appeal Committee and its operating procedures as well as the complaint procedures. - To define the specifications and norms which must be compiled with by industrial establishments allowed discharging treated degradable polluted substances. - To specify the non-degradable polluting substances which are prohibited from discharge into the water environment. - To specify the permissible limits of air pollutants in emissions. - To specify the permissible limits of sound intensity and safe exposure period Main parts of this law PART ONE: PROTECTION OF LAND ENVIRONMENT FROM POLLUTION CHAPTER ONE: Development and Environment (ARTICLES 19 to 28) . CHAPTER TWO: Hazardous Material and Waste (ARTICLES 29 to 33)..
  44. 44. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 44 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat PART TWO: PROTECTION OF AIR ENVIRONMENT FROM POLLUTION (ARTICLES 34 to 47) PART THREE: PROTECTION OF WATER ENVIRONMENT FROM POLLUTION CHAPTER ONE: POLLUTION FROM SHIPS (ARTICLES 48 to 68) SECTION ONE: Oil Pollution (ARTICLES 48 to 59 SECTION TWO: Pollution By Harmful Substances (ARTICLES 60 to 65) SECTION THREE: Pollution from Sewage and Garbage (ARTICLES 66 to 68) CHAPTER TWO: POLLUTION FROM LAND BASED SOURCES (ARTICLES 69 to 75) CHAPTER THREE: INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATES (ARTICLES 76 to 77) CHAPTER FOUR: ADMINISTRATIVE AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURES (ARTICLES 78 to 83) PART FOUR: PENALTIES (ARTICLES 84 to 101) FINAL PROVISIONS (ARTICLES 102 to 104) Some definitions in the law 4. Public Place: A place equipped to receive people or a specific category of people for any purpose. 5. Closed Public Place: A public place which is in the form of an integrated building that receives no incoming air except from designated inlets. Vehicles for public transport are considered closed public places. 6. Semi-closed Public Place: A public place which is in the form of a non-integrated building with direct access to the ambient air and which cannot be completely closed. 7. Environmental Pollution: Any change in environmental properties which may result directly or indirectly in harming living organisms or establishments or in affecting the ability of people to lead a normal life. 8. Environmental Degradation:
  45. 45. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 45 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Effect on the environment that reduces its value, or changes its nature, depletes its resources or harms living organisms or monuments. 9. Environmental Protection: Protecting and promoting the components of the environment and preventing or reducing their degradation or pollution. These components encompass air, seas, internal waters, including the river Nile, lakes and subterranean water, land, natural protectorates, and other natural resources. 10. Air Pollution: Any change in the properties or specifications of the natural air which causes hazards to human health or to the environment, whether resulting from natural factors or human activities, including noise. 18. Hazardous Substances: Substances having dangerous properties which are hazardous to human health, or which adversely affect the environment, such as contagious, toxic, explosive or flammable substances or those with ionizing radiation. 19. Hazardous Waste: Waste of activities and processes or its ashes which retain the properties of hazardous substances and have no subsequent original or alternative uses, like clinical waste from medical treatments or the waste resulting from the manufacture of any pharmaceutical products, drugs, organic solvents, printing fluid, dyes and painting materials. 20. Substance Handling:Anything that leads to the displacement of substances for the purpose of assembling, transporting, storing, treating, or using them. 21. Waste Management: Collecting, transporting, recycling and disposing of waste. 22. Waste Disposal: Processes which do not extract or recycle waste such as composting, deep subterranean injection, discharge to surface water, biological treatment, physio- chemical treatment, permanent storage or incineration. 23. Waste Recycling: Processes which allow the extraction or recycling of waste, such as using it as fuel, or extracting metals and organic materials or soil treatment or oil re-refining. 35. Environmental Monitoring Networks: Agencies which undertake, within their spheres of competence and through their stations and work units, to monitor the components and pollutants of the environment and relay their results and data to the competent authorities periodically. 36. Environmental Impact Assessment: Studying and analyzing the environmental feasibility of proposed projects, whose construction or activities might affect the safety of the environment in order to protect it. 37. Environmental Disaster: An accident resulting from natural factors or human action which causes severe damage to the environment and requires resources beyond the local means.
