Why this presentation?
• Recently, I challenged myself by taking the responsibility
to manage a Targets Setting workshop for 40 attendees in
a very short time.
• As any project manager I want to deliver my projects with
the best results that are according to my key stakeholders’
expectations and requirements and I also want to share
my experiences and competence in order to be reused
and forward developed.
• I hope that project managers and workshop facilitators
and others can find some inspiration and can use some
parts of this presentation.
The ability to simplify means
to eliminate the unnecessary
so that the necessary may
speak. Hans Hofmann
Why this presentation? (cont’d)
• I presented some methods, tools and techniques in this
document and I hope that these methods, tools and
techniques will be as useful for you as they were for me.
• As many other assignments, conducting a workshop is
• Agreement with your key stakeholders about the
purpose, scope, ambition level and the outcomes of the
• And of course: Preparation, preparation and again
• Even if I tried to make this presentation as simple as
possible with a step by step approach, but I think you will
still find unnecessary parts for you. Please forgive me.
Why a workshop? Why should we conduct a workshop instead of
using other ways to interact and work with attendees/experts?
• We know that there are many other alternatives for a face
to face communication and interacting with a group of
people. Some examples: You can invite people for a
training, seminar, conference etc.
• We think that a workshop has many advantages but the
most important one is the possibility to create dialog/the
two way communication with the participants.
• Better possibility for users/attendees to be involved and
share their ideas before, during and after the workshop.
Why a workshop? Why should we conduct a workshop instead of
using other ways to interact and work with attendees/experts?
Individual commitment to a group effort - that is
what makes a team work, a company work, a
society work, a civilization work. Vince Lombardi
• A well prepared and organized workshop should motivate the
participants and create an excellent environment for creativity
and brainstorming new ideas.
• A workshop environment has the possibility to allow the
attendees to know each other better and pave the way for
cooperation and good networking.
• Regardless if we starting a new project (e.g. new organization is
established, new change is initiated) we need to gain
commitment and signoff from all involved parts. In a workshop
you have the possibility for allowing the attendees to express
their opinions and getting agreements.
6. "If you want to build a ship, don't drum up people
together to collect wood and don't assign them
tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for
the endless immensity of the sea." Antoine de
When to conduct a workshop?
• In our case we wanted to obtain commitment on implementing 100 days
targets for our group.
• Workshop can be conducted when you have establish a new organization,
new project, new changes, new targets etc.
• As a line or project manager you need to do something for your new group
in order to ensure the group work together as a team. You may need a
kick-off event. The first step for a good cooperation is to know each other
and build trust between different members of the group.
• As a manager you need to form, inspire and maybe direct the team to
perform in order to achieve the agreed targets. We all know the famous
model; Tuckman's stages of group development: Forming – Storming –
Norming – Performing. The main outcome from this model is: it takes time
to create a performing team.
• We can list many other activities in which a workshop is useful:
• Training and Education of people .
• Information sharing and solving problems.
Why a workshop method?
• We need first to explain what we mean by a workshop method. A
workshop method is the overall method that a project
manager/facilitator/workshop organization Team will use in order to
conduct a workshop.
• The workshop organization team need to decide what is the best
method for planning and running the workshop. Often the decision is
made by the project manager/the facilitator. In some cases you may
not need to declare what method you will use. As a project manager of
a workshop you may use the selected method for yourself to check
where you are in the path of the workshop.
• The basic principle for selecting a method is: Do not complicate this
issue, select a method that you as a project manager and a team are
comfortable with (PDCA, any project management method, etc.).
• The method should be flexible regarding changes in every phase.
8. A workshop method
• To deliver our workshop we will use the
following well known method:
• Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). According to
• PLAN: Establish the objectives and
processes necessary to deliver results in
accordance with the expected output (the
target or goals).
• DO: Implement the plan, execute the
process and make the product.
• CHECK: Study the actual results (measured
and collected in "DO" above) and compare
against the expected results (targets or
goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any
• ACT: Request corrective actions on
significant differences between actual and
9. The workshop method
1. I added the stakeholder and stakeholders’ needs
as new component in the center of the PDCA
method. Stakeholders are the start point and
the end point of every assignment. As a project
manager, our job is to:
• Ensure the satisfaction of our stakeholders.
