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Concepts:Information Processing Model Behavioural Model Social Model Personal Model
What is Teaching Model?A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculums (long-term courses of studies), to design instructional materials, and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings based on Joyce and Weil (1980).
• Aim of TM: To produce effective teaching. Figure 1.1: Glaser’s Teaching Model
Formulate a Function of complete & Teaching perfect teaching scheme. Model Enable teachers to analyse & evaluate its strengths &Provide guidance toplanners & teachers weaknesses so as to As basic plan & implement to enable them toplan & carry out the guidance for appropriate follow-up teaching process teachers for actions effectively. reflection during feedback session.
MODELS OF TEACHING SOCIAL PERSONALBEHAVIOUR INFORMATION PROCESS
Types of Information Processing Model Information- Inquiry Teaching The ExpositoryProcessing Model of Gagne’s Information Model Teaching Model Memory Processing Model Scientific Inquiry Model Social Inquiry Model Juris-Prudential Inquiry Model Suchman’s Inquiry Model
What do OUR MEMORY HAVE?Sensory Memory Hold a large amount of informationCompartment in a duration just enough for a small portion to be selected for longer storage.Short-term Memory Capacity is limited. Storage duration is brief (unless assisted with rehearsal)Long-term Memory A very large storage capacity (unlimited). Stored longer.
Information-Processing Model of Memory Figure 1.2: Atkinson & Shiffrin’s Model of Memory Storage (1971)
Information-Processing Model of Memory Incoming information Sensory memory Short-term Long-term(sensory input) pass through: Sensory Retains information Can hold for only a fraction of unrehearsed a second but information for about enough to select the 20 – 30 seconds. portion of Information encoded may last for information thatShort-term memory weeks, months or arrests one’s attention. (The even years. Information can be information that stored longer if it is caught one’s engaged under attention is selected rehearsal. Long-term memory for longer storage) (Repetition of memorizing).
Gagne’s Information Processing ModelFigure 1.3: Gagne’s Theory of Learning Process
Important Aspects in Gagne’s 8 Phases• Learning readiness• Motivation• Perception• Conceptualization• Memorizing• Forgetting• Learning transfer
How it works?• Process begins from extrinsic @ intrinsic motivation to perceive stimuli from environment.• New information recorded in short-term memory.• Information will be processed by relating stored information in long-term memory.• New information is reinforced, retained & applied when required.
Expository Teaching Model• Referred as explicit explanation in details of certain facts.• A way of presentation of information @ learning contents to pupils directly.• Presenting learning materials by explanation, narration or demonstration.• Suitably use to teach certain concept and skill during the beginning of the lesson.
..continue..• Principle and concept are explained verbally, as all the facts are written on the board, showed on the screen.• Time saving: Enables teacher to finish all related concepts in a shorter period & pupils merely listen quietly.• More to a lecturing method. (Less effective for primary schools).
Inquiry Teaching Model• Scientific Inquiry Model: –Used to study principles, phenomena & characteristics of scientific knowledge. –Research process based on 5 stages: • Identify the problem. • Ascertain relevant information. • Determine hypothesis. • Testing hypothesis. • Evaluate, interpret, infer & conclude.
• Social Inquiry Model: – Used to study topics related to social & humanity aspects. – Based on activities such as observation, interview, @ questionnaire. – Emphasizes on social interaction process. – 6 steps: • Formulation of problem by teacher. • Formulation of hypothesis by pupils. • Define hypothesis. • Discuss & confirm validity of the hypothesis. • Collect & analyse evidences for the hypothesis. • Interpret & derive inference @ conclusion.
• Juris-prudential Inquiry Model: – Used to look for reality & accuracy in current issues (learning science is more useful than learning arts). – Concerns with science & philosophy of human law. – Based on activities, discussions and debates. – Two types: • Guided inquiry: Teacher guides pupils to carry out the whole discussion process. • Open Inquiry: No guidelines given. Students have to do the discussion themselves.
• Suchman’s Inquiry Model: – Based on assumption that strategies used by scientists can be used as a teaching model especially in the study of science. – Procedures: • Teacher determines & indicates the problem. • Teacher explains the inquiry process to solve the previous problem. • Students are guided to form hypothesis, follows by the collection of relevant data. • Students use collected data to test hypothesis, aim to formulate theorem, law, principle or theory. • Discussion & making inferences. • Teacher & students discuss together and analyse.
The Importance of Information Processing Model• Students are prepared with better equipments and information for learning.• Students are enforced with good mental exercises through different methods and approaches.• Students are informed of the objectives and learning outcomes that should be achieved.• Help students to remember the information for a longer period of time.
Behavioural Model Direct ProgrammedInstruction Mastery Instruction Model Learning Model
Direct Instruction Model• Demonstration: – A teaching technique involves the use of a teacher’s skill to demonstrate @ perform a certain activity in the class. – Teacher has a strong control over what is learnt in the classroom, provides feedback, monitoring students, grading work and strict classroom rules & regulations. (Teacher- centered).
Mastery learning• Refers to a theory & practice of using remedial teaching based on feedback of pupil’s performance to assist them to achieve the learning objectives.• Procedures: – Determine learning outcomes by planning explicit learning objective (based on students’ performance). – Teach pupils with effective teaching method & technique (use of suitable learning materials to suit different learning styles) – Evaluate learning result by diagnostic test & summative test (level of mastering & achievement) – Carry out remedial activities for pupils who have not fully mastered certain skills & provide enrichment activities for pupils who have mastered the lesson.
