INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT
BHARAT GEARS LIMITED
Submitted for the partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
Sagar Institute Of Science Technology & Engineering
Akhand Pratap Singh
Under the Guideance of: Submitted to:
Mr Ankit Bajpal(Quality Assesment) Mr Rohit Muchal(HR)
I here by declare that the project work entitled “ Industrial Training Report” submitted to the Bharat Gears
Limited , is a record of an original work done by me under the guidance of Mr (pr4oductI) &hr in Bharat
Gears .It has not been altered or corrected as a result of assessment and it may contain errors omissions. The
views expressed in it together with any recommendations by me.
Akhand Pratap Singh
I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards our educational institute SISTec-E who gave us the
opportunity to take training.
I would like to thanks Mr Rohit Muchal(HR) under whose guidance I took training .
I would also like to express my gratitude towards Mr Ankit Baijpal(QA) without whose support I would not
have been able to aquire the knowledge.
Last but not least, I would like to thank all the workers for their cooperation.
Akhand Pratap Singh
This is a report based on my experience at Bharat Gears Limited, Faridabad. Being a student of mechanical
engineering, I wished to gain exposure to the various aspects of working in an industry. This was a perfect opportunity
for me since the plant of Bharat Gears is one of the biggest production setups in India. My primary goal was to gain
some insight in methods of manufacturing & design, and during my time at the shop floor. I have achieved it to some
extent.It was a good learning experience and will stand me on good stead in future.
Akhand Pratap Singh
Bharat Gears Limited is one of the leading gear manufacturer in India . BGL supplies gears to major OEM‟s
in India and overseas for different automobile industry like heavy medium and light truck , utility vehicles,
tractors and off highway vehicles.
BGL‟s strength encompasses world class quality, excellence in customer responsiveness right from
metallurgical quality control of basic steel to precision of gear cutting, HT and post HT operation along with
state of art machinery. It has diverse product lines with versatile applications.
It is a public limited company. BGL is a major global supplier of automotive gears and heat treatment
1.1 Milestone Achieved
1972 Foundation Stone laid at Mumbra Factory.
1974 Inauguration of the Hypoid Plant and Commencement of Production with 'Gleason Machines'.
1980 First 'OerlikonSpiromatic Generator' installed. BGL becomes the First Company in INDIA to have both
Cutting Systems under one Roof.
1981 Memorandum of Association signed with AFC-Holcroft, U.S.A. for construction of furnaces in India to AFC-
Collaboration Agreement with ZF AG Germany
1987 Delivery for ZF S6-36 Gears & Shafts to Ashok Leyland Ltd. and ZFAG, Germany.
1987 Start of Assembly of ZF S5-24 Gear Boxes for Ashok Leyland.
1988 Start of business with DANA CORPORATION, USA
1994 BGL receives ISO 9002
1996 BGL crosses turnover of Rs. 1 Billion.
1998 Foundation Stone for Faridabad Plant Laid
2000 Start of Commercial Production in Faridabad
2000 BGL receives SQ 9000 for Mumbra Plant
2001 BGL receives SQ 9000 for Faridabad Plant
2004 BGL Faridabad starts supply to Toyota Kirloskar Auto Parts
2004 BGL Faridabad receives ISO 14001 certification
2005 BGL Faridabad &Mumbra receives TS 16949 certification
2008 Introduction of Dry Cut Hobbing process
2009 Introduction of Klinglenberg Close Loop CNC Gear Measuring system
2010 Introduction of Bevel Gear dry cutting process with close loop technology
2011 BGL Faridabad Receives OHSAS 18001 Certification
2012 Factory Foundation laid by BGL at Satara, Maharashtra
2013 Inaugurated the third plant at Lonand, Satara District, Maharashtra
2013 Introduction of Klingelnberg CNC gear cutting machine (C50) and shaving cutter sharpening machine
1.2 Various Department/Shop
New Production Development Department
Vendor Supplied Area / Raw material Storage
Primary Inspection Department
Heat Treatment shop
Shot Blasting Shop
Tool Planning Room & Tool Sharpning
Pre Dispatch Inspection Department
Final Inspection (Domestic/Export)
First to have both Gleason and Oerlikon system of Bevel Gear Generation in India .