• Translation of the stakeholders’ needs to
understandable requirements in order to
ensure a correct delivery
2. Plans will start with scoping the goal,
objectives and requirements on the workshop.
3. Do according to the plan.
4. Check if there are some gaps between the
required outcomes and the actual outcomes.
5. We may need to take more actions to correct
We will describe the workshop method by applying
that in our case study: Target Setting Workshop.
Our Case: Target Setting “The Story”
• In this part of the presentation we will apply the presented workshop
method in a real case with a more detailed description of how we
conducted the workshop. Here is a short description of the story of the
• Assume that a new group with 3 different teams was established in a
• The manager of the group decided to arrange a kick-off event for the
• The manger wants to use this event to not just a “know each other”
opportunity, but to give the possibility for the group to work together
in setting and achieving agreed targets.
• Target should be aligned and connected to the overall strategy of the
enterprise and the mission of the group.
What you get by achieving your
goals is not as important as what
you become by achieving your
goals. Henry David Thoreau
Our Case: Target Setting “The Story” (cont’d)
• Targets (to some details) should be accepted by all the 3 teams in the
• The manager wants some volunteers for establishing a workshop
• You as an experienced project manager a fearless Business Architect
raise your hand and volunteer yourself.
• In a first meeting the manager and the volunteers decide on who will
• You will be the project manager and the responsible for the planning,
design and the outcome of the workshop.
• You may not know all the details at the beginning, but you need to
start with what you know at that moment and what you and others
can do from the first day.
12. Put the first things first. Habit 3. “The 7
habits of highly effective people”.
Our Case: Targets Setting Workshop
The First Decisions
• The first thing you (as a project manager) will do is to plan
for a first meeting with your team.
• Decide the agenda and check what is the purpose, scope,
objectives, deliverables, constraints like financial issues,
time to deliver and when your job (the workshop) will be
decided as finished/handed over. I mean the success
• You can always start with defining the problems that the
workshop will solve (e.g. making a direction to a new
Our Case: Targets Setting Workshop
The First Decisions (cont’d)
• Some activities can take time. You have to find these activities (if
any). Seek answers for the main questions. In our case, some of
these questions were: Who will decide on the targets?
• How and to which level the attendees will be involved in setting
• You may need to discuss and agree about how to solve these
activities in the very beginning.
• Decide who are the attendees of the Target Setting workshop?
• In our case they were the members of the new organization. Ask
who else will be/should be involved? You need to book all your
attendees in good time.
Our Case: Targets Setting Workshop
The First Decisions (cont’d)
• You need to decide about other important things:
• The date for the workshop in order to book the local and
send message to the attendees
• Book a suitable local
• Decide the roles for your team. You need to define the roles
and responsibilities for your team and for other involved
• The sponsor (in our case the group manager) and your
workshop organization team will be your first stakeholders.
You need to create a stakeholders map and start to manage
expectations and concerns.
• You will use the stakeholders map as a basis for your
15. Our Case: Targets Setting (structure your world)
• During the workshop’s life-cycle you and your workshop organization team will
produce many documents. You need to structure your documents in a way
that the team and other stakeholders can easily find your latest work.
• The following structure describes the main folders that we used in our
• We used our document management system to create an area for our
documents and to manage the versions of these documents.
"The only way the world will ever be a safe place to
express our full uniqueness is if we can learn
together that your view need not pose a threat to
mine.“ Susan Campbell
• If we go back to our method, we put our stakeholders and their needs
in the middle of the PDCA method and we decided to start with the
• The first step is to identify these stakeholders.
• Some main principles:
• If you have many stakeholders and if there are risks for conflicts
between different interests and expectations, then you may need
to analyze your stakeholders’ power and influence in your
• Clarify and meet their expectations
• At the end you may not satisfy all your stakeholders. The key
stakeholders with the most power and influence are very
important to concentrate on.
• Then as a workshop project manager, you need to map the
stakeholders’ expectations, needs, requirements and concerns in a
stakeholders map. You may keep the map to yourself, but you will need
to use the map as direction for your communication plan.
1 Identify Stakeholders
• Identifying stakeholders is not an easy task and you as a project
manager have to seek proactively for new stakeholders.