Programmed Instruction Model• Computer Assisted Instruction (CIA) – The application of technology & computer system in teaching. – Pupils follow designed learning materials in software without teacher’s help. – Teacher has to facilitate the pupils to have interest in manipulating computer.
Personal Model• Non-directive Teaching Model• Developing Positive Self-concepts• Project Model – Research Project – Handicraft Project – Educational Visit
Non-directive Teaching Model• Based on Carl Rogers’ work, he believes that positive human relationships enable people to grow.• Therefore instruction should be based on concepts of human relations.
Phase 1 : Defining the Helping Situation Teacher encourages free expression of feelings. Phases in Phase 2: Exploring the ProblemStudent is encouraged to define problem. Teacher accepts and clarifies feelings. Non-directive Model Phase 3: Developing Insight Student discusses problem. Teacher supports student. Phase 4: Planning and Decision Making Student plans initial decision making. Teacher clarifies possible decision. Phase 5: Integration Student gains further insight and Teacher is supportive. develops more positive actions. Action Outside the Interview Student initiates positive actions.
The Importance of Non-directive Teaching Model• Teacher helps students to explore new ideas.• Students have freedom to making decisions and choices.• Teacher and students are partners in learning.• Nurtures and moulds students to be the way they are.• Encourages students to think and reflect their uncertain feelings and become better and be positive.
Developing Positive Self-concepts• Appreciate the abilities and talents one possesses.• Positive self-concepts evolves with the moral values that should be emphasised among students.• Activities that help: Group/Individual Presentation, musical performances, stage performances.
The Importance of Positive Self-concepts• Gain knowledge and experiences by enhancing their interests in learning through self-concepts.• Teacher shows positive approaches and optimistic reinforcements.• Boost their confidence.• Provide opportunities for students to express their ideas and listen to other’s opinions.
Project Model• Based on the belief that learning would be effective if pupils are interested and ready to carry out learning activities.• Examples of Project Model: – Research Project. – Handicraft Project. – Educational Visit.
1. Research Project (Principles)• Teacher determines suitable research topic in accordance to the pupils’ experience, ability and interest.• Aims and procedures must be determined first and pupils are informed about this.• Teacher prepares relevant materials (check list, questions to be answered, etc.) to facilitate pupils.
Continued…• Research should be carried out safely & every pupil should actively involve in group activities.• Teacher supervises and provides guidance to pupils.• Teacher discusses the outcomes of research & evaluation should be conducted after research is completed.
2. Handicraft Project (Principles)• Planning of the project is based on pupils’ interest and ability.• Prepare sufficient materials.• Explain procedure precisely.• Show examples of correct ways to do the project.• Time period is required!• Discussion is carried out to assess the work when it is done.• Display good quality work to the other students.
3. Educational Visit (Principles)• Before the Visit: – Identify the place of visit. – Obtain permission. – Arrange for transport. – Conduct briefing session regarding safety, precautions, behaviours, aims of visit and regulations. – Prepare sufficient equipments.
….continued• During the Visit: – Divide pupils into several small groups. – Every pupil should actively involve. – Watch out for pupils’ safety. – Give appropriate response to pupils’ inquiry.• After the Visit: – Hold discussion session with pupils regarding their observations. – Plan follow-up activity (making model, draw plan or model, display things)
The Importance of Project Model• Students able to relate their previous experiences to what they are studying.• Able to understand objectives of the projects before and after lesson.• Fun activities that attract students’ interests in learning more & apply what they have learnt.• Moral values are applied.• Theories, facts & hypotheses are brought into practices (I do, I remember & understand).• Co-operations among students.• Direct experiences & additional knowledge.
Social Model• Model of Group Teaching & Co-operative Learning• Simulation Model –Sociodrama –Role play
Uses group inquiry and problem-solving strategies SOCIAL MODELEncourages assimilation and Relies on the students’ understanding of the personal and social learners values
Ways of Teaching GROUP TEACHINGAND CO-OPERATIVE SIMULATION LEARNINGINFORMAL FORMAL STUDYLEARNING LEARNING ROLE-PLAY SOCIODRAMA TEAMS GROUP GROUP
ROLE-PLAY Emphasize the social Role-playing is a teaching nature of learning strategy that fits within the social family models stimulate students bothsocially and intellectually -Joyce and Weil, 2000- Improves interpersonal skills and enhances communication
ROLE-PLAYFOUR STAGES 1. Preparation and explanation of the activity by the teacher 2. Student preparation of the activity 3. The role-playing 4. The discussion after the role-playing activities
SOCIODRAMA More like an acting activity Based on a story which reflects a certain situationinvolving conflicting issue, for example, Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat Script should be prepared earlier Next
ADVANTAGESHelps them to become aware of the typical ways they solve problemsIncreases both social and personal awarenessPromote acceptance, cooperation in classroom Back
Informal learning group Basicallytemporary within a single class session
Formal learning groupBeing formed to complete a specific tasks, such as to carry a project, performing a lab experiment, etc
Study Teams Long-termgroups with a stablemembership
ELEMENTS Face-to-face Positive Interaction InterdependenceIndividual & Group Group Processing Accountability Interpersonal & Small- group Skills
Emphasize the worth of cooperative learning The Importance of Social Model Incorporate the Promote social skills includingcollective energy of the self- group discipline, negotiation, democrac y, etc.