  46. 46. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 46 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Waste Management Law no. 202 of 2020 The Law addresses waste generation and processing with the intent to promote waste recycling and reuse. It focuses on the integrated management of municipal, industrial, agricultural, demolition and construction waste as well as their safe disposal. In this regard, it classifies waste as hazardous or non-hazardous. The requirements for the management of each are as follows: Hazardous Waste: it is defined under the Law as waste that contains organic or non-organic components or compounds that have a harmful effect on human health or the environment as a result of their physical, chemical or biological characteristics or that contain any dangerous qualities such as contagious, flammable, explosive or toxic substances. The requirements pertaining to the management of this type of waste include, but are not limited to: (a) obtaining a special license for the integrated management of hazardous waste and substances, (b) obtaining an approval from the above-mentioned authority for its circulation, (c) maintaining a register of such waste and the methods of disposal, and (d) sterilizing and disinfecting the place where the facility producing such waste was established in case it was moved or its activities suspended. Non-Hazardous Waste: it is defined as waste that, by its nature, is not dangerous, whether municipal, industrial, agricultural, demolition, construction waste or their equivalent. The requirements pertaining to the management of this type of waste include but are not limited to: (a) obtaining a license for the integrated management of non-hazardous waste, and (b) taking all precautions required to avoid causing any harm to the environment.
  47. 47. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 47 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat The Law also provides for the establishment of a Waste Management Authority (the “Authority”). The roles of the Authority include but are not limited to: Regulating, tracking, auditing, evaluating and developing everything related to Integrated Waste Management activities, Attracting and encouraging investments in the field of Integrated Waste Management activities in a manner that guarantees achieving sustainable development and tracking the implementation of the plans required to regulate waste management in cooperation with governmental institutions, municipal governments, the private sector, NGOs and international organizations, and Issuing the licenses needed to undertake waste management activities. In order to curb the use of single-use plastic bags, the Law provides that the manufacturing, import and export of Single-Use Plastic Bags shall take place in accordance with the conditions, parameters and technical specifications stipulated by a decree of the Minister of Trade and Industries as agreed with the Competent Minister. Said decree may prohibit the manufacturing, import, or export of Single-Use Plastic Bags if they include any input or substances that could cause severe harm to the environment. Further, the Law prohibits the sale, circulation, storage, free distribution or disposal of Single-Use Plastic Bags unless they are done in compliance with the conditions, parameters and technical specifications stipulated by the executive regulations of this law.
  48. 48. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 48 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme ‫الشامل‬ ‫الصحى‬ ‫التأمين‬ ‫نظام‬ ‫قانون‬ Egypt has identified Universal Health Insurance (UHI)1 as its way to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC). The new UHI Law established the legislative structure for an overall health system overhaul that fulfills the constitutional mandate2 set forth in the country‟s new Constitution of 2014 and will be an important instrument to make UHC a reality. Properly implemented, as envisioned, it will provide the means to ensuring that everyone will have access to quality health services, they need, without suffering financial hardship. As indicated in the UHI Law and Bylaw, the implementation on process will be phased on a period of maximum 15 years. The first phase will start with Portsaid governorate by mid-2019 and then gradual geographic expansion will follow until full implementation by 2032. Three new bodies The new health insurance law will be imposed through the creation of three bodies aimed to fund, build, and supervise the scheme. The first of these bodies is the General Authority for Comprehensive Health Insurance. This authority is to have its own legal personality, acting under the supervision of the Prime Minister. Its headquarters will be in Cairo, with different offices around Egypt. The main aim of this body is the
  49. 49. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 49 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat collection of the premiums from citizens, and to invest this money safely, using returns to finance the two other bodies. The second body is the General Authority for Health Care. This authority is predicted to bring a tangible change to health care in Egypt, by providing three levels of health care through health units, hospitals, and hospitals specialized in heart diseases and tumors. The health units will provide eight services: family health, dentistry, pharmacy, pediatrics, obstetrics, gynecology, emergency, laboratory, and radiology. It will be responsible for building new hospitals, establishing bodies to manage existing health care providers, and providing the medicines and medical tools necessary. In fact, an electronic file for every family, with a sub-file for each member, will be created and kept with the