• Face to face meeting with stakeholders is a good way to obtain and
gather their concerns.
• A good way to obtain commitment is to actively engage your
• Some of these stakeholders could be a part of your team
• You need to build trust with your stakeholders
• You may need to define and describe your stakeholders
• The next page describes the main concerns and expectations of the
key stakeholders. In our case the sponsor (the manager) was one of
the key stakeholders.
• Clarify and meet their expectations, assign responsible for every
activity, see the next page.
Seek First to Understand, Then to
Be Understood. Habit 5. “The 7
habits of highly effective people”.
18. 1 Stakeholders Map (your main stakeholders)
You need to assign a responsible for these activities. In our case the project manager was the responsible.
Stakeholder Concerns and expectations
How to meet their
Accomplished objectives for the
workshop regarding the target setting.
High level of team participation and
involvement in the workshop. Costs
below the budget. Deliver in time.
Define and decide the
objectives of the
Find a suitable local for the workshop
and the attendees.
Help the responsible if
needed. Create a list
with possible locations.
Getting right information in right time.
Define the level of involvement before,
during and after the workshop.
Purpose and outcomes, time, local etc.
Create an agreed
and decide on content
of the workshop and
how to involve them.
Agreed agenda, suitable and logical
sequencing of activities that aim to
accomplish the agreed objectives.
Ensure that an agreed
agenda is decided.
2 Plan the workshop
1. Define the purpose of the workshop (goal, scope, outcomes,…)
2. Create an agreed overall work breakdown structure and
milestones and visualize that.
3. Establish a workshop organization team and assign the activities
in the plan to the workshop organization team
4. Agree about a communication plan, action plan and identify new
workshop’s stakeholders (if any).
5. Create the necessary content/documents and package the
Master Presentation for the workshop.
6. Logistics and practicalities (need to be decided in the beginning)
Decide the location
Plan for Lunch, Dinner, refreshments (if needed).
Information about: Transport, hotels, maps etc.
Material (pens, post it, flipcharts, video,….)
2.1 Define the propose of the workshop
• You need to start with the sponsor/the owner of the outcomes
of the workshop. Check her/his view of the benefits of the
workshop and which problems will be solved by conducting this
• Creating a business case for a workshop could be overkill, but
this is depending on how the sponsor wants that.
• It is very important to agree about a good and a simple
formulation of the (Purpose, Scope, Objectives and
Deliverables). The description should be straightforward and
understandable by every member of the group/attendees.
2.1 Define the propose of the workshop (cont’d)
• The communication is the key here. You as a project manager
and the owner as the key stakeholder are responsible for
communicating and making the description of the (Purpose,
Scope, Objectives and Deliverables) as simple and
understandable as possible.
• In our case we had the following ambition level for the
• A list of common Targets. The list should include appointed
responsible and teams for implementing these targets. And
preliminary WBS and plans for delivery of the targets
• We had to communicate to and get feedback from the team
managers and some experts in the group regarding:
• The description of the Purpose, Scope, Objectives,
Deliverables and the list of the targets, see the next page.
22. 2.1 Define the propose, scope, objectives and
deliverables of the workshop
•Establish collaboration between the members of the group
•Create an environment for getting to know each other
•Share common targets and work together to achieve them
•Understand our challenges and expectations
•Common Targets for the organisation
•Cooperation between teams and Team Work Scope
•Ensure that our Targets are Aligned, committed and
•Ensure that Teams are committed to implement the Targets
•A list of common Targets
•The list should include appointed responsible and teams
for implementing these targets.
•Preliminary WBS and plans for delivery of the targets
2.1 Define the success criteria
Never tell people how to do things.
Tell them what to do and they will
surprise you with their ingenuity.
George S. Patton
• We need to define the success criteria in order to declare and
agree when the workshop is finished.
• According to  we should ask the customer several questions:
• "What does success look like?“
• "How do I know I've completed the project?“
• "How do I know I've done a great job?“
• and finally, "How will all this be measured?“
• We may need to establish and follow an agreed measurement
metrics for different success criteria (if needed). If you need to
do that, again, keep it simple.
• The success criteria will be used in the check and act phase to
determine if we have gaps or if we accomplished the work.