In house glesson and oerlikon tool grinding facility
CDS and CAGA software for design and manufacturing capability.
Cell layout “JIT” implementation.
Oerlikon dry cutting system with KIMOS design /manufacturing software 2008.
Gleason 608/609/610/611 CNC .
Oerlikon SM3/S17/S30 CNC /SKM1
GTR Chamferring Machine
SL3 Lapping machine /507CNC .
Nova CNC Bore Grinding Machine
CNC Marking Machine
Phospating /Shot Peening
Module (mm) 12.7 (outer) 8.5 (normal)
OD (mm) 400 470
Quality AGMA9-11 AGMA9-11
1 Gleason TAG400- At Axis CNCV Gear Grinding Machine
2 Reishauer – RZ301 AS CNC Gear Grinding Machine
P254 CNC Hobber /Leibherr L200 Hobber
CNC Shaper CS253 / Lorenz
CNC External and Internal Grinding Machine
Gas Metal Arc Welding Machine
Hurth SRS402 Shaving Cutter Sharpener
Module (mm) 5 mm 5mm
OD (mm) 300mm dia 500mm length
III. DIFFERENTIAL GEAR UNIT
GLEASON Coniflex 104
GLEASON Revacycle 724 Twin Spindle
16T Vertical Broacbhing Machine
Phospating Set up
Module (mm) 7.5 7.5
Pitch Dia (mm) 120 120
Quality AGMA8-9 AGMA8-9
IV. TOOL ROOM
This is used to manufacture the fixtures for various machines and under development parts.
V. STORES (Forging Yard )
The forging received from the vendors are stored and checked for quantity and quality. A sample of
forging is subjected to metallurgical tests.
VI. HEAT TREATMENT UNIT (HT)
Number of Furnaces
I. 1 CGC Continious Gas Carbuzing Nos-4
II. 2 CQF – Continious Quench Furnace with Cold Oil /Hot oil Quenching facility
III. Sealed Quench Furnace – nos.-6
IV. 3 Nos. H/C – SQF [500kg]- 2Nos. Tempering
V. 3 Nos. GPC – General Purpose Carburzing
VI. 3 Nos. Tempering Furnaces [SQF] [1 tonn]
VII. Induction Softening /Induction Hardening 1Nos.
VIII. Endo. Gas Generator 2 Nos .
IX. Shot Blasting /Hard Shot Peeing
VII. CNC SHOP
Finished turning of gear blanks and shoft is done . Product with precision dimensions are machined
to pat print specification with in accuracy of onr micron by turning, drilling ,boring, under cutting
,grooving , etc on machine like MORISEIKI ,IMW, FENDT , TRAUV , MOFIA etc .
8 IAF- Isothermal Annealing Furnace (2 Nos.)
Isoannelinganfd normalizing is done in this furnaces for required parts. Tumb blasting is done here.
There are Hardness testers like Brinell Tester QC is done in each shop after the respective treatment.
Dana Corporation ,USA
Motors John Deere, Maxico
Mahindra & Mahindra
Spicer , India
Mahindra & Mahindra
Tactors Engineers “L & T”
Ring Gear & Pinion
BGL Manufactursvarity of ring gears and pinions set to service varity of trucks ,buses,cars and utility
vehicles. It offers both world famous systems of hypoid gear generation –GLEASON (Face Milling
) & OERLIKON (Face Hobbing).
Transmission Gears and Shafts
BGL facility includes state of art machines like gear shaping ,hobbing ,shaving ,gear grinding machines as well
as gear testers and induction hardening machines,BGL’s latest acquisition in gear grinding has been the
GLEASON tag 400 cylindrical gear grinder .The machine has 8 -axes on CNC and is highely productive .All
possobilities of profile /lead modification can be obtained.