doctor and health unit assigned to them. The file will include their medical history, their doctors‟ visits, and any medication they are using. Finally, the third body, The General Authority for Accreditation and Supervision, will be responsible for setting the standards for the quality of health units and hospitals, as well as accrediting the establishments that abide to these standards. This will include carrying out routine inspections of the establishments. The body will also be responsible for cooperating and coordinating with similar bodies abroad. Funding As mentioned above, the new system will be financed in a number of ways. Employees will pay a percentage of their income towards their insurance and that of their spouse and children. This is explained in the annex to the law, and will depend on the number of children the working father has. Business owners will now have to add an additional 4 percent to their social insurance subscription. Again, the General Authority for Comprehensive Health Insurance will invest money in order to use the returns for the benefit of the system. Other
  50. 50. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 50 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat contributions will come from higher taxes on cigarettes, extra charges on birth, death, marriage, and divorce certificates, higher car licensing fees, and higher tolls when passing through different governorates Moreover, all companies and establishments are to contribute 0.25 percent of their gross yearly revenue, non-deductible from their taxes.
  51. 51. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 51 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Profession Ethics Regulations Issued By the Resolution of the Minister of Health & Population No. 238/2003 The Egyptian Profession Ethics Regulations contains 61 articles in four sections as follows:  Part One- : the oath  Part Two- Duties of the Physician  Part Three- Medical Interventions of Special Nature  Part Four- Conducting Medical Research & Experiments On Human Beings
  52. 52. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 52 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Some international laws and regulations Unit Three
  53. 53. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 53 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Family of International classifications International classifications are used to standardize health data, and lay the foundation for evidence-based healthcare. Classifications are some of the most important, yet least-known products produced by WHO. They are used by:  Governments to allocate resources.  Researchers to collaborate across borders.  Doctors to document their cases.  Hospitals to count the frequency of health problems.  Laboratories to exchange investigative data.  Insurance companies for billing purposes.  International organizations to assess trends in public health. 
  54. 54. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 54 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Family of Classifications and Terminologies The WHO Family of International Classifications (FIC) is a set of integrated classifications that provide a common language for health information across the world. WHO is responsible for three primary reference classifications: 1. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) 2. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) 3. International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI)
  55. 55. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 55 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat ICD purpose and uses ICD is the foundation for the identification of health trends and statistics globally, and the international standard for reporting diseases and health conditions. It is the diagnostic classification standard for all clinical and research purposes. ICD defines the universe of diseases, disorders, injuries and other related health conditions, listed in a comprehensive, hierarchical fashion that allows for:  Easy storage, retrieval and analysis of health information for evidenced-based decision-making  Sharing and comparing health information between hospitals, regions, settings and countries  Data comparisons in the same location across different time periods Based on clinical input, research and epidemiology, ICD has become a tool that is suiable for many uses in health, as:  Monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of diseases,  Causes of death  External causes of illess  Codes for antimicrobial resistance, in line with GLASS  Primary care and family medicine concepts have been incorporated into ICD-11  Medicaments (INN - ATC), allergens and chemicals, histopathology (ICD-O 3.2), are embedded in ICD-11  Codes for full documentation of patient safety, in line with the WHO patient safety framework  Dual coding for traditional medicine diagnoses  Primary care settings Recording of rare diseases  Casemix or Diagnosis Related Groupings (DRG), resource allocation  Embedding of guidelines
  56. 56. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 56 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)   The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, known more commonly as ICF, is a classification of health and health-related domains. As the functioning and disability of an individual occurs in a context, ICF also includes a list of environmental factors.  ICF is the WHO framework for measuring health and disability at both individual and population levels. ICF was officially endorsed by all 191 WHO Member States in the Fifty-fourth World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001(resolution WHA 54.21) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability.