2.1 Define the success criteria (cont’d)
In our case the main success criteria were:
• By the end of the workshop:
• A list of realistic and committed targets is defined
• The responsibility of the targets are divided between
different teams in our groups
• Every target has main responsible person and the time for
delivery of the target is defined
• All the targets are explained and braked down into main
• By the end of the 100 days
• Members of the group and teams know each other and
worked together to achieve the targets
• The agreed targets are achieved
• A celebration party is arranged (or is planned to be
25. There is likely no factor that would contribute
more to the success of any project than having
a good and complete definition of the project’s
scope of work .
2.2 Create a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• WBS is one of the most important activities in a project or an
• You do this activity with help of a team/experts and you need to
involve the sponsor of course
• The main principle here is to create an hierarchy of
elements/components of your undertaking. Start with defining
the main ones in order to have a good overview of your
• Decompose the main activities into smaller activities and tasks
that could be easy to estimate (the required time to be finished)
and easy to be assigned to a responsible role
26. 2.2 Create a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
• A simple presentation of a WBS for our
workshop is illustrated in following figure.
"Nothing can exist
without order. Nothing
can occur without
chaos." Albert Einstein
2.2 Activity list
• We need to schedule the project to meet the key stakeholders’
(e.g. sponsor/user) expectations
• The schedule need to be agreed by the involved stakeholders
• Based on the WBS, you create a timeline with the main
activities, the required time to finish these activities
• If the team that you will work with is already decided and
available, then you may assign responsible for every activity
• The activity list could be also used:
• As an indicator for the completeness of the tasks
• To create milestones
• To create the critical path chart
29. 2.3 Establish a workshop organization team
• In our case the team was ready to start from day one when the
voluntaries were accepted by the owner.
• For our workshop we decided to have 5 members in workshop
– The owner/sponsor
– Project manager
– Facilitator/agenda owner
– Content owner
– Administrator/logistics responsible
• You may need to define these roles (or similar roles) and the
responsibilities for these roles.
• You may of course assign different roles to one member of the
30. 2.3 Establish a workshop organization team (roles)
Role in the
Setting objectives for the workshop. Ensuring the right people are in the workshop. Processing
and Follow up of the achievement of the agreed Targets.
Logistics of the room/location, transport (if needed), lunch, refreshments, coffee, water and
During the workshop the facilitator coordinates the activities according to the agenda and the
objectives of the workshop. The facilitator keeps the pace, stimulates discussion, and ensures
people can share and present different viewpoints. Responsible for conducting the workshop
activities and executing the workshop by creating environment for an active involvement and
participation of the attendees of the workshop.
The responsibility of the content designer is to design or select a suitable method to describe
our Targets in an understandable way. We selected the A3 method; Problem Solving template.
Attendees will provide and present the assigned homework and will commit and own targets
and targets action plans.
With help of the workshop organization team, plans the workshop that will accomplish the
owner’s objectives. The main responsibility is planning and coordinating the required activities
in the pre-workshop and post workshop periods. Proactively identify challenges and plan actions
to solve the problems. Send out the pre-work/homework the attendees must complete prior to
A team consisting of the owner, logistics responsible facilitator, planner, method-agenda-homework
owners. The team can act as steering committee for the workshop project. The
sponsor/owner is the head of the committee.
32. 2.4 Communication plan
• As soon as you decide the date of the workshop and the
location, you need to communicate that with your
• A communication plan is a good instrument to agree about
what, when and how to communicate with different
stakeholders that are effected by your workshop
• Take that as a rule: A well planned workshop has a well-defined
• The communication plan is based on the stakeholders map.
33. 2.4 Communication plan
You may need to add some other columns (e.g. responsible)
Activity To Whom End Date Status
1. Sending mail to the workshop participants about
the date and the booked local for the workshop
2. Sending mail about the homework 1 (Know each
3. Sending mail about the homework 2 (workshop
4. Send an agreed version of the Master Presentation Workshop
5. Communicate the agreed outcomes (Targets,
Decisions,…) from the workshop
6. Sending mail to book a local and date for
presenting the final results of implementing the
Targets. The date of the meeting will be some time
after the 100 days (in May 2014)
34. 2.4 Action plan
• Without actions and decisions you will not move forward
• When the activities, the duration and the accomplished dates are
defined, the responsible for these activities should be appointed.