BGL’sgear conformto DIN6 to DIN8 class accuracy.
BGL offers to their customers a choice of two system –GLEASON Coniflex and GLEASON Revacycle
systems of straight bevel generation .
In addition to this BGL manufacturers differential crosses of various sizes as well as complete sub assemblies
of differentials .
BGL furnaces division engineers construct batch and continuous heat treating furnace system in collaboration
with AFC – Holcraft Michigan ,USA .
ISO 9001 – 2000 Certification
ISO 16949 – 2000 Certification
Management Information System
LAN of computers at plant and head office
Unit wise cost analysis and control .
Human RD System
TQM Culture Throw
Total customer satisfaction
Total employee envolment
Total Waste Elimination
TQM –TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
To keep pace time in this liberated economy to enhanced national and international growth , to create quality
and maintain marketing leadership.TQM is where positive thinking core element.
TQM Thrust Areas are-
Total customer delight
Stratigic Quality Planning
Human Resource Utilization
Product Quality Assurance
Deduction Investment Cost
Some of the outputs from these thrust areas gives some organization values which are
The quality Control Department sees that parts manufactured confirm to requirement . This deparment
performs forging inspection .In process inspections before HT process inspection ,after HT inspection and
It include mechanical maintenance as well as electrical maintenance . The preventive break down maintenance is
carried out in BGL.
Deals with inventory tendering and vendoring ,stock purchase and need verification bills ,
Marketing department looks after the flow of orders , maintaining good relation with customers , talking
payment form the customers after fulfilling their orders.
Marketing Department also do advertisement for the company .
IED –Industrial Engineering Department
Time study and Estimation for machine line , Stores and tool room and Assembly Operation
Layout modification and designing new layouts of production line,stores lines and offices .
Designing and providing material handling and storage facility for machine line ,assembly line .
Gear Terminology :
Pitch surface : The surface of the imaginary rolling cylinder (cone, etc.) that the toothed gear may be
considered to replace.
Pitch circle: A right section of the pitch surface.
Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a right section of the gear.
Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right section of the
Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.
Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.
Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the addendum of the mating gear.
Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the pitch surface.
Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.
Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness) : The thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch
circle. It is the length of an arc and not the length of a straight line.
Tooth space: The distance between adjacent teeth measured on the pitch circle.
Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the mating
gear.Backlash =Space width – Tooth thickness
Circular pitch p: The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.
Diametral pitch P: The number of teeth of a gear per inch of its pitch diameter. A toothed gear must
have an integral number of teeth. The circular pitch, therefore, equals the pitch circumference divided
by the number of teeth. The diametral pitch is, by definition, the number of teeth divided by the pitch
Module m: Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually specified in inches
or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of diametral pitch.
Fillet : The small radius that connects the profile of a tooth to the root circle.
Pinion: The smaller of any pair of mating gears. The larger of the pair is called simply the gear.
Velocity ratio: The ratio of the number of revolutions of the driving (or input) gear to the number of
revolutions of the driven (or output) gear, in a unit of time.
Pitch point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of a pair of mating gears.
Common tangent: The line tangent to the pitch circle at the pitch point.
Base circle : An imaginary circle used in involute gearing to generate the involutes that form the tooth
Line of Action or Pressure Line: The force, which the driving tooth exerts at point of contact of the
two teeth. This line is also the common tangent at the point of contact of the mating gears and is
known as the line of action or the pressure line. The component of the force along the common
tangent at the p point is responsible for the power transmission.
The component of the force perpendicular to the common tangent through the pitch point produces
the required thrust.
Pressure Angle or Angle of Obliquity (φ): The angle between pressure line and the common
tangent to the pitch circles is known as the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity.
For more power „transmission and lesser pressure on the bearing pressure angle must be kept small.