  57. 57. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 57 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) The International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is being developed to provide a common tool for reporting and analysing health interventions for statistical purposes.
  58. 58. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 58 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat International Health Regulations IHR 2005 In response to the exponential increase in international travel and trade, and emergence and reemergence of international disease threats and other health risks, 194 countries across the globe have agreed to implement the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR). This binding instrument of international law entered into force on 15 June 2007. The stated purpose and scope of the IHR are "to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade." Because the IHR are not limited to specific diseases, but are applicable to health risks, irrespective of their origin or source, they will follow the evolution of diseases and the factors affecting their emergence and transmission. The IHR also require States to strengthen core surveillance and response capacities at the primary, intermediate and national level, as well as at designated international ports, airports and ground crossings. They further introduce a series of health documents, including ship sanitation certificates and an international certificate of vaccination or prophylaxis for travelers. The IHR are an instrument of international law that is legally-binding on 196, the WHO Member States.. They create rights and obligations for countries, including the requirement to report public health events. The Regulations also outline the criteria to determine whether or not a particular event constitutes a “public health emergency of international concern”.
  59. 59. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 59 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat At the same time, the IHR require countries to designate a National IHR Focal Point for communications with WHO, to establish and maintain core capacities for surveillance and response, including at designated points of entry. Additional provisions address the areas of international travel and transport such as the health documents required for international traffic. Finally, the IHR introduce important safeguards to protect the rights of travellers and other persons in relation to the treatment of personal data, informed consent and non-discrimination in the application of health measures under the Regulations. The Regulations aim to provide a legal frame work for the prevention, detection and containment of public health risks at source, before they spread across borders, through the collaborative actions of States Parties and WHO. Notification is required under IHR for all "events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern". In this regard, the broad new definitions of "event", "disease" and "public health risk" in the IHR are the building blocks of the surveillance obligations for States Parties and WHO.  "Disease" means "an illness or medical condition, irrespective of origin or source, that presents or could present significant harm to humans".  The term "event" is broadly defined as "a manifestation of disease or an occurrence that creates a potential for disease".  "Public health risk" refers to "a likelihood of an event that may affect adversely the health of human populations, with an emphasis on one which may spread internationally or may present a serious and direct danger".  A public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) is defined as "an extraordinary event which is determined to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response". Consequently, events of potential international concern, which require States Parties to notify WHO, can extend beyond communicable diseases and arise from any origin or source.
  60. 60. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 60 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Some related international laws International Trade Law International trade agreements that liberalize trade between countries typically recognize that states may restrict trade to protect human health. Under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade International Humanitarian Law Health is also embedded in international humanitarian law, otherwise known as the laws of war. In fact, health has been a core value of international humanitarian law since it began to develop in the midnineteenth century. Contemporary international humanitarian law contains detailed rules protecting the health of combatants, prisoners of war, and non-combatants in international and civil armed conflicts. 4. International Human Rights Law Health also appears as a significant feature in international human rights law. While the purported "human right to health" seems the most relevant aspect of human rights law, health protection is an objective in other areas of such law . 5. International Labor Law The International Labor Organization (ILO) has proved active in developing international legal rules that protect workers around the world.'56 As part of
  61. 61. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 61 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat this activity, the ILO has established international rules governing ccupational health and safety. The ILO Convention Concerning Occupational Safety and Health and the Working Environment applies to all workers in all economic activities and requires states parties to formulate, implement, and review a national policy on occupational 6. International Environmental Law Much of the enormous body of international environmental law seeks to protect human health from various threats caused by pollution and environmental degradation. International legal rules on transboundary air pollution; 161 transboundary water pollution;'marine pollution; transboundary shipment of hazardous wastes, chemicals, and pesticides;'" The New Delhi Declaration on Global Health Law states that "global health law" includes: (1) "strengthening institutional and human capacity for law"; (2) developing regulatory and legislative approaches to support "Health for All"; and (3) ensuring monitoring and implementation of health