• The action plan and the communication plan will remain as your
(project manager’s) instrument during the rest of the days until you
run the workshop and you achieved the targets.
• Therefore you (as project manager) may think about the start and the
end of your responsibility domain. I mean when your work is finished.
What would be your role after the workshop?
• Is your responsibility finished when the workshop is finished or when
the targets are achieved?
• These things need to be clarified, otherwise the sponsor may have
some other expectations on you. Again, dialog and communication is
the key here.
35. 2.4 Action plan (decision Points)
Decision Points Decision End Date Status
1. The workshop Date. New date 27th of January 2014-01-08 Completed
2. Local and other practicalities (lunch,
K works on this issue. 2014-01-08 Completed
3. Targets List (Gross Lists). The suggestion from X is agreed within the
workshop organization team.
4. Management of content and the
workshop follow Up (before, during and
after) the workshop including a template
for visualization of the Targets.
Y will present a suggestion for a method.
Need to be inserted in the Master
5. Pre-work package nr 1: To Know each
H will present a new suggestion. To be
agreed within the workshop organization
team in the next meeting 13th of January.
6. Pre-work package nr 2: Teams Work
with the Targets
X sent an e-mail to the team mangers
including the Target Gross list and how to
work with these targets within each team in
7. Agenda for the workshop. H and Y created a new suggestion. Need to
be agreed by the workshop organization
team in the 13th of January’s meeting.
36. 2.5 The Content of the Workshop
• The content is about the main message and what you want to achieve
before, during and after the workshop.
• In our case, as you know, the content was about:
– Create opportunity to know each other
– Setting, presenting and analyzing our targets
– Defining the main activities for these targets and assigning a
responsible for every target
• In every project you will face some challenges. Our main challenges were:
– How to set and communicate the targets?
– What method should be used here?
– How the group/teams, the corresponding team managers should
contribute and support to set the main targets before the workshop?
– Do we have time to communicate a gross list of the targets and get
feedback from attendees before the workshop?
– Should we work directly in the workshop with the gross list provided
by the manager?
37. 2.5 The Content of the Workshop
• The first question for the sponsor would be: Should we
have a top-down created targets or bottom-up or a mix of
the last two? (See the next pages).
• You and your organization team (including the sponsor)
need to take a decision about:
• How to set your targets?
• How the attendees should be involved (before, during
and after the workshop)?
• Who will decide on the right targets?
• Is it the sponsor or the team managers or the group or
a mix of these roles?
2.5 How to set targets (Top-Down Approach)
The top-down approach to target setting is where the company’s
management identifies the goals and the teams implement these targets.
Target created this way are often
related and aligned to the company’s
objectives and the company’s
It can be a challenging issue to get buy-in
from the team for top-down
approach especially if the team is not
involved in creating these target. There
is a risk that the team may not see the
importance, alignment and the
connection of these target to the daily
work of the attendees.
What does this approach means for our workshop? The top-down approach means
that we (the workshop organizing group) agree about using the gross list of target
that will be provided by manager as the main list. Then the workshop attendees need
to commit to these goals and take the ownership of these goals and work towards to
implement these goals.
2.5 How to set targets (Bottom-up Approach)
In the bottom-up approach, the members of a team create their own
Easy to get buy-in and commitment
from the teams. The teams are highly
involved in creating and identifying the
Targets created this way may not be
related (directly) to the company’s
objectives and strategy. It can be a
challenge for the manager and the team to
align these targets to the company’s
objectives and strategy. Another
disadvantage for this approach is the time
to get an agreement about common
targets for all teams. There is a risk that
this approach could take long time to get a
common agreement within the group.
2.5 How to set targets (Bottom-up Approach)
In our case and for our workshop: We may do the bottom-up
approach in different ways:
1.The workshop group agrees about giving the possibility to every
workshop participant to provide their goals (before and under the
workshop). Then the workshop participants need to evaluate,
prioritize and select the right goals and take ownership of these goals
and work towards to implement these goals.