Standard pressure angles arc and 25°. Gears with 14.5° pressure angles have become almost
Path of Contact or Contact Length: Locus of the point of contact between two mating teeth from
the beginning of engagement to the end is known as the path of contact or the contact length. It
is CD in the figure. Pitch point P is always one point on the path of contact. It can be subdivided as
Path of Approach: Portion of the path of contact from the beginning of engagement to the pitch
point, i.e. the length CP.
Path of Recess: Portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the end of engagement i.e.
Arc of Contact: Locus of a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the
end of engagement of two mating gears is known as the arc of contact in fig. 3.22, APB
or EPF is the arc of contact. It has also been divided into sub-portions.
Arc of Approach: It is the portion of the arc of contact from the beginning of engagement to the
pitch point, i.e. length AP or EP.
Arc of Recess: Portion of the arc of contact from the pitch point to the end of engagement is the arc
of recess i.e. length PB or PF.
Angle of Action (δ): It is the angle turned by a gear from the beginning of engagement to the end of
engagement of a pair of teeth i.e. the angle turned by arcs of contact of respective gear wheels.
Similarly, angle of approach (a) and angle of recess (β) can be defined.
3.GEAR CUTTING PROCESSES
For Systematic Processing of gears from forgimg operation till grinding ,shaving or inspection. A PDF
(Process Flow Diagram) is prepared .All the process on the corresponding gear ,crown wheel ,pinion or
differential gear is carried out according to instructions in the flow diagram . Atypical PDF is attached .
For every process Control Plan (CP) is prepared .The instruction given in the Cp is very essential and the
operator works on the following CP.
Gear Processing Terms
3.1 Inspect Raw Material: The raw material used for making gear is inspected for necessary metallurgical
consideration .The raw material should be crack and dent free . It is done by visual and by machine.
Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. There are
two main types of broaching: linear and rotary. In linear broaching, which is the more common process,
the broach is run linearly against a surface of the work piece to affect the cut. Linear broaches are used
in a broaching machine, which is also sometimes shortened to broach. In rotary broaching, the broach is
rotated and pressed into the work piece to cut an axis symmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a lathe
or screw machine. In both processes the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it very
efficient. Broaching is used when precision machining is required, especially for odd shapes. Commonly
machined surfaces include circular and non-circular holes, splines, keyways, and flat surfaces.
Broaching Cutter :
II. INTERNAL HOLE:
3. Rectangular, Hexagonal
4. Irregular Shapes etc.
1. With or without Chamfer
3. Combined Round & Single Keyway
Product Parameter :
1. Major Dia. : Paddle Gauge
2. Minor Dia. : Plug Gauge
3. Face R/O & O.D R/O : Bench Center With Dial Stand
4. Finishing Spline : Visually
Hobbing is a machining process for making gears, splines, and sprockets on a hobbing machine, which is a
special type of milling machine. The teeth or splines are progressively cut into the work piece by a series of
cuts made by a cutting tool called a hob. Compared to other gear forming processes it is relatively
inexpensive but still quite accurate, thus it is used for a broad range of parts and quantities. It is the most
widely used gear cutting process for creating spur and helical gears and more gears are cut by hobbing than
any other process since it is relatively quick and in expensive.Hobbing uses a hobbing machine with two
non-parallel spindles, one mounted with a blank work piece and the other with the hob. The angle between
the hob's spindle and the work piece‟s spindle varies, depending on the type of product being produced. For
example, if a spur gear is being produced, then the hob is angled equal to the helix angle of the hob; if a
helical gear is being produced then the angle must be increased by the same amount as the helix angle of the
The hob is the cutter used to cut the teeth into the work piece. It is cylindrical in shape with helical
cutting teeth. These teeth have grooves that run the length of the hob, which aid in cutting and chip
removal. There are also special hobs designed for special gears such as the spline and sprocket gears.