  62. 62. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 62 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems (ILO-OSH 2001) The guidelines have been developed according to internationally agreed principles defined by the ILO‟s tripartite constituents. The practical recommendations of these guidelines are intended for use by all those who have responsibility for OSH management. The OSH management systems in the organization has five main sections which follow the internationally accepted Demming cycle of Plan-Do- Check-Act, which is the basis to the “system” approach to management. These sections are namely Policy, Organizing, Planning and implementation, Evaluation and Action for improvement Policy contains the elements of OSH policy and worker participation. It is the basis of the OSH management system as it sets the direction for the organization to follow. Policy 3.1. Occupational safety and health policy 3.1.1. The employer, in consultation with workers and their representatives, should set out in writing an OSH policy, which should be: (a) specific to the organization and appropriate to its size and the nature of its activities;
  63. 63. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 63 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat (b) concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by the signature or endorsement of the employer or the most senior accountable person in the organization; (c) communicated and readily accessible to all persons at their place of work; (d) reviewed for continuing suitability; and (e) made available to relevant external interested parties, as appropriate. 3.1.2. The OSH policy should include, as a minimum, the following key principles and objectives to which the organization is committed: (a) protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work-related injuries, ill health, diseases and incidents; (b) complying with relevant OSH national laws and regulations, voluntary programmes, collective agreements on OSH and other requirements to which the organization subscribes; (c) ensuring that workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of the OSH management system; and (d) continually improving the performance of the OSH management system. 3.1.3. The OSH management system should be compatible with or integrated in other management systems in the organization.
  64. 64. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 64 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat MODELS OF LEGAL INTERVENTION LegalEpidemiology Unit Four
  65. 65. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 65 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat MODELS OF LEGAL INTERVENTION Government has its tools to improve population health . Legal and public policy tools for the public‟s health include:  taxation, incentives, and spending (e.g., cigarette and other “sin” taxes and allocation of the tax to combat the problem, may include pricing policies and financial incentives);  altering the informational environment (e.g., food or drug labeling, and disclosure of health information);  altering the built/physical environment (e.g., zoning, toxic waste);  altering the natural environment (e.g., clean water, air, environmental justice);  direct regulation (e.g., seat belts, helmets, drinking water fluoridation, folate fortification of grain-based products, iodized salt; licensure of medical care providers and facilities);  indirect regulation (e.g., tort litigation in tobacco); and  deregulation (e.g., distribution of sterile injection equipment or criminalization of HIV risk behaviors).
  66. 66. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 66 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Actual and Hypothetical Examples of the Legal Models of Intervention Applied to Food and Nutrition a. Tax ad spend: Subsidies for healthy school lunches b. Informnational environment: Laws requiring disclosure of calories on restaurant menus c. Built/physical environment: Laws on fast-food or liquor store density d. Natural environment: Food safety laws that order changes to the disposal of animal waste contamination of water sources e. Direct regulation (of persons, professionals, businesses): Requiring fortification of cereal grains with folate to prevent birth defects f. Indirect regulation: Tort liability lawsuit brought by overweight adults or children against fast-food chaina g. Deregulation: End subsidies of agricultural products that contribute to unhealthy eating, including corn used to produce inexpensive sweeteners, and corn and soy used for feed, meat, and dairy
  67. 67. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 67 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Legal Epidemiology “Legal epidemiology” is “ the scientific study and deployment of law as a factor in the cause, distribution, and prevention of disease and injury in a population. Legal epidemiology is a transdisciplinary field that relies on the collaborative efforts to develop, implement, and evaluate the effects of law. Historically, public health law has focused on “what law says,” and legal epidemiology focuses on “what law does” . Legal epidemiology supports the idea that laws and legal practices can be studied using theory and robust scientific methods, similar to other social phenomenon that are important to population health. LEGAL EPIDEMIOLOGY IN PRACTICE: SIX STEPS 1. Engage Identify a public health problem or a policy of interest through through feedback from the community, subject matter experts, and policymakers. 2. Identify research needs Review existing research and identify gaps to inform new research on laws and policies.