2.To avoid many discussions and to focus on real goals that are
already thought out, we may ask the team managers to discuss with
their teams and prepare goals for the workshop. This way make the
workshop easier and the workshop participant could focus on more
2.5 How to set targets (Mixed Approach)
In the reality a mix between the top-down and bottom-up approaches
could be very helpful way to obtain the satisfaction of the managers and
the buy-in from the team.
Easy to get buy-in from the team. Teams
are involved (to certain level) in
creating, identifying and of course
selecting/prioritising the targets.
The main challenge is to prioritise and
select the right goals that could be agreed,
committed and owned by the teams. The
risk is that the group need to choose
between many different targets (if we
assume that every workshop participant or
team provide one or more targets in
additional to the manager’s targets (the
42. 2.5 How to set targets (Mixed Approach)
• In our case and for our workshop, this approach means that we (the
workshop organizing team) agree about using the gross list of targets (from
the manager) and in addition give the workshop participants/teams the
opportunity to come with their targets (maybe one or two targets each). To
avoid many discussions and to focus on SMART targets, we may ask the
team managers to discuss with their teams and prepare as SMART targets as
possible for the workshop. A team has the freedom to pick targets from the
gross list and make the targets more specific, measurable, actionable,
• This way makes the workshop much easier and the workshop participant
could focus on more agreed targets. (Remember it is all about preparation).
43. 2.5 The decision about how to set our targets
You may need to check the culture of the organisation before taking a
decision about how to agree about setting the targets
If the culture of the organisation is indicating that the decision are
always taken in the top level and the lower level will just implement
and there are no reasons to change that, then the best way will be a
top down approach
If the culture of the organisation allows the employees to be involved
in taking decisions then the mixed or the bottom-up approach are
good ways to achieve more committed targets
In our case we used the mixed approach. The Gross list from the manager
was accepted by all the 3 teams and every team added some own targets
to the list.
44. 2.5 The Gross List
• The gross list of targets
from the manager was
communicated with the 3
teams before the
• The gross list was
partitioned between the 3
teams according to every
• The 3 teams had the
possibility to agree about
• Common Targets was
created to allow the 3
teams to cooperate and
achieve common targets.
45. 2.5 How To Evaluate, Prioritise and Select Targets
• For evaluating, prioritising and selecting targets, we can use the MoSCoW
and/or S.M.A.R.T criteria/methods.
• When the targets are selected and prioritized, then we need to assign these
targets to the teams. The team will do the necessary work in order to
accomplish and provide the desired results for these targets.
• The questions here will be:
– How we will build our teams?
– Based on which principle (organisational structure, required
competences to implement our targets, other principles)?
– One of the main objectives of the workshop is to allow the group
members to know each other. Mixing competencies from different
teams and allowing these persons to work together, is the best way to
achieve this goal.
46. 2.5 The Overall Process
• Now maybe it’s time to draw the overall process from Identified Targets To
47. 2.5 The Process From Assigned Targets To Accomplished Targets
• The following diagram is a more detailed chart for the process step number 6 in the
previous page. The teams can accomplish their targets via starting a project or an
48. Integration of method, technique and tool
• Even if we have a very good method to define our targets and
we have a mature gross list, we still need to manage these
targets and make them more understandable for everyone.
• Here you need to decide about how the attendees should
analyse and present the progress of their targets in a best way.
• There are many tools, templates and diagrams available for
problem solving. These tools, templates and diagrams can be
used for our purpose.
• We can mention two of them:
– The A3 template
– The fishbone diagram (Ishikawa diagram)
• Again, select a tool that is easy to use and understand, fit for the
purpose and is recognisable by the group.
You can manage, what you can measure; you can measure,
what you can define; you can define, what you can
49. The A3 Template
• A3 refers to a European paper size that is roughly equivalent to an American 11-
inch by 17-inch tabloid-sized paper. The A3 format is used by Toyota as the
template for three different types of reports:
– Problem solving
• There is no “magic” in the steps through which the structured A3 Problem Solving
template takes a team. These steps are basically:
1. Identify the problem(s) or need(s)
2. Understand the current situation/state
3. Develop the goal statement – develop the target state
4. Perform root cause analysis
5. Brainstorm/determine countermeasures
6. Create a countermeasures implementation plan
7. Check results – confirm the effect
8. Update standard work
• These steps follow the Deming Plant-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, with steps 1
through 5 being the ”Plan”, Step 6 being the “Do”, Step 7 being the “Check” and
Step 8 being the “Act” .