Process Parameter :
1. Hob Cutter O.D Run Out On Machine : 0.010 mm
2. Locator O.D Run Out : 0.010 mm
3. Locator Face Run Out : 0.010 mm
4. Top Center Run Out With Respect To Workable : 0.010 mm
Product Parameter :
1. D.O.P : Micrometer
2. R.O.P : Bench Center With Dial Stand
3. T.C.E : Gear Roll Tester
4. T.T.C.E : Gear Roll Tester
5. Helix Error : Lead Profile Tester
6. Lead Variation : Lead Profile Tester
7. Profile Error : Lead Profile Tester
8. Profile Variation : Lead Profile Tester
9. Root Dia. : Vernier Caliper
10. Semi Topping : Vernier Caliper
Shaping is also process of cutting gear teeth using a cutter.Shaping is done at the place of gear where
hobbing is not possible .The cutter in shaping machine is a disc cutter which rotates as well as
reciprocate in axial direction. It is generally used in Cutting dog teeth of gear .
Shaping Cutter :
SHB Manufacture Gear Shaping Cutters in Module, DP and CP series. Spur as well as Helical Shaper
Cutters can be supplied in Disc, Hub and Shank Type Varieties. Material used is generally AISI M35 Grade
and accuracies are as per DIN-1829 Standard Class „AA‟ and Class „A‟. Profile modifications including
Chamfer Semi-Topping, Topping , Protuberance, Flat or Fillet Root can be provided.
Process Parameter :
1. Cutter O.D Run Out On Machine : 0.010 mm
2. Cutter Rake Face Run Out : 0.010 mm
3. Locator O.D Run Out : 0.010 mm
4. Locator Face Run Out : 0.010 mm
Product Parameter :
1. D.O.P : Micrometer
2. R.O.P : Bench Center With Dial Stand
3. Helix Error : Helix Tester
4. Root Dia. : Vernier Caliper
5. Semi Topping : Vernier Caliper
6. Free Entry Of Matting Part : Go gauge
7. Teeth Finish : Visually
8. Spline Rotation Must Be Not Enter : No Go gauge.
3.5 Gear Rounding:
Rounding is a process of making the edges of the theeth in round shape for better meshing .When gear has to
slide into mesh ,the edges of theeth in sliding member & the corresponding theeth on the mating member are
rounded to easy meshing .
Gear shaving is basically a finishing operation. This takes place after the operations of roughing with a hob
or cutting with a shaper cutter is over. The Shaving process consists of the removal of tiny particles of metal
from a gear teeth's working surface. Gear shaving produces fine hair like chips. The cutter comes in the form
of helical gear. It has special serrations in the flank area of gear teeth. These serrations act as the cutting
1. 1.Improves tooth surface finish.
2. Eliminates, the problem of tooth end load concentrations.
3. Effective reduction in the noise of gears with modification in the tooth profile.
4. Increase the gear‟s load capacity Improved safety and service life.
Shaving Cutters :
1. Transverse Shaving Cutters :
The gear that is shaved reciprocates in the direction of its own axis. The tool and the gear are in mesh. With
each step of reciprocation, there is an occurrence of small quantity of radial feeding of the shaving cutter.
2. Diagonal Shaving Cutters:
Here the gear selected for shaving reciprocates obliquely in direction to its own axis. The gear and the
tool are made to stay in a mesh. The diagonal angle can be got by positioning of the work piece table in
an oblique manner or by the process of interpolating of the two machine axes. As with each
reciprocation, there is a radial feeding of the shaving cutter. This is described in the diagram.
3.Plunge Shaving Cutter
In this method there is no worktable translation. Instead there takes place a radial feed of the work piece
against the tool that is used as shaving cutter. Plunge shaving is particularly good for shaving of shoulder
4.Underpass Shaving Cutters:
Underpass shaving is primarily identical to diagonal shaving with a small variation in the form of a diagonal
angle of 90 degrees. In underpass shaving no axial table reciprocation takes place. In its place, the work
piece reciprocates at right angles to its own axis.