  68. 68. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 68 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 3. Create legal data Conduct a legal mapping study to create empirical legal data that can be compared across jurisdictions and over time. 4. Analyze Complete a legal evaluation study to analyze the relationship between law and health using empirical legal data linked to outcome data. 5. Translate Publish and communicate findings to inform public health practice, decision-making, and public knowledge via agencies, academia, decisionmakers, advocates, media, and the public. 6. Monitor and repeat Continue monitoring and measuring legal changes and engaging with the community and stakeholders about the impact of laws, repeating previous steps as legal changes arise.
  69. 69. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 69 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Five models of public health regulation: (1) economic incentives and disincentives (taxing and spending powers); A high tax on cigarettes, for example, (2) the informational environment (education, labeling, and commercial speech regulation); When public health authorities counsel individuals or educate groups or populations about the government's view concerning unsafe sex, abortion, smoking, a high-fat diet, or a sedentary life-style, there is no formal coercion. Yet education conveys more than information; it is also a process of inculcation and acculturation intended to change behavior (3) direct regulation (penalties for engaging in risk behavior); Public health authorities have the power to set health and safety standards as well as to monitor compliance and punish noncompliance. Monitoring activities include injury and disease surveillance, screening individuals for disease and reporting positive cases to health authorities, and inspecting commercial premises. Government can directly prohibit behavior (e.g., exceeding highway speed limits) or require individual behavior (e.g., wearing seatbelts); mandate businesses to alter product designs to promote safety (e.g., air bags in automobiles, trigger locks on firearms, safety caps on medicines); or modify sales practices (e.g., sale of cigarettes or alcoholic beverages to children). In the area of infectious diseases, government can compel vaccination, treatment, or isolation. (4) indirect regulation (the tort system); actions taken by legislatures and administrative agencies to prevent injury or disease or to promote public health. The creation of private rights of action in the courts can also be an effective means of public health regulation. A tort is a civil, noncontractual wrong for which an injured person or group of persons seeks a remedy in the form of monetary damages.
  70. 70. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 70 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat (5) deregulation (dismantling legal barriers to desired public health behaviors). Regulations may actually impede the achievement of public health objectives, and the necessary social response is to deregulate. Sometimes policy makers enact laws that criminalize or otherwise penalize provision of, or access to, the means for achieving behavior change. Consider government regulation designed to impede access to sterile syringes and needles even though public health authorities recommend their use to reduce transmission of blood-borne diseases such as HIV and HBV Policy as a “Critical Content of the Core for a 21st Century Master of Public Health Degree.” Developing and engaging in policy is imperative to successfully addressing the complex health challenges within today‟s society. In order to do so, knowledge of the basic dynamics of the policy process, political theories, key terms, and policy analysis skills is needed. Recognizing the importance of policy as a public health strategy, The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) outlines the significance of policy within its “Critical Content of the Core for a 21st Century Master of Public Health Degree.” They describe one of the foundational areas as: legal, ethical, economic, and regulatory dimensions of health care and public health policy, the roles, influences, and responsibilities of the different agencies and branches of government, and approaches to developing, evaluating, and advocating for public health policies.