There is nothing new under the sun. Ecclesiastes 1:9
50. The name of the Target/Problem To Be Solved: Responsible:
Problem / need / Target
• Define the problem. What problem(s) are we trying to solve?
• What are the needs? What you want to achieve?
• Start with identifying your stakeholder and gather the right
Information from the right sources.
• What benefit does solving this problem have for the
• Even I f you have a good picture of your target, you need to
know where to start and you need to know if there were
some work has been done before you. Ask about:
• What’s been done to solve this already?
• What outcomes do your stakeholders want?
• Visualize the desired results and agree with the customer
about these outcomes.
• When the problem is defined, breakdown it into smaller parts.
• Clarify the root cause. Consider as many potential cause factors as possible.
• Use the fishbone - Cause and Effect Diagram
• List as many potential countermeasures as possible. Identify an effective
countermeasure that directly addresses the root cause. 
• Perform your work iteratively
• apply the 80:20 rule: 80% of results come from 20% of effort
• Select the most practical and effective countermeasure.
• Create a clear and detailed action plan.
• Assign responsible roles for the activities
• Estimate the activities and create the timeline
• Implement and test
• Monitor progress and report findings to stakeholders.
• It may require more than one attempt to get the desired
• Mistakes are an important part of the learning process.
• Compare the result with the desired outcome
from your stakeholders
• Document the lessons learned and implement your lessons in the next
• Handover and Governance of the result should be agreed and
• Potentials for improvements should be analyzed and suggested
51. More About The Tool
• As we mentioned the A3 is a very flexible tool.
• You can apply the iterative approach on your countermeasures, see
the previous page.
• I used a free A3-8 step template from  as inspiration for my work.
• I should mention that there are some books in this area:
– Understanding A3 Thinking: A Critical Component of Toyota's PDCA
Management System; ISBN-13: 978-1563273605
– Managing to Learn: Using the A3 Management Process to Solve
Problems, Gain Agreement, Mentor and Lead; ISBN-13: 978-
• We in our department used A3 for different purposes:
– Financial Reporting
– Problem Solving
– Process Improvements
52. The Tool
• We decide to use the A3 template for different reasons:
1. The A3 template is easy to use and fits to our purpose
2. A3 template is flexible and adaptable for (e.g. adding new
3. A3 template is according to our requirements on visualisation
and communication of our targets and target’s progress. We
decided to show our A3 by paste them on our walls in our floor.
4. The A3 tool is built around our previously selected method (the
5. The A3 tool is widely used and it is a recognised standard for
53. 6 Logistics and practicalities
As we mentioned previously, logistics and practicalities is very important
to take care of in the beginning.
• The logistics’ responsible need to provide different alternatives of
locations for the workshop.
• Decision about the location should consider the availability, costs and
simplicity to transport to the location
• On of the best scenarios could be: The facility for the workshop is
located inside the office or the hotel where the attendees work or stay.
• The logistics’ responsible also needs to:
– Plan for lunch, dinner, refreshments, coffee, water etc.
– Send information about: Transport, hotels, maps and important
information regarding the logistics to the attendees.
– Provide material (pens, post it, flipcharts, video,….) to the
54. 3 Do (the workshop day)
• Now the workshop day is arrived and
you and your team need to be there
early in the local. Check the local for
– Lights, Air-condition and heating.
Try to learn how these things
– Tables and the place of the tables
are very important issue. In the
case of presenting each other,
then it is important to make it
easy for the attendees to see each
other. A ‘U’ structure of the tables
– Place nameplates, pens and other
useful material on the tables for
every member of the workshop.
Devil is in the detail.
55. 3 Do (the workshop day)
During the workshop:
• The agenda and The Master Presentation are the main
parts in the workshop. The facilitator relays on the
correctness and the completeness of these two very
important cornerstones of the workshop.
• Creating a good environment for creativity and sharing
ideas is one of facilitator’s task.
• Everyone knows her/his role in the workshop.