It is the process of printing customer number in gear .The number contain name of the furnace used ,year month and
the number of gear customer purchase .It is done by manual as well as by lazer machine .
BHT Inspection :
Before Heat Treatment Inspection is done visually by checking teeth ,dent and cracks. Also finishing of
gear is inspected.
Heat Treatment Process:
Heat treatment process is a series of operations involving the heating and cooling of metals in the solid
state. Its purpose is to change a mechanical property or combination of mechanical properties so that the
metal will be more useful, serviceable, and safe for definite purpose. By heat treating, a metal can be
made harder, stronger, and more resistant to impact; Heat treatment process can also make a metal softer
and more ductile. No one heat-treating operation can produce all of these characteristics. In fact, some
properties are often improved at the expense of others. In being hardened, for example, a metal may
Shot Blasting is the process after Heat treatment in which remove the product darkness which occurs
in heat treatment process . In this Process 52 to 60 HRC hardness stainless steel small particles strike
Gear deburring machines are designed to correctly remove burrs or sharp edges as a result of castings,
drilled holes, cut grooves and other machining operations used to complete parts. The Deburring process
of gears makes the parts capable of a performance for which they were designed. It eliminates all the
unwanted elements that obstruct their productivity.
Chamfer is a beveled edge connecting two surfaces. If the surfaces are at right angles, the chamfer
will typically be symmetrical at 45 degrees. A fillet is the rounding off of an interior corner.
Lapping is a machining operation, in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them,
by hand movement or by way of a machine. This can take two forms. The first type of lapping (traditionally
called grinding), typically involves rubbing a brittle material such as glass against a surface such as iron or
glass itself (also known as the "lap" or grinding tool) with an abrasive such as aluminum oxide, jeweler‟s
rouge, optician's rouge, emery, silicon carbide, diamond, etc., in between them. This produces microscopic
conchoidal fractures as the abrasive rolls about between the two surfaces and removes material from both
Grinding machine consists of a power driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed (which is
determined by the wheel‟s diameter and manufacturer‟s rating, usually by a formula) and a bed with a
fixture to guide and hold the work-piece. The grinding head can be controlled to travel across a fixed
work piece or the work piece can be moved whilst the grind head stays in a fixed position. Very fine
control of the grinding head or table‟s position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel, or using
the features of numerical controls. Grinding machines remove material from the work piece by abrasion,
which can generate substantial amounts of heat; they therefore incorporate a coolant to cool the work
piece so that it does not overheat and go outside its tolerance. The coolant also benefits the machinist as
the heat generated may cause burns in some cases.
3.11 Diamond tool :
A diamond tool is a cutting tool with diamond grains fixed on the functional parts of the tool via a bonding
material or another method.
Advantages of diamond grinding tools :
1. High grinding efficiency, Low grinding force
2. High wear resistance.
3. Long lifespan, Long dressing period:.
4. Low comprehensive cost
3.12Induction Hardening Process
1. Completion of all machining operations.
2. Pre heat inspection and punching.
3. Stress relieving (at 250c, 2 Hr.)
5. Job resting faces cleaning by polishing paper.
6. Induction hardening (Internal/External)
8. Tempering must be within 4 hr.
1.Induction Hardening is very use full to increasing the hardness of product either internally or
2.It is use to make brittle material of product.
After completing the industrial training at BGL ,I can say that the industrial training is very important for
engineering student like me. Practical knowledge is very important in every field .It was great experience
during the industrial training and I learnt practically knowledge about the different machines like hobbing,
shaving, shappingetc uses to cut the various gear like spur ,helical, spline etc . Various processes such as
turning , milling, grinding ,key way and shaping of gears teaches me a lot of thing . I also took some
experience about the organization work. The employees of the company where supportive during the
training .Employees and MrAnkitBajpal(Quality Assesment)&MrRohitMuchal(HR)sir under whose
guidance I took training help me to understand the mechanism and theories behind these various processes
.They provide me the proper guidance and information about all the departments like marketing ,production,