  71. 71. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 71 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Cited References and Helpful Resources 1. Prevention, Policy, and Public Health Edited by Amy A. Eyler, Jamie F. Chriqui, Sarah Moreland-Russell, and Ross C. Brownson. Oxford University Press Jan 2016 . 2. Legal and Public Policy Interventions to Advance the Population's Health. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK222835/ 3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK222839/pdf/Bookshelf_NBK222839.pdf 4. https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/ 5. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/routledge-handbook-socio-legal-theory- methods-naomi-creutzfeldt-marc-mason-kirsten- mcconnachie/e/10.4324/9780429952814?refId=351dee07-c5d1-4080-97c3- f8cd53b21359 6. https://read.dukeupress.edu/jhppl/article/41/6/1151/40084/Policy-Surveillance-A- Vital-Public-Health-Practice 7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpMTsSL6Okk&feature=youtu.be 8. Legal Epidemiology: Studying the Impact of Law on Health https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpMTsSL6Okk&feature=youtu.be 9. Legal Epidemiology: Studying the Impact of Law on Health 10.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Legal-Epidemiology%3A-The-Science-of- Law-Ramanathan-Hulkower/6f0614aa494492baa83428dc14a5d26060c5d87b 11.https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-law-and-the- publics-health/education/courses.html 12.• Network for Public Health Law: https://www.networkforphl.org/ 13.• CDC Public Health Law Program: http://www.cdc.gov/PHLP/ 14.• ChangeLab Solutions: http://changelabsolutions.org/ 15.• Public Health Law Center: http://publichealthlawcenter.org/about/staff 16.• ASTHO: http://www.astho.org/Public-Policy/Public-Health-Law/Resources/
  72. 72. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 72 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat 17.• NACCHO: http://www.naccho.org/topics/infrastructure/PHLaw/index.cfm Johns Hopkins Center for Law & the Public’s Health: http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/center-for-law-and-the publics- health/ 18.http://site.eastlaws.com/GeneralSearch/Home/ArticlesTDetails?MasterID=41639 19. Public Health Law Map - Beta 5.7 https://biotech.law.lsu.edu/map/index.htm 20. Introduction to Legal Epidemiology https://www.changelabsolutions.org/product/introduction-legal-epidemiology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18DCoheA0G8&feature=youtu.be 21. introduction-legal-mapping https://www.changelabsolutions.org/product/introduction-legal-mapping https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=svDFKAuSKaI&feature=youtu.be 22. Egypt: Legal Responses to Health Emergencies https://www.loc.gov/law/help/health-emergencies/egypt.php 32 . ‫مصرية‬ ‫تشريعات‬ :‫مصر‬ ‫فى‬ ‫النقض‬ ‫محكمة‬ https://www.cc.gov.eg/legislations 24. Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges Institute of Medicine. 2011. For the Public's Health: Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://www.nap.edu/read/13093/ 25. LEGISLATION BY COUNTRY: EGYPT TOBACCO CONTROL LAWS https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/egypt/laws 26. WHO health_law-report https://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/health-law/health_law-report/en/ ٠١ . ‫قانونية‬ ‫منشورات‬ ‫موقع‬ https://manshurat.org/ ٠١ . ‫تشريعات‬ : ‫المصرية‬ ‫الحكومة‬ ‫بوابة‬ http://www.egypt.gov.eg/arabic/laws/default.aspx
  73. 73. “Public Health Policy & Legislations” For Postgraduate Students Dr. AhmedRefat 2021 73 www.slideshare.net/ahmedrefat Power Point Presentations )AhmedRefat ) 29.policy-framework related terms https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/policy-framworkrelatedterms 30.how-to formulate a health policy https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/how-toformulateahealthpolicy 31.Medical research ethics https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/ss-45273292 32.international-health https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/international-health-18182856 33.disability-current-concepts https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/disability-current-concepts 34.seven-principles-of-public-life https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/seven-principles-of-public-life 35.medical-research-ethics-in-the-egyptian-regulation https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/medical-research-ethics-in-the-egyptian- regulation 36.ethics-of-medical-researches https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/ethics-of-medical-researches 37.HiAP concepts and tools https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/hi-ap-evolutionconceptsandtools 38.occupational-diseases-international-list https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/occupational-diseases-international-list 39.community-based-rehabilitation-cbr https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/community-based-rehabilitation-cbr 40.occupational-diseases-and-disability-assessment-tables-egypt https://www.slideshare.net/AhmedRefat/occupational-diseases-and-disability- assessment-tables-egypt

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