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This paper discusses indigenous soldiers in modern militaries in Southeast Asia compared to the Americas, especially their recruitment by the military under both colonial rulers and today's governments since independence. I will also discuss my writings on indigenous people of Latin America and North America, especially the use of the military to preserve, strengthen, and defend traditional beliefs and practices, and the use of indigenous naming, symbolism, and warrior traditions by modern governments to give themselves legitimacy. By contrast, indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia were widely recruited by colonial powers for use against lowland peoples. But since independence the indigenous have often been as marginalized within the military as within the larger national societies. However, one nation-state, the Philippines, has begun employing indigenous people, recruiting them on their own terms, and this may be a sign that patterns seen in the Americas could be repeated in Southeast Asia.