• Do not forget gathering the material and the outcomes of
56. 3 Do (The Agenda)
1. Welcome and Introduction (Purpose of the workshop, expected
2. Presentation of the Agenda and practicalities 15 09:35
3. Presentation of every participant (part 1) 87 11:02
Break + refreshment 15 11:17
Presentation of every participant (part 2) 45 12:03
4. The workshop presentation; how we will run the workshop and
ensure the required outcomes (workshop method)?
Lunch 30 13:00
5. Presentation of the decided Targets 40 13:40
6. Agreements about the responsible and the responsible team for
every Targets (team work)
Break + refreshment 15 15:05
7. Analysing the Targets, the required activities and plan for
implementing the targets: The A3 template (team work)
Break 5 16:50
8. Summary of the outcomes of the Workshop and the next steps 10 17:00
57. 3 Do (The Main Parts of the Agenda)
• The facilitator is the main person during the workshop day.
• The facilitator orchestrates the workshop’s items and allows the
responsible of every item to present his/her part.
• The facilitator may need help in different moments of the
workshop, especially when the time is arrived for starting the team
• The team work (item number 7 and 8 in the previous page) is the
most important and critical part of the workshop. The attendees
were asked to:
– Agree about the responsible and the responsible team for
– Analysing the Targets, the required activities and plan for
implementing the targets using the A3 template
58. 3 Do (The Main Parts of the Agenda)
• The responsibility for the targets was divided by different
teams. Approximately, every team had 3 targets.
• The principle for assigning the responsibility for a target was
based on voluntary wishes of the team members.
• If more than one wants the responsibility, then the manager
of the team needs to assign the responsibility to the one who
is the most suitable for the work.
• Every responsible for a target gathers a team according to
the required competence to accomplish the target.
We go back to our success criteria and check if they are accomplished by
the end of the workshop:
A list of realistic and committed targets is defined.
The responsibility of the targets was divided between different teams in
Every target has a main responsible person and the time for delivery of the
target is defined.
All the targets are explained and braked down into main activities.
By the end of the 100 days:
The following success criteria are out of the scope for now. These success
criteria will be checked when the 100 days are over.
Members of the group and teams know each other and work together to
achieve the targets.
The agreed targets are achieved.
A celebration party is arranged (or is planned to be arranged).
60. 5 Act
As we saw in the previous page, the below success criteria was not fulfilled.
All the targets are explained and braked down into main activities.
– Some Targets where not explained in an understandable way for the
attendees, see the agenda number 5 in page 56. The responsible for these
targets got homework to update the definition of these targets.
– As a project manager you may have to:
– Communicate the outcomes and the next steps to the attendees
– If some teams did not make their homework in a proper way, then
you may ask them to update their material.
– Publish the material.
– This is a manager’s task; creating a system (way) to follow up the
progress and keeping the employees motivated to accomplish the
– Identify, document and publish the lessons learned. You may need to
ask the attendees to evaluate the workshop.
61. • As we maintained in the beginning the purpose of the workshop
was to allow the members of the teams to know each other and to
identify the targets and execute these targets in 100 days.
• The owner of the workshop has the ambition to continue and
follow up the execution of these targets.
• The countdown starts the day after conducting the workshop.
• We decided to place our A3s in a war-room in our floor.
• The responsible for a target should update the progress of the
activities in the target. He/she will present the progress every
week at a certain time.
• The responsible could be asked anytime to report about her/his
• We are still working on these targets.
“Strategy is 10 per cent vision and 90 per
cent execution.” Percy Barnevik
7 (Book) Earned Value Project Management: by Quentin W. Fleming(Author),
Joel M. Koffleman
63. Some words about me
• Where I’m from?
– I was born 1963 in Iraq/Baghdad
– From a Kurdish Family. Swedish citizen since 1995
– Married since 1992. I have a daughter and a son
• Jobs and careers
– Vattenfall AB (2000- Current):
• Solution/Business Architect/Project Manager
– ABB (1996-2000) – Software Engineer
• My Educations
– Electrical Engineer (master in science education)
– Two year’s education in IT in Mälardalens University in Sweden
• My Certifications
– IPMA Level C (2013)
– Certified Business Architect + Certified IT Architect + TOGAF 9 Certified
• If you want to know more about me, please contact me on